The Holocaust Only after we assimilate the history of the Holocaust can we transform the future. – Alan Rosenberg, Professor of Philosophy, Queens College A teaching resource created by the Birmingham Holocaust Education Committee. July 2007 www.bhamholocausteducation.org The Holocaust • The State sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims – 6 million were murdered. • From the Greek word meaning “a sacrifice by burning.” • In Hebrew the term “shoah” is used, meaning “catastrophe.” The Holocaust was Unique: Never before had a government, one that had prided itself on its own citizens’ high level of education and culture, sought to define a religious group as a race that must be eliminated throughout an entire continent, not just within a single country. Never before had a government harnessed the immense power of technology for such destructive ends, culminating in the horror of Auschwitz – a death camp that, at its peak, “processed” 10,000 Jews a day. Never before had a government summoned their best and brightest people to mobilize destruction and used mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) to systematically kill approximately 1.5 million individuals in 2 years. Never before had a government sought to dehumanize a group through such a devastatingly thorough and systematic use of propaganda that included the use of film, education, public rallies, indoctrination of the youth, radio, newspapers, art and literature. Jewish Life Before the War Remember always that you not only have the right to be an individual, you have an obligation to be one. - Eleanor Roosevelt Malka Orkin (left) and her friend Tusia Goldberg. Tusia, whose father later became a member of the Bialystok ghetto Jewish council, survived the war. Malka did not survive. Lova Warszawczyk rides his tricycle in the garden of his home in Warsaw shortly before the start of World War II. He survived. A group of Jewish children pose in their bathing suits while vacationing in the resort town of Swider, near Warsaw. The two girls on the right are Gina and Ziuta Szczecinski. Both perished during the war. Jewish family celebration in Radomsko, Poland. Almost all of this town’s 12,000 Jews were deported to the death camp at Treblinka. Group portrait of the extended family of Mottle Leichter in Janow Podlaski, Poland. Only 3 in the picture survived. Bystanders (85%) Victims Rescuers (< 0.5%) Perpetrators (< 10%) The Victims It is true that not all victims were Jews, but all Jews were victims. - Elie Wiesel, 1995 Jews Political Opponents Habitual Criminals Handicapped Homosexuals Jehovah’s Witnesses Roma & Sinti (Gypsies) Poles Freemasons Immigrants Soviet P.O.W.’s American P.O.W.’s African-Germans Extermination Deportation Ghettoization Confiscation Exclusion Identification Who was Hitler? • Born in Austria. • Reared Catholic. • Aspired to be an artist. Rejected by Vienna Academy of Arts on two occasions. Never attended college. • Exposed to antisemitic influences while in Vienna. • Moved to Germany to avoid Austrian draft. Fought for Germany in World War I. Born in Austria Braunau-am-Inn Reared Catholic Adolf (center) with schoolmates, 1900. St. Michael’s Catholic Church attended by Hitler as a child. Leonding, Austria Aspired to be an Artist Rejected by Vienna Academy of Arts Never Attended College Oedensplatz (Feldherrnhalle), Munich, 1914 Artist: Adolf Hitler The Rotterdam Cathedral Munich, 1930 Artist: Adolf Hitler Moved to Germany to avoid Austrian draft. Fought for Germany in World War I. Hitler served in the Bavarian contingent of the German Army. Factors Contributing to the Rise of the Nazis All that is necessary for the forces of evil to win is for good men to do nothing. - Edmund Burke, British Philosopher, 1729-1797 • • • • Treaty of Versailles Economics German Nationalism Antisemitism Treaty of Versailles European alliances on the eve of World War I After World War I, the need for security on the continent led France to support a buffer zone of new nations between Russia and Germany, carved out of the former Austrian Empire: Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were created. German territory along the French border was demilitarized out of the same concern for protection. Europe after World War I German territorial losses as dictated by the Treaty of Versailles. Unemployment in Germany 1928-1933 September 1928 650,000 September 1929 1,320,000 September 1930 3,000,000 September 1931 4,350,000 September 1932 5,102,000 January 1933 6,100,000 Inflation in Germany DATE GERMAN MARKS U.S. DOLLARS 1919 4.2 1 1921 75 1 1922 400 1 Jan. 1923 7,000 1 July 1923 160,000 1 Aug. 1923 1,000,000 1 Nov. 1, 1923 1,300,000,000 1 Nov. 15, 1923 1,300,000,000,000 1 Nov. 16, 1923 4,200,000,000,000 1 German children with stacks of inflated currency, virtually worthless in 1923. Worldwide Depression, 1929 Bread lines for the unemployed in the U.S. German Nationalism 1st Reich 800 - 1806 Charlemagne 800-814 His vast realm encompassed what are now France, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, half of present-day Italy and Germany, and parts of Austria and Spain. 