22-2 PowerPoint Notes

Botanist ___________________________
Date ______________
22-2 Seedless Plants – PowerPoint
The First Plants
Green algae are mostly ____________. They are found in fresh and salt water, and in some
moist areas on land.
Green algae absorb moisture and nutrients _____________from their surroundings and do
not contain the specialized tissues found in other plants.
Life Cycle – Green Algae
Many green algae _____________back and forth between haploid and diploid phases.
In the life cycle of Chlamydomonas, as long as living conditions are suitable, the haploid
cell reproduces asexually by _____________.
If conditions become unfavorable, Chlamydomonas can switch to a stage that
reproduces _______.
Its cells release gametes that fuse into a diploid zygote (a sporophyte). The zygote has a
thick protective wall, permitting survival in _____________conditions.
The zygote begins to grow once conditions become favorable.
It divides by _____________to produce four haploid cells that swim away, mature, and
reproduce asexually.
Green algae can form _____________.
Spirogyra forms long threadlike colonies called filaments.
_____________colonies consist of as few as 500 to as many as 50,000 cells arranged to form
hollow spheres.
Volvox shows some cell specialization and straddles the fence between _____________and
multicellular life.
Mosses and Other Bryophytes
Mosses have a _____________, protective coating that makes it possible for them to resist
drying, and thin filaments known as rhizoids that anchor them to the soil. Rhizoids also absorb
water and minerals from the soil.
Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts all belong to a group of plants known as _____________.
Bryophytes have specialized reproductive organs enclosed by other, non-reproductive
Bryophytes show a higher degree of cell _____________than do the green algae and were
among the first plants to become established on land.
Why Bryophytes Are Small
Bryophytes do not make _____________, a substance that hardens cell walls, and do not
contain true vascular tissue. Because of this, bryophytes cannot support a tall plant body
against the pull of gravity.
Life Cycle - Moss
Bryophytes display alternation of _____________.
The _____________is the dominant, recognizable stage of the life cycle and the stage that
carries out most of the photosynthesis.
The _____________is dependent on the gametophyte for its supply of water and nutrients.
Bryophytes produce sperm cells that swim using _____________.
For fertilization to occur, the _____________must swim to an egg. Because of this,
bryophytes must live in habitats where open water is available at least part of the year.
When a moss spore lands in a moist place, it sprouts and grows into a young gametophyte.
The gametophyte forms rhizoids that grow into the ground and shoots that grow into the
Gametes are formed in reproductive structures at the tips of the _____________.
Eggs are produced in _____________.
Sperm are produced in _____________.
Sperm and egg cells fuse to produce a diploid _____________.
The _____________marks the beginning of the sporophyte stage of the life cycle.
A sporophyte grows within the body of the gametophyte, depending on it for
water and nutrients.
Eventually the sporophyte grows out of the gametophyte and develops a long
stalk ending in a capsule called the _____________.
Haploid _____________are produced inside the capsule by meiosis and are released when
the capsule ripens and opens.
Vascular Plants
About ____ million years ago, plants for the first time were able to grow high above the
Fossil evidence shows these plants were the first to have a transport system with true
vascular tissue. Vascular tissue carries _____________and nutrients much more efficiently than
does any tissue found in bryophytes.
Evolution of a Transport System
Vascular plants are known as tracheophytes, after a specialized type of water-conducting
cell they contain. These cells, called _____________, are hollow tubelike cells with thick cell
walls strengthened by lignin.
Tracheids are found in _____________, a tissue that carries water upward from the roots
to every part of a plant. They also have a second transport tissue called _____________that
transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis.
Seedless Vascular Plants
Among the seedless vascular plants alive today are three phyla commonly known as club
mosses, horsetails, and ferns. The most numerous of these are the _____________.
Life Cycle – Fern
In the life cycle of a fern, spores produced by the sporophyte grow into thin, heartshaped haploid gametophytes. The gametophytes _____________ independently of the
Sperm and eggs are produced on the gametophytes in antheridia and
Fertilization requires at least a thin film of water, so that the _________ can swim to the
The diploid zygote produced by fertilization develops into a new sporophyte
plant. This is the _____________stage of the fern life cycle.
Haploid spores develop on the undersides of the fronds in sporangia, and the cycle begins