Leadership - Wikispaces

Lead & Manage People
 Definition
 “Leading
is the process by which a
person with vision is able to influence the
activities and outcomes of others in a
desired way”
(p.482, J. Walker, Introduction to Hospitality Management 2007)
Managers Compared to Leaders
Are appointed to their
Can influence people only to
the extent of the formal
authority of their position
Do not necessarily have the
skills and capabilities to be
Are appointed or emerge
from within a work group
Can influence other people
and have managerial
Do not necessarily have the
skills and capabilities to be
Leadership is the process of influencing
a group toward the achievement of goals.
 People
have different personalities,
upbringing, ethnic backgrounds etc and
because of this they will behave
differently in the leadership position.
 The transition from worker to supervisor
is not always easy
 What
do you see as some common
mistakes / difficulties made during the
 Still
trying to be part of the gang
 Not delegating properly
 Not using your authority properly
 Not being a good team member
 Not being a good role model
 Having difficulty leading
 Lack of people skills
 Not competent in all technical skills
under supervision
Think of someone you feel is a good MANAGER
List their qualities and behaviours
Think of someone who is a good LEADER
List their qualities and behaviours
Discuss the DIFFERENCES between the two
A true leader is someone that people turn
to automatically for advice, encouragement,
guidance and direction
Successful leaders must be able to see the
other persons point of view
Have the ability to generate enthusiasm
A good leader is someone that people
follow because they want to, not because
they have to
Many people are placed in leadership
positions but that does not itself make them
a food leader
Create ideas & innovate
Control & administer
Encourage experimentation
Give direction
Ask what and why
Ask how and when
Establish & live values
‘do as I say’
Lead by example
Rely on authority
Plan & co-ordinate
Solve problems
Focus on people
Focus on the task
Set direction
Adhere to direction
 What
do you look for in a Leader??
 What
are some specific behaviours you
look for in a Leader??
 How
good a Leader are YOU??
 Assess
your leadership skills
 Complete
 Ask
p.265 – 267 in K. Cole text
yourself ‘Do I do this?’ and ‘Would my
team members say that I do it?
 Leaders
 Leaders past experience
 Leaders expectations
 Superiors expectations and behaviour
 Staff characteristics
 Staff behaviour
 The requirements of the task
 The organisational climate and policies
 The expectations and behaviour of peers
Ability to communicate
 Traits
• Focuses on the personal qualities of a leader
such as intelligence, height & self assurance
 Behavioural
• Focuses on what effective leaders do, they
portray leadership as a set of behaviours
 Situational
• Focuses on the situation dictates the leadership
style that will work best
 You
will be assigned a Leadership
Theory to research and present to class
next week
 You
will complete the research and
presentation in groups
 You
must provide information to the rest
of the class (could use OHT, handouts,
class notes etc)
In Brief
Focuses on the personal qualities of a leader such
Intellectual – i.e. Intelligence above average
Personality – i.e. Self confidence, alertness,
Physical – i.e. Height
Thought of natural leaders are born with the right
personality traits
 Transactional
Leadership Theory p.242
• Leaders that takes an organisation in new
directions, largely through the leaders personal
dynamism and drive
 Charismatic
Leadership Theory p.243
• Leadership based on personal magnetism and
other qualities
5 Behavioural Theories
Tannenbaum & Schmidt’s Continuum of
Leadership Styles
Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Grid
Likert’s concept of consideration &
Adair’s Functional Leadership
McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y
 Dictatorial
 Authoritarian
 Democratic
 Laissez-faire
 Negative, task-centred
leaders who rule
through force and threats of punishment
 This
may get results in some work situations
but generally the resulting quality and
quantity do not remain high for very long
 ‘You
do not lead by hitting people over the
head. That’s assault, not leadership’
D. Eisenhower (K. Cole p.245)
 Also
known as Autocratic Leaders
 Task-centred leaders who exercise strong
control, provide minimal information and
allow followers little opportunity to
participate in decision making
 Authoritarian leaders retain all the power,
and they issue orders with no questions
allowed and no explanations given
 This makes followers dependent upon them
for decisions and directions resulting in staff
feeling lost in the leaders absence
 Also
known as Participative Leaders
 People centred who encourage
participation and involve people
 Ask for peoples opinions and
suggestions, and involve them in solving
work-related problems.
 Staff under these leaders are well
informed and used to solving problems
 Can function effectively when their
leader is absent
Also known as Non-directive and Free-reign
Appear not to lead at all
Non-directive, delegative leaders who provide
information and leave employees to do their
jobs, with little or no input from themselves
Can work really well with highly skilled and
motivated staff and the work is complex or
When the established standards and goals need
to be met regularly this is not the most suitable
style of leadership
 Three
models of situational leadership:
 Fiedler’s
 Hersey
Contingency Theory
& Blanchard’s Task-Readiness
 Tannenbaum
& Schmidt’s Elements of
Leadership Theory
Transactional Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Blake & Moutons Managerial Grid Theory
Tannenbaum & Schmidts Continuum of
Leadership Theory
McGregors X & Y Theory
Participative Leadership
Hersey & Blanchards Task Readiness Theory
Fielders Contingency Theory
 Discussion
James Kouzes & Barry Posner
Challenge the process
Inspire the shared vision
Enable others to act
Model the way
Encourage the heart
 is
a leadership theory developed to
determine the form and amount of
participative decision making in different
 any of five leadership behaviours may be
feasible in a given situation: Decide, Consult
Individually, Consult Group, Facilitate, and
 The leader-participation model confirms
that leadership research should be directed
at the situation rather than at the person.
is the theory that it is the leader’s job to assist his or her
followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction
or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible
with the overall goals of the organisation.
Path-goal theory says that a leader’s behaviour is acceptable
to subordinates to the degree that they view it as an
immediate source of satisfaction or a source of future
satisfaction. And the leader’s behaviour is motivational to the
extent that it makes subordinate need-satisfaction
contingent on effective performance and provides the
coaching, guidance, support and rewards that are necessary
for effective performance.
 2.
Four leadership behaviours were
 a. The directive leader lets subordinates know what is
expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives
specific guidance on how to accomplish tasks.
b. The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for
subordinates’ needs.
c. The participative leader consults with subordinates and
uses their suggestions before making a decision.
d. The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals
and expects subordinates to perform at their highest level.
 Brainstorm
in groups
Modelling high standards or performance
and behaviour
Demonstrating respect for diversity
Demonstrating commitment
Treating staff with integrity, respect &
Recognising and meeting individual needs
Encouraging participation
Consultative process
Ensuring communication
Sharing information
Providing feedback and encouragement
 Leadership
and management are changing
 Autocratic and dictatorial leadership are no
longer accepted
 Modern leadership is about guidance and
 We expect leaders to be democratic &
 Building teams resolving conflict and act as
Practice openness - Mistrust comes as much from what people do not
know as what they do know; keep people informed.
Be fair - When making decisions, giving rewards, undertaking
performance appraisals, consider how others will view these in terms of
fairness and equity.
Speak your feelings - Leaders not only need to convey hard facts to
employees but by sharing feelings they will see you as human and caring
and respect will increase.
Tell the truth - Honesty is critical to credibility and managers must be
perceived as telling the truth.
Show consistency - People want predictability. Take time with decisions
to ensure they are consistent.
Fulfil your promises - Trust requires that people believe that you are
dependable. Keep you word.
Maintain confidences - You trust people who are discreet and upon
whom you can rely. This means not discussing with others confidences of
Demonstrate competence - By demonstrating technical and professional
ability you gain respect from others.