2nd Reich 3rd Reich Otto von Bismarck 1871-1890 Engineered the unification of the numerous states of Germany. Adolf Hitler 1933 - 1945 Hitler promised to return Germany to its previous glory with an empire that would last 1000 years. In reality, the 3rd Reich lasted only 12 years. 1871 - 1918 1933 - ? Antisemitism Recognizing public support for his antiJewish comments, Hitler capitalized on these anti-Jewish feelings that had existed for centuries in the German population and offered the Jews as a scapegoat for the country’s current financial woes. He would claim that Germany had lost World War I because of the Jews, that democracy and communism were Jewish inventions, and that the Jews were engaged in a conspiracy for world domination. It was the Jews who controlled society and made Germans suffer. Antisemitic political cartoon entitled "Rothschild" by the French caricaturist, C. Leandre, 1898. Birth of the Nazi Party • In 1919 Hitler joined the fledgling “German Worker’s Party.” German propaganda postcard showing an early Hitler preaching to the fledgling Nazi Party. • In 1920 he took control of the group and changed the name to the National Socialist German Worker’s Party, National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei, NSDAP, or Nazi for short. • It was here that Hitler discovered two remarkable talents: public speaking and inspiring personal loyalty. Assembly of the Nazi Party, 1922, Coburg, Germany What the Nazis Believed Anyone who interprets National Socialism as merely a political movement knows almost nothing about it. It is more than a religion. It is the determination to create the new man. - Adolf Hitler •What the Nazis Believed •Racial Science •Nazi Platform •Symbols “Second Creation” Theodor Seuss Geisel, April 3, 1942 Racial Science The law of existence requires uninterrupted killing, so that the better may live. – Adolf Hitler Nazi physicians conducted “bogus” medical research in an effort to identify physical evidence of Aryan superiority & non-Aryan inferiority. The Nazis could not find evidence for their theories of biological racial differences among human beings. This kit contains 29 hair samples used by doctors, anthropologists, and geneticists to determine racial makeup of individuals. Establishing racial descent by measuring an ear at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology. Caliper to measure skull width. Nazi Platform We demand: 1. A union of Germans to form a great Germany. 2. Abolition of the Treaty of Versailles. 3. Lebensraum (living space) for Germans as well as surplus populations. 4. German blood as a requirement for citizenship. No Jew can be a citizen. 5. Non-citizens live in Germany as foreigners only, subject to the law of aliens. 6. Only citizens can vote or hold public office. 7. The state insures that every citizen live decently and earn his livelihood. 8. No further immigration of non-Germans. Any non-German who arrived after August 2, 1914, shall leave immediately. 9. Revision of the national system of education with citizenship being taught. 10. All newspapers must be published in the German language by German citizens. Symbols Bystanders (85%) Victims Rescuers (< 0.5%) Perpetrators (< 10%) The Perpetrators History teaches us to beware of demagogues who wrap themselves in the flag in an attempt to appeal to the worst aspects of nationalism. - Alistair Nicholson Reinhard Heydrich Joseph Goebbels Hermann Goering Adolf Eichmann Rudolf Hess Heinrich Himmler Crucial Divisions of Nazi Party SA (Storm Troopers, Brown Shirts, Sturmabteilungen) – 1921 SS (Protective Squad, Schutzstaffel) • SD (Security Service, Sicherheitsdienst) - 1931 • Gestapo (Secret State Police, Geheime Staatspolizei) - 1933 • Death’s Head Units (Totenkopfverbande) - 1936 • Special Action Groups (Einsatzgruppen) - 1938 Mass roll-call of SA and SS troops. Nuremberg, November 11, 1935 • Waffen SS (Armed SS) - 1940 Nazi Intentions Revealed Since when do you have to agree with people to defend them from injustice? - Lillian Hellman •Anti-Jewish Policies •Boycott of Jewish Shops: April 1, 1933 •Nazi Book Burnings: May 10, 1933 •Nuremberg Laws: September 15, 1935 •The November Decree: November 14, 1935 Anti-Jewish Policies How can such a monstrous crime as the Holocaust occur? It begins when people start thinking of themselves as ‘us’ and of others as ‘them’. - Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust Goals: • social death of Jews • removal of Jewish presence/influence from German society Means of