US History Art

Embarkation of the Pilgrims
Robert W. Weir
Oil on canvas, 12' x 18'
Commissioned 1837; placed 1844
Baptism of Pocahontas
John Gadsby Chapman Oil on canvas, 12' x 18'
Commissioned 1837; placed 1840
Edward Hicks
Edward Hicks
Encyclopædia Britannica Article Page 1 of 1
born April 4, 1780, Attleboro, Pa., U.S.
died Aug. 23, 1849, Newtown, Pa.
The Cornell Farm, oil on canvas by Edward Hicks, 1848; in the National Gallery of Art, …
Courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., gift of Edgar William and Bernice
Chrysler Garbisch
American primitive, or folk, painter known for his naive depictions of the farms and landscape of
Pennsylvania and New York, and especially for his many versions (about 25 extant, perhaps 100
painted) of “The Peaceable Kingdom.” The latter work depicts Hicks's belief, as a Quaker, that
Pennsylvania was the fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecy (11:6–9) of justice and gentleness between
all men and beasts. William Penn and other Quakers appear on the left of the picture, making their
treaty with the Indians, while Isaiah's beasts are gathered on the right with little children playing
among them. The landscape, figures, and animals make a charmingly awkward pageant of the
Quakers' ideas.
Hicks came to art late. A painter of coaches and signs in early life, for many years he devoted
all his serious energies to his avocation of preaching. It was as a preacher that he was
celebrated among his contemporaries, and the 3,000 mourners at his funeral grieved at the
loss of a favourite minister. He began to make easel paintings when he was in middle age,
and with some reluctance. Although he feared that art was contrary to religion, he testified
that it could sometimes bring meaning to life. Unable to make a painting without an
apparent moral, he often framed a picture with edifying verse of his own composition, like
that surrounding his view of Niagara Falls.
HICKS Edward | Peaceable Kingdom. | c. 1830
HICKS Edward | Penn's Treaty with the Indians. | 1845
Peaceable Kingdom. Detail: Quakers with banners. | 1839
Edward Hicks
HICKS Edward | Leedom Farm. | 1849
HICKS Edward | The Cornell Farm. | 1848