Heart of Darkness - State College Area School District

Democratic Republic of the
By Jackson McDermott
Religion: Christianty, Islam
Language: French, Lingala, Kiswhali, Kikongo, Tshiluba
Population: 66 million
LIfe expectancy: 46 years (men, 49 years (women)
Climate: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is near the
equator so it is hot and humid. South of the Equator, so their is
a lot of rain fall between October-May. The annual temperature
is 77 degrees fahrenheit.
Capital: Kinshasa
President: Joseph Kaliba
He became President when his father was assassinated in
2001. He was trained in China and helped fight against dictator
Mobuto Sese Seko in 1997. He was a Guerilla fight for over a
decade then he took on his fathers position. He is one of ten in
his family and is supported by many major world leaders.
By Emily and Katelyn
What is Imperialism?
Imperialism is when one country controls another area, such as
a separate territory or country. This is usually obtained by using
a strong military. Imperialism is closely related to expansionism
and colonialism.
The Age of Imperialism
This period of time was during the late 1800's. Africa was
divided up among many European nations, including Britain,
Germany, and Belgium. Also during this time period Spain lost
the Spanish-American War and lost a great amount of land to
the United States. Eventually this disquiet between nations led
to World War II.
Motives for Imperialism
Also during the late 1800's, the want to gain more territory
became more common. In those days, expanding and gaining
land was the most important.
The New Imperialism
In 1877 many European countries decided to divide
the continent into "spheres of influence". They
believed that this would solve some of the
economical issues that were going on during this
Countries involved in Imperialism
Belgium, Italy, Spain, Portugal, England, France, and Germany
were the main countries throughout Africa that were involved in
"World Book." Web. 12 Nov. 2009. <http://www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar273460&st=imperialism>.
"Imperialism in Africa | Suite101.com." Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers' Network | Suite101.com. Web. 12 Nov. 2009.
Joseph Conrad
Valerie Golembeski & Madeline Lusk
"Joseph Conrad." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2009.
Early Life
• Born in 1857
• Berdichev, Russia
• Born of Polish Parents
• Both parents died of Tiberculosis
Voyages at Sea
• 1874-Started out to sea heading for the West Indies
-smuggled weapons for civil war in Spain
• 1878-Joined a merchant ship
-attempted suicide
• 1884- Became a master mariner and British citizen
• His voyages inspired many of his writings
Home Life
• Lived in Marseilles, France when not on a ship
• Compulsive gambler
-was in severe debt (reason for attempted suicide)
-shot himself in the chest, but didn't die
• Moved to England for his writing career
-only knew five English words at first
-learned English, and wrote everything in that
His Accomplishments
Considered a pioneer writer in the 16th century
His life of travel and exploration inspired many of his pieces
A majority of his works focused on the dark side of human
o greed
o cruelty
o lust for power or goods
• Major works
o "Heart of Darkness"
o "The Secret Agent"
o "Nostromo"
o "Lord Jim"
"Heart of Darkness"
Written in 1902
His most well known work
Inspired by his travels to the Congo
Criticizes European imperialism and exploration
Story of protagonist, Marlow, and antagonist, Kurtz
Oppression of the African natives
Greed of the Europeans
Title suggests the dark continent of Africa and the dark
hearts of men
• Written in 1904
• Ispired by his travels on the Saint-Antoine
• Takes place in a fictional South American country
o silver mine
• Conveyed ideas of revolution, politics, and financial
"The Secret Agent"
• Written in 1907
• Marked Conrad's transition from an adventure style to a
political style
• Look into anarchists, police, and politicians in London
"Joseph Conrad." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2009.
"Joseph Conrad." Student Research Center. Ebsco Host. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.
"Joseph Conrad." Student Research Center. Ebsco Host. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.
Things Fall Apart
By: Chinua Achebe
Linden and Riley
Team Awesome
About the Story
Things Fall Apart by Chinua
Achebe is the story of an Igbo
village in Nigeria and the
journey of Okonkwo.
As one of the strongest men
in all of the surrounding
villages, Okonkwo struggles
with the changes that come
when the white settlers come
to colonize his village. In
addition to the external
changes, it is also his strong
personality that eventually
leads to his downfall.
Progression of Colonization
In this book there was a very
slow progression in which the
white men who came to the
Igbo community, developed
trust amoung the villages, and
changed their entire way of
About Chinua Achebe
Chinua Achebe is a well
known African novelist and
poet. He was born in Ogidi,
Nigeria. Achebe attended the
University College of Ibadan.
