My Homeland the Country of Tolerance

The word Tolerance is a term referring to
the collective capacity of the people of
living peacefully together with other men
and women who has different ideas
The Member States of the Organization of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),
met in Paris from 25th
October to 16th November 1995 and
signed this statement to emphasize the importance of
tolerance , from every point of view, for the countries of the
1.1 - Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation of the richness and diversity of the cultures of our
world ... Tolerance is harmony in difference ...
2.2 - In order to establish a more tolerant society, States should ratify international conventions on human rights.
3.1 - In the modern world, tolerance is more essential than ever.
It 's an age marked by the globalization of the economy and by rapidly increasing mobility, communication,
integration and interdependence, migrations, displacement of populations, urbanization and changing social
4.1 - Teaching and the most effective means of preventing intolerance ...
4.2 - Education for tolerance should be considered as a priority ...
Article 5 - Commitment to action
We are committed to promoting tolerance and non-violence through programs and institutions in the fields of
education, science , culture and communication .
Article 6 - International Day for Tolerance
In order to mobilize public opinion , to emphasize the dangers of intolerance and to reaffirm our commitment to
act in favor of the promotion of tolerance and education for tolerance, solemnly proclaim November 16
International Day for Tolerance .
In the Bible it was recommended the respect
for the stranger and the ethical value
of the recognition of human dignity.
It’s a word always linked with
non violence, religion, racism and policy.
The concept of tolerance was very rooted in the Greek
culture, in fact, in Plato's Symposium, Socrates reveals
that he has been taught about love from Diotima, a
priestess of Mantinea, strong symbol of diversity (a
woman, and for more foreign).
Religious tolerance was typical of the Roman Empire.
The Emperor Constantine was one, without any doubt, of the more tolerant Emperor.
He, in fact, signed the famous “Edict of Constantine”;
The agreement was signed in February 313 in Milan, which was the capital of the Western Roman Empire.
According to the traditional interpretation of the Edict, it granted to all the citizens of the Empire, and
thus also to the Christians, the freedom to honor their gods.
This happened after that Constantine, the night before the famous Battle of the Milvian Bridge, didn’t
make the usual sacrifices to propitiate the will of the gods, because he claimed that God had appeared
in the dream foretold the victory if he had used on the shields of soldiers the symbols of Christ X and P in
the Greek Alphabet.
Constantine had converted himself to Christianity and wanted to give the opportunity to all the people
to profess the religion they preferred.
The modern concept of tolerance was born in the Modern Age
because it’s based on the new idea of “DIVERSITY”.
The humanist intellectuals such as Erasmus and Thomas More
introduced it after the Lutheran Reformation.
The Peace of Augsburg (1555) had established the principle of
“Cuius regio, eius religio”, according to which the subjects would
have to embrace the faith of their king, while supporters argued
that tolerance of religious beliefs depended on a free choice in
which the State could not intrude.
In Italy Sebastiano Castellione with his “De haereticis, an sint persequendi”
1554, argued that no one could judge and answer the
questions of faith because it was "divine matters" and
therefore not fully comprehensible to humans.
The work was published in Basel under the pseudonym
Martinius Bellius.
After so many centuries before a breakthrough occurred
there was the “Edict of Nantes” (1598) by which the French
king Henry IV recognized civil rights and freedom to the
Huguenots (Protestants tend to Calvinism)
The tolerance in the broadest sense has become the guarantee of freedom of
thought, of speech, of press opinion, which are the main forms of freedom
conceived in the Enlightenment.
The 1st Article of the “Albertine Statute” of 1848, which will be the fundamental law of the Kingdom of Italy until
1948, proclaims the Catholic Apostolic and Roman religion
"the only religion of the State", attributing to the other cults, the status of
"tolerated accordance with the laws "; but the Count Camillo Benso of Cavour
is disappointed by the "lack of recognition of the full Constitutional "freedom of
worship", a principle that should not be introduced" in the constitution of a people
Highly civilized" to" indirect "but proclaimed as" one of the fundamental basis of
the social contract”.
It begins a process of secularization linked to religious tolerance that will be up to the present day.
The Zanardelli Code of 1889, as opposed to the pre-existing code of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1859, which
reserved a privileged treatment to the Catholic religion, provides for equal protection of all religious
denominations, symbolically placing such discipline among the "crimes against liberty" (Book II, Title II),
as "crimes against freedom of worship".
Something changed with the coming to power of Mussolini and with the approval of the "Lateran Treaty" 1929,
that according to Art. 1, are "allowed" in the kingdom cults other than the Catholic religion, provided they
profess not to follow the principles and rites contrary to public order or morality. "
A special mention deserves the persecution of the Jews with the “Racial laws” of 1938
which wiped out all progress in the field of religious tolerance that had been made by
previous Liberal governments.
