ETRUSCANS Cities and Tombs ETRUSCANS • Location: Northern Italy, 1200 BC • Earliest settlers in Rome? • Large influence on Rome: politics, religion, entertainment • Kings of Rome were Etruscan. • Highly advanced culture: art, music, writing. – Written language not totally deciphered. Etruscans Etruscans • Etruscans known for their highly advanced cities. • Etruscans known for their highly decorated and painted tombs. • Known for highly skilled sculpture. • Iron producing civilization. Cities of the Etruscans • The presence of one or more cities indicates that the civilization in question was likely highly advanced. • Cities require: trade, writing, division of labor, advanced governments and protection CITIES • Tarquinia: – Archaeological finds bear out that Tarquinia was one of the oldest Etruscan centers, 8th century BC. – Trading power, mineral resources – Remains: • small sections of the solid walls • foundations of a temple, the Ara della Regina, early 4th century BC – Winged Horses in relief were in the pediment of the temple Cities • Winged Horses: Look at the Detail! Cities • Vetulonia – Vetulonia is the Etruscan city where the Lictor’s rods/Fasces originated. – In 1898, a necropolis was discovered with a bundle of Iron rods with a double axe in the centre. Later that year, the burial stele of Avele Feluske was discovered, on which illustrated the same device. – Aerial photographs show traces of an extensive wall system constructed possibly around the 4th century BC Fasces Fasces • The traditional Roman fasces consisted of a bundle of white birch rods, tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder, and often including a bronze axe (or sometimes two) amongst the rods, with the blade(s) on the side, projecting from the bundle. • Symbolized “Power”. The Lictor • Lictor: Class of Roman civil servant, who attended and guarded magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium (power); essentially, a bodyguard. Cities • Caere – Located 50 km north of Rome. – Important trading center – Earliest settlement: 8-9th century BC – By 7th century pottery manufacture emulated that of Greece. – Manufacturing center of bucchero ware pottery. – Known for its necropolis=city of the dead Cities • Bucchero Ware: Became common between about the 7th and early 5th century BC. The ware is black, sometimes gray, and often shiny from polishing. The color was achieved by firing in an atmosphere charged with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen. This is known as a reducing firing, and it converts the red of the clay, due to the presence of iron oxide, to the typical bucchero colors. Cities • Populonia: – West coast of Central Italy – Only large Etruscan city directly on the sea. – Mainly known for the smelting of iron ore and silver from the Island of Elba as evidenced by its slag remains which crushed many tombs. – First city to coin silver. Cities • Clevsin: (modern Chiusi) – Located in the Tuscany region. – 8th century BC. – Surrounded by many tombs, like the “Tomba della Scimmia. – Decorations on sarcophagi yield numerous inscriptions. TOMBS TOMBS • Background: • the earliest grave sites were cremations, with the ash being retained either in biconical urns, or urns fashioned to represent huts. Gradually inhumation burials began to appear, the first being in Tarquinia and Caere, and during the Orientalizing period eventually became the prevailing rite Biconical Urn • Used as a burial urn • Handle usually broken off at time of burial, probably part of the burial rite. Possibly suggesting mourning? TOMBS • Funeral Games: • Funereal games such as the Games of the Phersu (See: tomb of the Augurs), involved one man urging a dog to bite another man. Other games of skill were popular ( See tomb of the Juggler): In this game, the objective was to throw a series of disks into a large wine crater balanced on the head of a female performer. • The game of Pertica, consisted of a slippery wooden