Accomplishment: • verbal assaults • physical assaults • legal/administrative restrictions Laws Restricting Civil Rights The Law for the Protection of German Blood & German Honor forbade either marriage or sexual relations between Jews and Germans. Laws Restricting Personal Rights Jews were only permitted to purchase products between 3-5 p.m. This was one step in the overall Nazi scheme of eliminating Jews from economic, social and cultural life. Bench with inscription “Only for Jews.” Sign on a phone booth in Munich prohibiting Jews from using the public telephone. Sign forbidding Jews in public pool. Laws Restricting Education Political Cartoon from Der Stürmer entitled: “Away with Him” The long arm of the Ministry of Education pulls a Jewish teacher from his classroom. March 1933. Laws Restricting Occupation With the rise of Nazism, nothing the Jews had done for their country made any difference… - Alfred Gottschalk, Jewish Survivor Erich Remarque, author. Albert Einstein, Nobel Prize winner. Sigmund Freud, psychoanalyst, Otto Klemperer, conductor. Laws Restricting Private Property and Business "Aryanization" announcements in a newspaper. Aryanization was the process of transferring Jewish businesses to German control. Each step was so small, so inconsequential, so well explained or, on occasion, “regretted,” that, unless one were detached from the whole process from the beginning, unless one understood what the whole thing was in principle, what all these “little measures” that no “patriotic German” could resent must some day lead to, one no more saw it developing from day to day than a farmer in his field sees the corn growing. One day it is over his head. Heinrich Hildebrandt, non-Jewish German high school teacher during the Nazi years, interviewed in 1952. They Thought They Were Free by Milton Mayer Boycott of Jewish Shops April 1, 1933 SA soldiers stood at the entrances to Jewish shops and professional offices discouraging non-Jewish patrons from entering. Signs were posted warning: “Germans! Beware! Don’t Buy from Jews!” Nazi Book Burnings May 10, 1933 Where books are burned, in the end, people will be burned. - Heinrich Heine (19th century German poet) Uniformed Nazi party officials carrying confiscated books. Hamburg, Germany, The public burning of "un-German" books by members of the SA and university students. Nuremberg Laws September 15, 1935 Reich Flag Law • Official colors of the Nazi state are black, red, and white. • The national flag is the swastika flag. • Jews are forbidden from flying the German flag. Reich Citizenship Law • German citizenship is denied to Jews. They are given the status of “subjects.” • Jews can not vote, own property, operate a business, or be paid wages as employees. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor • Forbids marriage or sexual relations between Jews and Germans. • Bans employment in Jewish homes of any German female under 45 years of age. The November Decree November 14, 1935 German: Mischlinge, 2nd Degree: 4 “German” grandparents 1 Jewish grandparent Mischlinge, 1st Degree: * 2 Jewish grandparents Jew: 3+ Jewish grandparents * 1st Degree Mischlinge would be considered Jews if they met any of the following criteria: - practiced the Jewish religion - were married to a Jew - or were children born after September 15, 1935 to one Jewish parent and one German parent Nazi Propaganda How can such a monstrous crime as the Holocaust occur? It begins when people start thinking of themselves as “us” and of others as “them”. -Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust • The Hitler Youth • Education in Nazi Germany • Media • 1936 Olympics in Berlin The Hitler Youth GIRLS German Girl’s League, Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) BOYS Hitler Youth, Hitlerjügend (HJ) "Youth Serves the Fuëhrer. All ten-year-olds join the Hitler Youth." “All girls join us.” Education in Nazi Germany The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. - Diogenes “The Jewish Question is the Key to World History.” The German National Catechism for Young Germans in School and on the Job: “Which race must the National Socialist race fight against? The Jewish race. Why? The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys works of culture. He is not a creative spirit, rather a destructive spirit.” Werner May, Deutscher National-Katechismus 2nd edition (Breslau: Verlag von Heinrich Handel, 1934), pp. 22-26 Typical School Day The teacher begins and ends the instruction by leading the assembled students in the greeting: The teacher raises the right arm and declares “Heil Hitler.” The students raise their right arms and respond Heil Hitler.” Raising the Swastika Flag at a school in Berlin. The Poisonous Mushroom “The Poisonous Mushroom” “How Jewish Traders Cheat” “The Experience of Hans and