Federalists vs. Anti-federalists Madison (#10) v. Brutus Is democracy best served in large or small republics? Who is likely to be elected? What is the greatest danger to democracy? Madison, Federalist #10 Faction: "A number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community." Inherent characteristic of people. Madison- Federalist 10 Latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man. “the most common and durable source of faction has been the various and unequal distribution of property” p. 18 Pure democracy has no cure for the mischiefs of faction Incompatible with personal security or the rights of property. P. 20 Madison’s Solution Republican government to refine and enlarge the public views Liberty is safest in large (extended) republics many opinions and interests in large republic makes it harder for a tyrannical majority to form coalition formed in large republic are more moderate Liberty is threatened more by public passions and popular factions than by strong government Brutus’s Reply In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interest of the persons should be similar (or else) constant clashing of opinions In a large republic “the people would be acquainted with very few of their rules, the people at large would know little of their proceedings, and it would be extremely difficult to change them. The consequence will be, they will have no confidence in their legislature, suspect them of ambitious views, be jealous of every measure they adopt, and will not support the laws they pass.” Anti-federalists small republic is best People are animated by a concern for public good strong national government would be distant from the people Madison, Federal #51 Is a large republic enough to prevent tyranny of the majority? Federalist #51, Madison Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. If men were angels, no govt would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on govt would be necessary In framing a govt which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the govt to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. Separation of Powers Madison- accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary in the same hands, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny. Legislature makes laws, executive administers, and judiciary interprets BUT Separation is not enough. Checks and Balances #51, Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place. giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others Different Bases of Support House of Representatives= only directly elected officials; every two years Senate= every six years; are selected by State legislatures until 1913 President= selected by electoral college; state legislatures; no popular vote Judiciary= appointed by President, confirmed by Senate. Life-time appointment Checks and Balances Federalist #51 President Congress- veto, propose, appeal to people, enforce laws Courts- appoint justices, enforce law Checks and Balances Congress – “necessarily predominates” Raise taxes, pass legislation Impeach president and judges determine number and jurisdiction of courts, Senate confirms judges House and Senate Courts- “least dangerous branch” can declare executive actions and laws unconstitutional. Comparison with UK Prime minister chosen by majority party. No judicial review control and responsibility concentrated in legislature Same electoral base No checks and balances Consequences GRIDLOCK! difficult to act unless there is overwhelming sustained consensus about course of action. 1994 GOP Revolution Losers-- Efficiency and accountability Continuing Battle over CnB the War Power Article I. Congress can “declare war” Article II. President- commander in chief How many declared wars? Role of Courts Separation of Powers Limit the power of government Limit democratic majoritarianism (aka Tyranny of the Majority) Policy should not reflect majority public opinion New Republicanism OLD- positive political engagement – civic virtue and small republics that required some degree of equality NEW- negative limitations on government – the balance of interest based on the “invisible hand” of self-interest and on the equality of opportunity Interpreting the Constitution Beard Evidence Conclusion Roche Evidence Conclusion Diamond Evidence Conclusion Assessing the Framers Beard-- Elite Conspiracy Federalists all wealthy planters and merchants trying to get rich Roche-- Sound Politicians political expediency is the driving principle Electoral college Diamond -- Brilliant Political Theorists How to prevent tyranny of the majority Pluribus to Unum Why is America Democratic?