pole which competitors had to climb • The Tomb of the Olympic Games shows details of such sports together with crowds of spectators. TOMBS • Most tombs resembled Chamber tombs: circular covered in a mound with doorway. Many were under ground with many rooms. TOMBS • Tomb of Hunting and Fishing – – – – – Tarquinia End of 6th century BC May be a seen of the afterlife. Fishing, swimming, bird hunting Tomb Contains: • Anteroom: Hallway • Room 1 • Room 2: Burial Looking into burial chamber (2nd room) TOMBS Four fishermen, colorful birds, dolphins, man with slingshot TOMBS TOMBS • Tomb of Orcus: – Tarquinia – First constructed in Mid 4th C. BC, then enlarged later. – Tomb reflects the gloom of the period. – The woman Velchia, a noble Etruscan woman, stares into the darkness – Her eye is shown from the side view, an indication of Hellenistic influence, late 4th C. BC. TOMBS Velchia, “noble woman” Hint: notice the eye TOMBS • Layout: – Left Wall: only parts of fresco remain – Right Wall: a continuation of banquet scene with Velchia – Main wall: Banquet scene, people are reclining. To the side of the banquet is a winged demon (Charun) TOMBS Charun TOMBS • Tomb of Orcus: Chamber 2 – Entrance: two figures: Charun and Cyclops – A huge cyclops figure was discovered when excavating tomb TOMBS • FACT: The set up inside many of the mound tombs at Caere were as Etruscan homes, with stairs, rooms, chairs, utensils, ceilings. – They formed a necropolis or city of the dead at Caere. TOMBS • Tomb of the Reliefs: 4th C. BC – – – – Location: Caere (Cerveteri) Gives insight into daily life of Etruscans Places for over forty burials! Shape: single chamber with cut out niches and long dromos – Dug into the ground a considerable depth – Supported by two pillars – The tomb is filled with reliefs of military and home tools: helmets, spears, beds • Tombs are carved out of volcanic rock (Tufa) • Wall decorations also carved out of tufa. TOMBS Shield Helmet Greaves Sword Man’s chest TOMBS Tomb of the Reliefs: Items from everyday life: Kitchen These are reliefs and not real, created on a column. TOMBS • Tomb of the Regolini-Galassi – – – – – – – – – – – Location: Caere 7th C. BC Famous for its rich contents Circular tomb with short dromos Two side chambers, oval Half of tomb was cut out from tufa and the other with square blocks End of antechamber, bronze bed with warrior Carriage that transported body found in same room In left chamber, two horse chariot was found Due to the wealth of the burial, the woman must have been very wealthy, a princess? Three total burials TOMBS • “Dromos” of the Tomb Regolini-Galassi TOMBS Buccero ware Etruscan alphabet TOMBS Gold jewelry: Bracelets TOMBS …and this gold pectoral TOMBS • Regolini-Galassi The Bronze Bed TOMBS • Regolini-Galassi Silver objects from Tomb TOMBS • Tomb of the Leopards: 5th C. BC – Location: Tarquinia – Women dining with men! • What might this indicate about Etruscan society? – Rectangular layout – Banquet scene on walls • Banquets are thought to have accompanied funerals. TOMBS TOMBS Dancing scene Instruments! TOMBS • Tomb of the Olympiads – Location: Tarquinia – 530-520 BC – Rectangular – Athletic scenes: chariot races, running, jumping events, discus, boxing TOMBS TOMBS Runners TOMBS Discus Thrower TOMBS • Tomb of the Augurs – Location: Tarquinia – 530-480 BC – Single rectangular chamber with short dromos – Phersu games: A provoked fight between a man and dog • Prelude to gladiator games? TOMBS TOMBS Man reading name written on wall, means “father” TOMBS Wrestlers part of the funeral games TOMBS Phersu Games: Man urging dog to attack another man who is bleeding TOMBS A dancer ETRUSCAN ART • Bronzes: Capitoline Lupa 6th C. BC Tarquinia, 4th C. BC ETRUSCAN ART • Bronzes Lions Head:C 5th C. BC Bronze Situla ETRUSCAN ART • Sculpture: Apollo of Veii Statue of Aplu (Apollo), pediment of the temple at Veii. probably made by Vulca, the only Etruscan artist known by name. 520 - 550 BCE.