Else with a Strange Man” “How To Tell A Jew “ Media-Newspaper “Der Stürmer“, an antisemitic tabloid, was posted on billboards for all to read, under the heading: Die Juden sind unser Unglück (The Jews are our Misfortune). Völkischer Beobachter, (“People's Observer”), daily newspaper published by the Nazi Party in Germany from the 1920’s until 1945. Media-Radio Free distribution of radios in honor of Joseph Goebbel’s birthday. Berlin, October 29, 1938. "All Germany hears the Führer on the People's Receiver." The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listenership, developed an inexpensive radio receiver to make it possible for as many as possible to hear Nazi propaganda. Media-Film The Eternal Jew, the most famous Nazi propaganda film. Jew Pests, a film aimed at influencing audiences to hate Jews. A propaganda film designed by Nazis for Nazis. 1936 Olympics in Berlin The torch lighting ceremony. Spectators salute Adolf Hitler during the games. German spectators spell out the phrase, directed at Adolf Hitler, "Wir gehoeren Dir" [We belong to you]. Jesse Owens' medal ceremony for the long jump. World War II: 1939-1942 World War II Begins Close your eyes to pity! Eighty million people (the population of Germany) must obtain what is their right! The stronger man is right! Be harsh and remorseless! - Adolf Hitler, August 31, 1939 • The Invasion of Poland: September 1, 1939 • The Blitzkrieg of Poland • The Division of Poland • The Germanization of Polish Gentiles • The Isolation of Polish Jews Germanization of Polish Gentiles Two masters cannot exist side by side, and that is why all members of the Polish intelligentsia must be killed. -Adolf Hitler Poles with Aryan features were allowed to remain in Poland. Some Aryanlooking children were kidnapped and taken to Germany to raised as German. Some Polish men were drafted into the German army, others were deported to the Reich for slave labor. Monuments to Polish history and culture were destroyed. Valuable collections of art and science were transported out of the country. Museums and libraries were demolished. Polish press and theaters were closed. Polish cities and streets were renamed with German names. Universities and secondary schools were closed. Education after the 4th grade was forbidden as Poles would need little education as slave laborers. Use of the Polish language in public and private life was forbidden. Gentile Poles assembled for forced labor. June 1943 A German soldier stands on a toppled Polish monument. Krakow, Poland Polish boys imprisoned in Auschwitz look out from behind the barbed wire fence. Approximately 40,000 Polish children were kidnapped and imprisoned in the camp before being transferred to Germany during "Heuaktion" (Hay Action), The children were used as slave laborers in Germany. Isolation of Polish Jews 1. Humiliation & Terror 2. Forced Labor 3. Expulsion 4. The Jewish Badge Humiliation & Terror Harassment of a Jewish man. German soldiers cutting the beard of a Jew. A soldier tutors two Jewish men on how to give Jewish men are forced to race against the Nazi salute correctly. one another while riding on the backs of their fellows. Forced Labor Jews rounded up for forced labor October, 1939 Jews forced to sweep the streets. Expulsion Polish Exiles, 1941 Arthur Szyk The Jewish Badge The Ghettos • Definition: any section of a city or town in which members of a minority group live or are restricted by economics or discrimination. • The first ghetto was established in Venice in 1516 when the Church ordered that walls be built around the Jewish Quarter. • The word “ghetto” means “foundry” or “iron works.” In Venice, the ghetto was near a foundry that produced cannon balls. • The establishment of ghettos was the first step in the Nazi extermination plan for the Jews of Eastern Europe. They served as assembly and collection points for Jews. More than 800 ghettos were established by the Nazis in Eastern Europe. Ghetto Life The horror is not in the executions. It is in the life that came before the executions. Abba Kovner, partisan fighter from the Vilna Ghetto • Judenrat • Arrival • Daily Life • Jewish Life • Conditions • Smuggling • Forced Labor • “Liquidation/Resettlement” - Judenrat The Judenrat members in Krakow, Poland. Arrival Daily Life A brother feed his young sister in the Lodz Ghetto. Children selling books to earn money. Nazi officer terrorizes elderly woman with a whip. Jewish men remove loaves of bread from a wagon at the soup kitchen in the Kielce ghetto. Jew chopping up furniture to use as fuel. Girls eating in soup kitchen, Warsaw. Lodz Ghetto. The ghetto orchestra, Lodz. Jewish Life Jewish women baking matzos for Passover in the Warsaw Ghetto. Celebrating the Passover Seder in the Warsaw Ghetto. Reading the Torah. Jewish men praying in the Krakow Ghetto. Celebrating