UNIT 4 SOCIOLOGY TEST STUDY GUIDE Name: ____________________ * I will give you an option for completing this study guide. You can either highlight, write out your answer, or a combination of the two to receive credit. In either case, your work should be thorough! 1. Name AND describe the type of family most recognizable to Americans. 2. What is the difference between one’s ‘family of orientation’ and one’s ‘family of procreation’? 3. What is the difference between an ‘extended family’ and a ‘kinship’ system? 4. What are the four questions that a society answers to determine family organization? 5. What type of society might you find monogamy and what type polygamy? 6. What are two reasons why polygamy isn’t practiced much around the world? 7. What type of residential pattern is generally used in today’s society AND what do the two parts of the word mean? 8. Why are descent patterns important for the smooth operation of society? 9. What are the three types of authority patterns, what is used in the vast majority of societies around the world, AND what type of pattern are industrialized societies moving towards today? 10. In terms of age and class, who do Americans typically marry AND what is this kind of marriage called? 11. What is an increasing type of marriage in the U.S. known as AND what are three factors for this? 12. How do men and women differ in their responses to divorce (both financially and emotionally)? 13. What are three reasons sociologists suggest for the high divorce rate in the U.S.? 14. What reasons do sociologists cite for the increase in delayed marriages? 15. What does the term ‘sandwich generation’ refer to AND which trend in American family life is it associated with? 16. What are some reasons for the increased trend toward childless couples? 17. What is the main reason why dual-earner marriages have become more common? 18. What are three-problems associated with the single-parent experience? 19. What trend in American family life has the high rate of divorce led to? 20. In general, what do functionalist sociologists believe education does for society? 21. What are three things education teaches within the core curriculum (transmission of culture)? 22. In American society today, how is the ‘mosaic’ reflected in many schools around the country? 23. Why do schools in industrialized societies identify students who show special talents and abilities at an early age? 24. In general, how do conflict sociologists differ in their perspective from functionalists? 25. What do conflict sociologists mean when they talk about a ‘hidden curriculum’? 26. Why do conflict sociologists believe that tracking is a way for the wealthy and powerful to maintain their position in society? 27. What relationship do conflict sociologists believe exists between education and socioeconomic status? 28. In general, how do interactionist sociologists view education AND specifically, which two groups do they focus? 29. What is the distinction between the sacred and the profane? 30. What are sociologists concerned with when discussing religion AND what are they NOT concerned with? 31. What was Karl Marx referring to when he said that religion acts as “the opium of the people”? 32. What is animism AND how do its two types differ? 33. What is theism AND how do its two types differ? 34. What are ethicalist religions based on AND what is an example of ethicalism? 35. What is the relationship between denominations and sects?