In 1948 there was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948 and
the right to fraternity-tolerance.
Two years later there was the European Convention on Human
Rights, signed in Rome November 4, 1950.
In Italy You have to get to 1958 to topple the provisions of
Fascist legislation from which they derived the most serious
injury to religious freedom.
The Second Vatican Council was a moment of great importance in the history of religious
freedom, in April 1963, two months before his death,
Pope John XXIII signed the Encyclical “Pacem in Terris”; in it he affirmed that: “every
human being has the right to "freedom of research the truth”.
In this work, John XXIII reacted to the political situation in the middle of the Cold War.
The "peace encyclical" was issued only two years after the erection of the Berlin Wall and
only a few months after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Pope explains in this encyclical that conflicts "should not be resolved by recourse to
arms, but rather by negotiation". He further emphasizes
the importance of respect of human rights as an
essential consequence of the Christian understanding
of men.
He clearly establishes “that every man has the
right to life, to bodily integrity, and to the means which
are suitable for the proper development of life...".
his skillitsinopenness
the Jews
to the
Pope Johnwas
had started
religions before becoming Pope, when he
was Apostolic Nuncio first in Bulgaria and then to Turkey.
fierce fighter who gave them the Nazi troops.
He was able to learn about the variety of rites and traditions of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox
Because of this close link with the Turkish people is known as the "Turkish Pope".
than in on
in addition, that
the Turkish
enacted a
books were
been less
this close
John XXIII tohad
law prohibiting the wearing of the sacred to the priests.
Turkey, including John XXIII friend of the Turks published by Rinaldo Marmara in 2013.
Gladly he visited monasteries and Orthodox churches to admire and venerate the ancient icons, the
The magisterium
Paul II definitely
of ancient
times. on this path, considering the religious freedom
of human
"the root
of all
other rights
freedoms of each
also went
to visit the and
of Mount
all amazed
to see
them and
the representative
of the
Bishop of Rome. He also visited the Orthodox Patriarch of
other .”
Constantinople at Fanar .
From this moment on, many agreed were signed between
During World War II, Msgr. Roncalli played an active role on
the Italian State, the Holy See and all other religions, up to the
behalf of refugees, wounded, prisoners of war; he protected
the Italian
soldiers . of orthodox Islam has become
present dayand
in which
the presence
a massive thanks to the new migratory flows.
Today, this work of brotherhood among peoples of all cultures and religions is carried out by Pope
Francis, who, in one of his Angelus, wanted to greet all the Muslims around the world at the end of the
month of Ramadan, hoping a commitment on the part of Christians and Muslims to promote mutual
respect, and said: “ they are our brothers.”
The words of Pope Francis are effective, promising and essential for the people and the land where
Italian immigrants arrive daily from the countries of the northern Mediterranean in search of a better life
and to escape war and persecution of all sorts are a warning to us Italian citizens to be tolerant and
accept these people as brothers and sisters who are suffering.
As regards the countries where we live, San Giovanni Rotondo and Monte Sant' Angelo, they are
places of worship open to everyone.
San Giovanni Rotondo is
considered the town of the “welcome” for all the faithful who
come to this place of peace and prayer, and especially for
patients who come to the hospital “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”
to be cured by relying on the patron saint of the city.
On the other side Monte Sant' Angelo, as Father Mark Director of Saint Michaels’s Basilica tells us: “ The
Shrine of St. Michael the Archangel is “ the House of God and Gate of Heaven ”, as it is said in an inscription
at the entrance of the Basilica, and therefore all the people from every race, religion, and even atheists
are welcome; arriving in this so unique place, everyone can pray or meditate or just watch.
He adds: "Over the centuries Popes, Kings, Queens and even warriors arrived at the Shrine in Gargano, and
not always with good intentions, Saracens, Byzantines, Aragonese, predators have also been accepted in
the same way as devotees.
The hope however, is to reach an understanding and mutual
acceptance to replace the term tolerance with that of brotherhood.
This particular word brings to mind the Patron Saint Italy 's St. Francis of Assisi, who was
among the first in the second half of the fourteenth century to approach a foreign
culture. He took part, in fact, the fifth Crusade and it is said to have met the Egyptian
Sultan al-Malik al-Kamil.
This epic encounter is depicted in the Upper Basilica of Assisi
Giotto di Bondone - Legend of St Francis - 11.
St Francis before the Sultan (Trial by Fire)