the beginning of the Sabbath in the Lodz Ghetto. Conditions With little food and diseases rampant in the crowded ghettos, the living conditions became unbearable. Food ration card. Smuggling Forced Labor Jewish women press Nazi military uniforms in the Glubokoye Ghetto. Making shoes. Kovno, Lithuania. Jewish children making boxes in the Glubokoye Ghetto. A workshop in the Warsaw Ghetto. Jewish women moving human excrement, Lodz, Poland. Child in a ghetto factory, Kovno, Lithuania. “Liquidation/Resettlement” Jews are forced into a truck which is taking them to their execution. Jews from the Lodz ghetto board trains for the death camp at Chelmno. Deportation of the elderly and sick from the Lodz Ghetto to Chelmno. Passengers in a train car. Lodz, Poland Deportations in and out of the Lodz Ghetto. Round-ups in the Warsaw Ghetto. Jews from Lublin ghetto being hustled to the trains to be sent to Sobibor death camp. Deportation of Children from the Lodz Ghetto. Attack in the West With the invasion of each country in Western Europe, anti-Jewish policies followed patterns seen previously in Germany between 1933-1939. Jews were categorized. Civil liberties were restricted and property confiscated. Jews were dismissed from universities and civil service jobs. Jewish businesses taken over. Jews were isolated and forced to wear a star. Jews were assembled in large cities. Jews were deported to camps in the east. Marched to the forest. Forced to dig their own grave. Forced to undress. Shot into a ditch. Nazis executing a Jew at the edge of a mass grave. Ukraine, January 1942 Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounded determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God. - President Franklin D. Roosevelt, December 8, 1941 U.S.S. Maryland and capsized U.S.S. Oklahoma. View down “Battleship Row.” List of countries presented at the Wannsee Conference, with the number of Jews who were to be deported to their deaths. Almost half of these countries never came under German rule or control. The Evolution of Death In mid-March 1942, 75-80% of all victims of the Holocaust were still alive, while 20-25% had perished. Merely eleven months later, in mid-February 1943, the percentages were exactly the reverse. - Christopher R. Browning, Holocaust historian A “hell” van. The first carbon monoxide experiments using cars. Zyklon-B crystals. Deportations A child’s drawing showing a German soldier shooting at a train of deportees. A 1942 transport to Treblinka. Corpses lie in an open railcar at Dachau. “Im Wagon” (In the Railway Car) by Ella Liebermann-Shiber Written in Pencil in a Sealed Railway Car here in this carload i am eve with abel my son if you see my other son cain son of man … tell him I Types of Concentration Camps ● Labor Camps ● Prisoner of War Camps ● Transit Camps ● Extermination Camps Buchenwald, Germany. (labor camp) Westerbork, Netherlands. Lighting Chanukah candles. (transit camp) Dachau, Germany. (labor camp) Bergen-Belsen, Germany. (labor camp) Drancy, France. Courtyard used to round up Jews for deportation. (transit camp) Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia. Production of opera Brundibar. (ghetto/transit camp) Ravensbruck, Germany. (labor camp for women) Dora-Mittelbau, Germany. Camouflaged entrance to the underground rocket factory. (labor camp) Flossenburg, Germany. The quarry. (labor camp) Mauthausen, Austria. Main entrance to the camp. (labor camp) Oranienburg, Germany. Political prisoners in the camp yard. (POW/labor camp) Neuengamme, Germany. On the left is the camp brick factory. (labor camp) Selection Men on the right. Women & children on the left. Those “fit” for work were registered as prisoners. Those “unfit” for work were exterminated. Registration They will even take away our name: and if we want to keep it, we will have to find in ourselves the strength to do so, to manage somehow so that behind the name something of us, of us as we were, still remains. – Primo Levi, Survival at Auschwitz Registration: Camp Badges Political Jewish Political Criminal Jewish Criminal F P Political (French) Political (Polish) Antisocial Jewish Antisocial Homosexual Jewish Homosexual Political Second-Time Offender Wehrmacht Prisoner Emigrant Jehovah’s Witness Gypsy Jewish Emigrant Penal Company Prisoner Under Special Surveillance Barracks Six people slept on a plank of wood, on top of us another layer. And if one of us had to turn, all the others had to turn because it was so narrow. One cover, no pillow, no mattress. Alice Lok, Survivor Roll Call Life is not important at the roll call. Numbers are important. Numbers tally. - Salmen Gradowski, Auschwitz Survivor Amidst a Nightmare of Crime Food A fortnight after my arrival, I already had the prescribed hunger, that chronic hunger unknown to free men, which makes one