Lead & Manage People Definition “Leading is the process by which a person with vision is able to influence the activities and outcomes of others in a desired way” (p.482, J. Walker, Introduction to Hospitality Management 2007) Managers Compared to Leaders Managers Are appointed to their position Can influence people only to the extent of the formal authority of their position Do not necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be leaders Leaders Are appointed or emerge from within a work group Can influence other people and have managerial authority Do not necessarily have the skills and capabilities to be managers Leadership is the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals. People have different personalities, upbringing, ethnic backgrounds etc and because of this they will behave differently in the leadership position. The transition from worker to supervisor is not always easy What do you see as some common mistakes / difficulties made during the process? Still trying to be part of the gang Not delegating properly Not using your authority properly Not being a good team member Not being a good role model Having difficulty leading Lack of people skills Not competent in all technical skills under supervision Think of someone you feel is a good MANAGER List their qualities and behaviours NOW Think of someone who is a good LEADER List their qualities and behaviours Discuss the DIFFERENCES between the two A true leader is someone that people turn to automatically for advice, encouragement, guidance and direction Successful leaders must be able to see the other persons point of view Have the ability to generate enthusiasm A good leader is someone that people follow because they want to, not because they have to Many people are placed in leadership positions but that does not itself make them a food leader Leaders Managers Show Tell Create ideas & innovate Control & administer Encourage experimentation Give direction Ask what and why Ask how and when Establish & live values ‘do as I say’ Lead by example Rely on authority Inspire Plan & co-ordinate Involve Solve problems Participate Delegate Encourage Monitor Focus on people Focus on the task Set direction Adhere to direction Brainstorm What do you look for in a Leader?? What are some specific behaviours you look for in a Leader?? How good a Leader are YOU?? Assess your leadership skills Complete Ask p.265 – 267 in K. Cole text yourself ‘Do I do this?’ and ‘Would my team members say that I do it? Leaders personality Leaders past experience Leaders expectations Superiors expectations and behaviour Staff characteristics Staff behaviour The requirements of the task The organisational climate and policies The expectations and behaviour of peers Motivation Integrity Courage Loyalty Decisiveness Judgement Selflessness Knowledge Responsibility Ability to communicate Initiative Traits Approach • Focuses on the personal qualities of a leader such as intelligence, height & self assurance Behavioural Approach • Focuses on what effective leaders do, they portray leadership as a set of behaviours Situational Approach • Focuses on the situation dictates the leadership style that will work best You will be assigned a Leadership Theory to research and present to class next week You will complete the research and presentation in groups You must provide information to the rest of the class (could use OHT, handouts, class notes etc) In Brief Focuses on the personal qualities of a leader such as: Intellectual – i.e. Intelligence above average Personality – i.e. Self confidence, alertness, integrity Physical – i.e. Height Thought of natural leaders are born with the right personality traits Transactional Leadership Theory p.242 • Leaders that takes an organisation in new directions, largely through the leaders personal dynamism and drive Charismatic Leadership Theory p.243 • Leadership based on personal magnetism and other qualities 5 Behavioural Theories 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Continuum of Leadership Styles Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Grid Likert’s concept of consideration & structure Adair’s Functional Leadership Approach McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Dictatorial Authoritarian Democratic Laissez-faire Negative, task-centred leaders who rule through force and threats of punishment This may get results in some work situations but generally the resulting quality and quantity do not remain high for very long ‘You do not lead by hitting people over the head. That’s assault, not leadership’ D. Eisenhower (K. Cole p.245) Also known as Autocratic Leaders Task-centred leaders who exercise strong control, provide minimal information and allow followers little opportunity to participate in decision making Authoritarian leaders retain all the power, and they issue orders with no questions allowed and no explanations given This makes followers dependent upon them for decisions and directions resulting in staff feeling lost in the leaders absence Also known as Participative Leaders People centred who encourage participation and involve people Ask for peoples opinions and suggestions, and involve them in solving work-related problems. Staff under these leaders are well informed and used to solving problems Can function effectively when their leader is absent Also known as Non-directive and Free-reign Leaders Appear not to lead at all Non-directive, delegative leaders who provide information and leave employees to do their jobs, with little or no input from themselves Can work really well with highly skilled and motivated staff and the work is complex or unstructured When the established standards and goals need to be met regularly this is not the most suitable style of leadership Three models of situational leadership: Fiedler’s Hersey Contingency Theory & Blanchard’s Task-Readiness Theory Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Elements of Leadership Theory Transactional Leadership Charismatic Leadership Blake & Moutons Managerial Grid Theory Tannenbaum & Schmidts Continuum of Leadership Theory McGregors X & Y Theory Participative Leadership Hersey & Blanchards Task Readiness Theory Fielders Contingency Theory Discussion James Kouzes & Barry Posner Challenge the process Inspire the shared vision Enable others to act Model the way Encourage the heart is a leadership theory developed to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. any of five leadership behaviours may be feasible in a given situation: Decide, Consult Individually, Consult Group, Facilitate, and Delegate. The leader-participation model confirms that leadership research should be directed at the situation rather than at the person. is the theory that it is the leader’s job to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall goals of the organisation. Path-goal theory says that a leader’s behaviour is acceptable to subordinates to the degree that they view it as an immediate source of satisfaction or a source of future satisfaction. And the leader’s behaviour is motivational to the extent that it makes subordinate need-satisfaction contingent on effective performance and provides the coaching, guidance, support and rewards that are necessary for effective performance. 2. Four leadership behaviours were identified a. The directive leader lets subordinates know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks. b. The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for subordinates’ needs. c. The participative leader consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions before making a decision. d. The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects subordinates to perform at their highest level. Brainstorm in groups Modelling high standards or performance and behaviour Demonstrating respect for diversity Demonstrating commitment Treating staff with integrity, respect & empathy Recognising and meeting individual needs Encouraging participation Consultative process Ensuring communication Sharing information Providing feedback and encouragement Leadership and management are changing Autocratic and dictatorial leadership are no longer accepted Modern leadership is about guidance and communication We expect leaders to be democratic & participative Building teams resolving conflict and act as mentors Practice openness - Mistrust comes as much from what people do not know as what they do know; keep people informed. Be fair - When making decisions, giving rewards, undertaking performance appraisals, consider how others will view these in terms of fairness and equity. Speak your feelings - Leaders not only need to convey hard facts to employees but by sharing feelings they will see you as human and caring and respect will increase. Tell the truth - Honesty is critical to credibility and managers must be perceived as telling the truth. Show consistency - People want predictability. Take time with decisions to ensure they are consistent. Fulfil your promises - Trust requires that people believe that you are dependable. Keep you word. Maintain confidences - You trust people who are discreet and upon whom you can rely. This means not discussing with others confidences of employees. Demonstrate competence - By demonstrating technical and professional ability you gain respect from others.