RELIGION: THE GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECIVE Hinduism Chronologically, the oldest of the major religions Arose in Indus Valley, ~4,000 years ago No evolving bureaucratic structures Reincarnation Doctrines allied with India's caste system Modernization and Gandhi helped relax the caste system Hinduism Diffusion Arose in what is now Pakistan No modern expansion diffusion Area overtaken by Buddhism and Islam Bali outpost has become a syncretic faith Relocation diffusion not the foci Cultural landscape Hinduism is a way of life Building a temple gives good Karma… Shrine location important Visual AND emotional Buddhism Resurgence in India Buddha (Prince Siddhartha) spoke out against caste system Diffusion Grew slowly after Buddha’s death Fragmented today, but experiencing a revival Principals keep diffusing, notably in the Western world Cultural landscape The Bodhi tree Pagodas Chinese religions Taoism Confucianism Diffusion Confucianism diffused early into the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Southeast Asia Taoism = more local Chinese communist authorities leveled burial mounds because they took up too much ground suitable for farming Cultural landscape Confucianism and Taoism help expand impact of Buddhist cultural influences Judaism The oldest major religion to emerge west of the Indus Valley Diffusion Diaspora Sephardim The idea of a homeland developed into the ideology of Zionism Israel created in 1948 by UN Cultural landscape Synagogues, but no single architectural style Star of David appears on most Jewish graves The “Wailing Wall” Christianity Jewish search for deliverance from Romans & appearance of Jesus Paul’s role Eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople) Eastern (Orthodox) Church still one of three major branches The papacy, second branch Protestant movement Diffusion A combination of expansion and relocation diffusion during European colonialism Most widespread of the global religions Aggressive and persistent proselytism Christianity Cultural landscape Medieval Europe Imprint of death on the landscape Uses more land for cemeteries than any other faith Hallstatt, Austria Medieval Churches (Protestant & Catholic!) Surrounding Village Baroque Cathedral Siena, Italy Plaza St. Patrick’s Cathedral, NYC Cemeteries Cemeteries Too Many Bodies ~ 7 feet! Christianity Religions and culture regions in the United States The Mormon culture region Christian culture regions better known Islam The youngest of the major faiths Religious and social disarray in Arab world Unifying religious faith and set of values Mecca became the spiritual center Believed strongly in education Still the heart of Arab culture Islamization Islam by 900 CE Islam Regions and sects Division conflict Sunnis: family and community to solve problems Shiites: Imam is “solver” Imams—Shiite Muslims leaders whose appointments are regarded as sanctioned by Allah Diffusion Trading expansions led to conflicts with Christianity The Crusades Continues to attract converts Experiencing resurgence; expansion will continue Classic example of hierarchical diffusion Islam Cultural landscape Mosques dominate the urban landscapes Muslim architects very skilled Exquisite and distinct architecture A symbol for faith and community Islam religion and culture are one The Alhambra an example of Muslim Architecture The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem an example of Muslim tile glazing RELIGION, CULTURE, AND CONFLICT Language and religion The most powerful cultural forces Religious beliefs and histories often divide peoples with similar backgrounds Boundaries Interfaith Boundaries Nigeria Multilingual; population ~110 million North = Muslim; South = Christianity (and local religions) Secession from south Nigeria = fourth largest oil producer Interfaith Boundaries Sudan Muslim north and Christian south Sharia law The war has devastated the south; still raging Interfaith Boundaries Ethiopia is more complicated than that of Nigeria or Sudan Interfaith Boundaries South Asia Part of Britain’s colonial empire In 1947 a political boundary was establish between Islamic Pakistan and multicultural India India proclaimed itself a secular federation and sporadic religious conflict followed for 30 years 1980s, India Fundamentalism The rise of fundamentalism is affecting virtually all religions today The Sikhs Holy shrine battleground Interfaith Boundaries The former Soviet Union What did it used to be like? Discouraged religious practice Created a Christian-Muslim boundary Collapse of USSR = independence; but not always good Kazakhstan poses the most serious potential spatial problem Interfaith Boundaries (Former) Yugoslavia Interfaith Boundaries Other interfaith boundaries Bangladesh Sri Lanka Southeast and Southwest Asia, Catholics and a minority of Muslim Israel Intrafaith boundaries Europe A number of countries have intrafaith boundaries Most have religious or ethnic conflicts Northern Ireland Religious Fundamentalism A worldwide drive by millions back to the “basics” (in whose eyes?) of religious faith Often born out of frustration “Tunnel Vision” 9/11 led to many American’s equating terrorism with Islam Globalization and religions Fundamentalism creates mistrust Religious Fundamentalism Christian fundamentalism The Catholic church Christian fundamentalism most pronounced in Protestantism Islamic fundamentalism Laws not equally applied Inconsistency breeds dissidence From Shah to Ayatollah 1970s and 1980s most significant Afghanistan under the Taliban Jihad and Wahhabi Extreme Islamic fundamentalists who resort to violence are relatively small in number Religious Fundamentalism Fundamentalism can unify AND divide US fundamentalist “preachers” Algerian conflicts Fundamentalism adds fuel to the fire of interfaith and intrafaith boundaries Religious feelings can quickly be translated into hostility and conflict Resource Video: Davis-EndangeredCultures A .zip file from the http://www.ted.org site! Discussion Questions Why do some religions diffuse while others remain (mostly) place-bound? What lies at the heart of religious conflicts? How can religious fundamentalism be a driving force for changing religions? Does religious fundamentalism affect State policies?