dream at night, and settles in all the limbs of one’s body. - Primo Levi, Survival at Auschwitz A DAY’S RATIONS Breakfast 2 cups coffee or tea (often nothing more than dried leaves or bark,usually birch, in hot water) Midday 3 cups turnip and potato soup , a scrap of meat or Avo (yeast extract) added Evening 10 oz. of bread, less than 1 oz. sausage or cheese, and a teaspoon of margarine and beet jam Drawings of Ella Liebermann Shiber Soup Distribution “Juden bekommen zuletzt!” (Jews are last!) Hunger - Looking for Food “Auf der Suche nach Kartoffelschalen” (Looking for potato peels ) Hunger – Stealing Bread “Der Dieb” (The Thief ) Slave Labor Leaving for Work by David Olère. Camp inmates are marched out to work past victims of Nazi camp discipline. Buna Factory, Auschwitz III (Monowitz). Jewish women pulling cars of quarried stones, Plaszlow, 1944. Assembly line at the Bavarian Motor Works (BMW) aircraft engine factory, Allach, Germany. Survival Just as despair can come to one only from other human beings, hope, too, can be given to one only by other human beings. - Elie Wiesel Prisoner throwing himself onto an electrified fence, Mauthausen. “Muselmann” German term describing prisoners who were near death due to exhaustion, starvation or hopelessness. Medical Experiments Survivor shows scar of a wound deliberately infected with dirt, bacteria and slivers of glass. Low pressure experimentation resulting in death from burst lungs. Immersed in freezing water at Dachau. Medical experiment at Buchenwald. Extermination Women and children awaiting the gas chambers in the “Little Wood” adjacent to the gas chambers at Auschwitz II (Birkenau). Gassings SS camp guards with Zyklon-B canisters. Gas chamber in Crematorium I, Auschwitz I. The camp orchestra played to calm fears en route to the gas chambers. Crematorium I The first killing center was located at Auschwitz I. It was built partially underground and housed a primitive gas chamber along with several crematory ovens. View of the walled entrance. April 1945. Note the small access lids in the roof through which Zyklon-B crystals were dropped. Metal slide for placing bodies into oven. Crematory as found at liberation. Artwork by Jan Komski, survivor. The Value of a Life Rings These shoes represent one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty-five thousand pairs. Resistance There may be times when we are powerless to prevent injustice, but there must never be a time when we fail to protest. - Elie Wiesel • Obstacles to resistance • Jewish Resistance • Non-Jewish Resistance • Resistance in the Ghettos and Camps • Partisan Activity Obstacles to Resistance 1. Superior armed power of the Germans. 2. German tactic of “collective responsibility.” 3. Secrecy and deception of deportations. 4. Family ties and responsibilities. 5. Absence of a non-Jewish population willing to help. Jewish Resistance To smuggle a loaf of bread – was to resist. To teach in secret – was to resist. To cry out in warning and shatter illusions – was to resist. To rescue a Torah Scroll – was to resist. To forge documents – was to resist. To smuggle people across borders – was to resist. To chronicle events and conceal the records – was to resist. To hold out a helping hand to the needy – was to resist. To contact those under siege and smuggle weapons – was to resist. To fight with weapons in streets, mountains, and forests – was to resist. To rebel in death camps – was to resist. To rise up in ghettos, among the crumbling walls, in the most desperate revolt – was to resist. Taken from a wall on resistance at the Ghetto Fighters House. Non-Jewish Resistance First they came for the Communists, but I was not a Communist so I did not speak out. Then they came for the Socialists and the Trade Unionists, but I was neither, so I did not speak out. Then they came for the Jews, but I was not a Jew so I did not speak out. And when they came for me, there was no one left to speak out for me. Hans Scholl (left), Sophie Scholl (center), and Christoph Probst (right), leaders of The White Rose resistance organization. Munich, Germany, 1942. - Pastor Martin Niemoeller Resistance in the Ghettos and the Camps Sniper during Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Oneg Shabbat archives being examined in Warsaw, 1950. Participants of the uprising at the Sobibór. concentration camp. Execution Of Jewish resistance fighters from the Warsaw Ghetto. Partisan Activity Jewish partisans who fought in the vicinity of Vilna, Poland. A hanged Jewish partisan with a sign: "We are partisans and have shot at German soldiers." Poland 1941 – 1944. A Jewish partisan plants dynamite on a railroad track. Vilna, 1943 or 1944. Jewish partisans in the Lithuanian forests. Yugoslav partisans with Jewish parachutists from Palestine. Yugoslavia, 1944. The Final Stages