RELIGION: THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE Hinduism-ethnic religion Chronologically, the oldest of the major religions Arose in Indus Valley, ~4,000 years ago No evolving bureaucratic structures Reincarnation Doctrines allied with India's caste system Tied to the physical landscape Modernization and Gandhi helped relax the caste system Ganesh Shrine, Kathmandu, Nepal Hinduism Diffusion Arose in what is now Pakistan No modern expansion diffusion Area overtaken by Buddhism and Islam Bali outpost has become a syncretic faith Relocation diffusion not the foci Cultural landscape Hinduism is a way of life Building a temple gives good Karma… Shrine location important Visual AND emotional Buddhism- Universalizing Resurgence in India Buddha (Prince Siddhartha) spoke out against caste system Diffusion Grew slowly after Buddha’s death Fragmented today, but experiencing a revival Principals keep diffusing, notably in the Western world Cultural landscape The Bodhi tree Pagodas Chinese religions- Ethnic religions Taoism Confucianism Diffusion Confucianism diffused early into the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia Taoism = more local Chinese communist authorities leveled burial mounds because they took up too much ground suitable for farming Cultural landscape Confucianism and Taoism help expand impact of Buddhist cultural influences Shinto: ethnic religion of Japan Judaism-ethnic religion, exception to the rule, has diffused The oldest major religion to emerge west of the Indus Valley Diffusion Diaspora Sephardim Zionism=homeland for Jewish people Israel created in 1948 by UN Cultural landscape Synagogues, but no single architectural style Star of David appears on most Jewish graves The “Wailing Wall” Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, Israel Christianity-Universalizing Jewish search for deliverance from Romans & appearance of Jesus Paul’s role Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople) Eastern (Orthodox) Church still one of three major branches The papacy, second branch Protestant movement Diffusion A combination of expansion and relocation diffusion during European colonialism Most widespread of the global religions Aggressive and persistent proselytism http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/china_705/ Christianity Cultural landscape Medieval Europe Imprint of death on the landscape Uses more land for cemeteries than any other faith http://www.mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of-religion.html Christianity Religions and culture regions in the United States The Mormon culture region Christian culture regions better known Islam-universalizing The youngest of the major faiths Religious and social disarray in Arab world Unifying religious faith and set of values Mecca, Medina, then Jerusalem became the spiritual center Believed strongly in education Still the heart of Arab culture Islamization Islam by 900 CE Islam: Shiite Regions and sects Division conflict-2 BRANCHES Sunnis: family and community to solve problems Shiites: Imam is “solver” Imams—Shiite Muslims leaders whose appointments are regarded as sanctioned by Allah Diffusion Trading expansions led to conflicts with Christianity The Crusades Continues to attract converts Experiencing resurgence; expansion will continue Classic example of hierarchical diffusion Islam Cultural landscape Mosques dominate the urban landscapes Muslim architects very skilled Exquisite and distinct architecture A symbol for faith and community Islam religion and culture are one The Alhambra an example of Muslim Architecture The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem an example of Muslim tile glazing Religious Fundamentalism A worldwide drive by millions back to the “basics” (in whose eyes?) of religious faith Often born out of frustration “Tunnel Vision” 9/11 led to many American’s equating terrorism with Islam Globalization and religions 1. strict adherence to the holy text 2. pious or religiosity 3. Religious Fundamentalism Christian fundamentalism Christian fundamentalism most pronounced in Protestantism Islamic fundamentalism Laws not equally applied Inconsistency breeds dissidence From Shah to Ayatollah 1970s and 1980s most significant Afghanistan under the Taliban Jihad and Wahhabi Extreme Islamic fundamentalists who resort to violence are relatively small in number (Usually from the Shiites) Resources De Blij, Harm, J. (2007). Human Geography People, Place and Culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price, Patricia, & Jordan-Bychkov, 2010. The Human Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Fellman, Jerome, D., Getis, Arthur, & Getis, Judith, 2008. Human Geography, Landscapes of Human Activities. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and Pulsipher, 2008. World Regional Geography, Global Patterns, Local Lives. W.H. Freeman and Company New York. Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Benewick, Robert, & Donald, Stephanie H. (2005). The State of China Atlas. Berkeley: University of California Press.