1418-1620 Motives for Exploration Spread Christianity Only one religion in Europe: Christianity (Catholicism) European leaders were very religious and believed it to be their duty to spread Christianity to others Explorers read aloud (in Spanish) “The Requirement”. It offered native people the opportunity to convert to Christianity or suffer the consequences. Imperialism A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Kings of Spain and Portugal wanted to claim as much land as they could. Natural resources of the land Native people as slaves Larger empire=more power New Trade Routes SPICES!!! Preserve food during winter (salt) Cover up the taste of food that had gone bad Only accessible in the Indies (China, Japan, and India) Very difficult, very expensive, very dangerous Muslim traders brought goods to the East Coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Italian merchants brought them into Europe Each group raised the price Bandits and pirates New Knowledge Knew very little about the world beyond Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East Few people believed the world was flat Map included Europe, Asia, and top of Africa Knew of only one ocean which they called the Ocean Sea Glory, Fame and Wealth Europe was involved with many wars Fought each other and fought others War is EXPENSIVE! Needed gold, silver, and gems to pay for the wars Believed Asia was loaded riches. New ideology: Getting rich and dominating other people was viewed as positive Europe had recent success in taking over and exploiting island societies (Malta, Sardinia, Canary Islands Review Spread Christianity Imperialism New Trade Routes New Knowledge Glory, Honor, and Wealth Advances Allowing for Exploration People around the world had been traveling by sea for a long time Prince Henry the Navigator began a school for navigation. His ideas were based on ideas known to ancient Phoenicians and Egyptians Evidence of earlier journeys between Europe and the Americas Two Native Americans shipwrecked in Holland around 60 B .C. became major curiosities in Europe Vikings to Newfoundland in the year 1000 A.D. Cartography Cartography is the science and art of making maps. Prior to the 1400s, only portolan charts existed. Used by pilots to lay courses from one harbor to another Gerardus Mercator created a map projection that he designed to help with navigation. The lines of latitude and longitude are straight, and land masses are distorted near the poles Improved Ship Design A knarr was a Viking ship that routinely crossed the Atlantic Ocean Ship Design Cont. Portugal and Spain began building new and improved ships known as caravels (from the Egyptian caravos) Small, fast, easy to maneuver Specials bottoms made it easier to travel along coast lines where the water was shallow. Lateen Sails New Navigational Tools Compass helped sailors know what direction they were going (N, S, E, W) Magnetic needles. Astrolabe allowed sailors to determine their latitude (how far north or south of the equator they were). Improved Weaponry Spanish brought horses. Sailors could fire their cannons onto shore without leaving their ship.