of War • Allied Invasion at Normandy: June 6, 1944 • The Allies Close In • Death Marches • Liberation • Yalta (Crimea) Conference: February 4-11, 1945 • Hitler’s Last Days • The Fall of Berlin: May 2, 1945 • Surrender in the West: May 8, 1945 • Allied Occupation and Denazification Allied Invasion at Normandy D-Day: June 6, 1944 The Allies Close In The war against the Jews continued as the Allies closed in on the crumbling Nazi empire. Extermination of the Jews was so efficient that by the time the Soviet army re-crossed the Polish border in 1944 and D-Day occurred on June 6, most of the approximately 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were already dead. Death Marches As the Allied armies closed in on the Nazi concentration camps, every effort was made to conceal the crimes that had been committed. Camps were dismantled or abandoned. In the dead of winter, prisoners were taken by train and/or foot toward the heartland of Germany with hopes of preserving the slave labor force for the Reich. Thousands froze to death or died. “Death March” by Ella Liebermann Shiber German civilians, under direction of U.S. medical officers, walk past a group of 30 Jewish women starved to death by SS troops in a 300 mile march across Czechoslovakia. Liberation We are free, but how will we live our lives without our families. - Anton Mason, Survivor Survivors eagerly pull down the Nazi eagle over entrance to the Mauthausen. Survivors in Allach, a sub-camp of Dachau, greet arriving U.S. troops. C O N D I T I O N S Survivors of Auschwitz, wearing adult-size prisoner jackets. Jewish survivors at Ebensee gathered outside on the day after liberation. Survivor sitting outside a barrack, Bergen-Belsen, April 1945. Young survivors at Buchenwald, April 1945. F O O D ♦ M E D I C I N E Survivors, too weak to eat solid food, suck on sugar cubes to give them strength. The sick are evacuated to an American field hospital. Survivors in Dachau distribute bread to their comrades after liberation. American medical personnel at work in a typhus ward in a hospital for survivors. Witness to the Atrocities General Dwight D. Eisenhower and other members of the Army view the bodies of executed prisoners. Ohrdruf, April 12, 1945. German civilians under U.S. military escort are forced to see a wagon loaded with corpses in Buchenwald. Yalta (Crimea) Conference February 4 - 11, 1945 Roosevelt & Churchill “How are we feeling today?” – a 1945 British cartoon shows Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin as doctors, working together to heal the world. The "Big Three": Winston Churchill, D. Roosevelt , Joseph Stalin Franklin Hitler’s Last Days One of the last pictures taken of Hitler in his bunker before he committed suicide. On the left is Col. Gen. Ferdinand Schoerner who was appointed commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht in Hitler’s will. In the garden outside his bunker, Hitler decorates Hitler Youth who have been newly recruited as soldiers. After the ceremony, he returns to his underground refuge. The Fall of Berlin May 2, 1945 Soviet soldiers celebrate the fall of Berlin by hoisting the Red Flag over the ruined Reichstag. As his last significant official act, Hitler appointed Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz to succeed him as führer. The Reichstag lies in ruins as did most of Berlin. Surrender in the West May 8, 1945 With this signature the German people and the German Armed Forces are, for better or worse, delivered into the hands of the victors … In this hour I can only express the hope that the victor will treat them with generosity. - General Alfred Jodl (during the signing of the unconditional surrender), Reims, France. Move to last days?????????? General Alfred Jodl, Chief of the Operations Staff in the German High Command, signs the document of unconditional German surrender on May 7. Left is Admiral Von Friedeburg of the German Navy. Right is Major Wilhelm Oxenius of the German General Staff. German Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel signs a surrender document at Soviet headquarters in Berlin, May 9, 1945. The Soviets had insisted that a second ceremonial signing take place in Sovietoccupied Berlin. The Final Stages of War • Allied Invasion at Normandy: June 6, 1944 • The Allies Close In • Death Marches • Liberation • Yalta (Crimea) Conference: February 4-11, 1945 • Hitler’s Last Days • The Fall of Berlin: May 2, 1945 • Surrender in the West: May 8, 1945 • Allied Occupation and Denazification Allied Occupation & Denazification The Aftermath •Jewish Losses •Displaced Persons (DP’s) •The Nuremberg Trials Nov. 20, 1945 – Oct. 1, 1946 Poland 88% 2,900,000 Soviet Union Hungary Romania Lithuania Germany Netherlands Bohemia & Moravia France Latvia Slovakia Greece Yugoslavia Austria Belgium Italy Luxembourg Estonia Norway Denmark Finland Albania Bulgaria Spain Sweden Switzerland 33% 70% 35% 90% 27% 75% 84% 24% 75% 76% 80% 72% 27% 44% 20% 50% 33% 55% 1.3% 2.8% 0 0 0 0 0 1,000,000 550,000 271,000 140,000 134,500 100,000 78,150 77,320 70,000 68,000 60,000 56,200 50,000 28,900 7,680 1,950 1,500 762 60 7 0 0 0 0 0 Jewish Losses TOTAL : 5,596,029 * * These are minimum losses as reported by Yehuda Bauer and Robert Rozett, "Estimated Jewish Losses in the Holocaust," in Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan, 1990), p.1799. The estimated number of Jewish fatalities during the Holocaust is usually given between 5.1 and 6 million victims. Despite the availability of numerous scholarly works and archival sources on the subject, Holocaust related figures may never be definitely known. Displaced Persons (DP’s) Portraits of children in Germany holding name cards, in search of their families. Their photographs were published in newspapers. Jewish refugees in Shanghai look for names of relatives and friends who may have survived the war. A child lights a Hannukah menorah during a celebration in a DP camp. Wedding ceremony at a DP camp. Nuremberg Trials Nov. 20, 1945 – Oct. 1, 1946 Palace of Justice in Nuremberg. Front: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, and Wilhelm Keitel. The defendants at Nuremberg. Julius Streicher, Front: Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Editor-in-Chief of Der Ribbentrop Back: Karl Doenitz, Erich Stürmer. Raeder and Balder von Schirach. Bystanders (85%) Victims Rescuers (< 0.5%) Perpetrators (< 10%) Bystanders Prisoners were forced to wear these carriers on their backs to haul stones from the quarry. Carrying granite boulders on wooden “backpacks” up the “stairs of death.” Mauthausen, Austria. Mauthausen Wiener Graben Quarry Letter of complaint from Mrs. Eleonore Gusenbauer of Ried (the village above Mauthausen), September 1941. Inmates of the Mauthausen concentration camp are constantly being shot at the Vienna Ditch work site. Those who are badly struck still live for some time and lie next to the dead for hours and in some cases for half a day. My property is situated on an elevation close to the Vienna Ditch and therefore one often becomes the unwilling witness of such misdeeds. I am sickly in any case and such sights make such demands on my nerves, that I will not be able to bear it much longer. I request that it be arranged that such inhuman deeds will cease or else be conducted out of sight. Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstand., or Gordon J. Horwitz, In the Shadow of Death – Living Outside the Gates of Mauthausen, p. 35. Bystanders (85%) Victims Rescuers (< 0.5%) Perpetrators (< 10%) Rescue It was a reign which, nearly half a century later, still challenges our understanding. Evil was rewarded and good acts were punished. Bullies were aggrandized and the meek trampled. In this mad world, most people lost their bearings. Fear disoriented them, and self-protection blinded them. A few, however, did not lose their way. A few took their direction from their own moral compass. - Dr. Eva Fogelman, social psychologist • What Motivated Rescuers? •Methods of Rescue •Governments that Rescued What Motivated Rescuers? Some sympathized with the Jews. Some were actually antisemitic, but could not sanction murder or genocide. Some were bound to those they saved by ties of friendship and personal loyalty, while some went out of their way to help total strangers. Some were motivated by their political beliefs or religious values. Some felt ethically that life must be preserved in the face of death. For some there was no choice, what they did was natural and instinctive. Many rescuers felt they were simply acting out of elemental human decency. They later insisted that they were not heroes, that they never thought of themselves as doing anything special or extraordinary. Methods of Rescue Hiding a Jew in one’s house or on one’s property. Supplying forged ID’s or ration cards. Finding employment. Smuggling people from one place to another. Providing food or clothing. Governments that Rescued Bulgaria Denmark Finland Hungary Italy Vatican United States Danish fishermen ferry Jews to safety in neutral Sweden during the German occupation of Denmark. 1943. Survivors Photo by Becky Seitel, “Darkness Into Life” Exhibit Nine of Birmingham’s Holocaust Survivors: Ilse Nathan, Max Herzel, Ruth Siegler, Jack Bass, Henry Aizenman, Aisic Hirsch, Martin Aaron, Riva Hirsch, Max Steinmetz The Children “A Loss of Infinite Possibility” “Listen, listen well to the tale Of what they have seen What they have gone through. For you are the new spring In the forrest of the world.” Promise of a New Spring by Gerda Weissmann Klein, Survivor Chaim Hersh Kirschenbaum. Both he and his mother perished in Auschwitz.