Things Fall Apart was his first
According to "Answers.com"
Achebe's list of work includes:
Things Fall Apart (1958),
Arrow of God (1964),
No Longer at Ease (1960),
A Man of the People (1966),
and Anthills of the Savannah
"Things Fall Apart Book Notes Summary by Chinua Achebe: Topic Tracking:
Colonization Book Notes Summary." BookRags.com: Book Summaries, Study
Guides. Web. 12 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bookrags.com/notes/tfa/TOP1.html>.
"Chinua Achebe, Nigeria novelist and poet." African American Literature Book
Club: African American Books by Famous Black Authors And Poets. Web. 12
Nov. 2009. <http://aalbc.com/authors/chinua.htm>.
"Chinua Achebe: Biography from Answers.com." Answers.com: Wiki Q&A
combined with free online dictionary, thesaurus, and encyclopedias. Web. 12 Nov.
2009. <http://www.answers.com/topic/chinua-achebe>.
Heart of Darkness
Coleman Hostetler
Isaac Gilligan
Period 8
What is it?
Heart of Darkness is a book written
by Joseph Conrad. It was published
n 1902 and was about an
Englishman’s assignment as a ferryboat captain in Africa. The book
mainly follows the captain as he
ecounts a story, making the book a
story within a story.
About the Author
Joseph Conrad was born in
Ukraine, in 1857. Soon after
marriage, he began to write.
His inspiration for his
book, Heart of Darkness came
when he took a trip to the
congo in 1890. He continued to
write stories until the age of 54,
eventually dying of a heart
attack at age 67, in 1924.
Heart of Darkness has been
adapted into a short TV
special, a movie, and inspired
other short stories. The best
known adaptation of Heart of
Darkness is the movie
Apocalypse Now! by Francis
Ford Coppola. In this movie,
the Congo is replaced with
Vietnam, but the basic theme
stays relatively the same, as
well as the movie even
using various names from the
The Story
Conrad's Heart Of Darkness first appeared in a three part
magazine in the year 1899. It became classic English literature
for multiple reasons. The largest one was that of the sheer
impact of the writing. For the time period, it was a stunningly
harsh view into the wiltered world he portrayed. The themes
depicted were often sad but realistic. The ending note seemed
to most as a depiction of kindness to a main character's
grieving fiancee.
The reception to Conrad's novel was at first rather
controversial. Chinua Achebe criticized Heart of Darkness for
the de-moralization and de-humanization of African Americans.
His work was constantly contemplated as being a rascist peice
of literature. However, the sheer psychological and moral horror
story still provides ample material for literary studies.
Heart of Darkness was controversial for many reasons, though
the main theme portrayed was the inner darkness in every
human being. His characters and story revolve solely around
the evil and dismay in the human heart. Although some have
argued that the point of the story was to display a sense of
good vs. evil (light vs. the dark) if looked at closely the only
elements displaying a resistence to the dark was that of
individual characters. Other prevalent themes was that of the
fraility of women and the weakness of the African society.
By Alex Hardison
Nigerian Life
•-Food varies greatly depending on region
•-TV’s, VCR’s, and Radios are popular where
electricity is available.
•Celebrate some holidays, including their
independence day, which is October 1st, and workers
day, which is May 1st.
•They also celebrate religious holidays.
Auto industry of Nigeria
•-Nigerian auto industry is in decline.
•-Only car manufactures left are Puegeot Automobile
Nigeria and Anambra Motor Manufacturers
Company Limited.
•-Main reasons for decline is the lack of money of the
Nigerians, a large amount can’t afford cars, coupled
with the high cost of manufacturing is the reason for
Food of Nigeria
•Each region has its own set of foods.
•-In Southern Nigeria, many soups are based on
tomatoes, onions, red pepper, and Palm Oil.
•-In Northern Nigeria, rice is the main food staple.
Most of the people there don’t eat pork because
most of them are Muslim.
•A large amount of Nigerians eat fruits because they
live in the tropics.
•"Nigeria.”Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 12 Nov. 2009
•"Nigeria." FodbyCountry. 12 Apr. 2001. Web. 13
Nov. 2009.
The Congos
Cody A. Cooper
Location for Republic of Congo
• Located in middle of Africa
• coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau,
northern basin
• Capitol- Brazzaville
• Pop. 4,012,000 citizens
• About same size as Montana
Government + Economy
• Govt. type- Republic
• Economy is mainly subsistence farming
• Main export is oil
• Not a wealthy nation
Chinua Achebe
By Andrew Zhang
• Born in 1930 in Ogidi, Nigeria
• Full name was Albert Chinualumogu Achebe
• Went to Government College in Umahia and
University College of Ibadan
• Been Professor of English at many universities
including the University of Nigeria, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst and Bard College
• He wrote many books. The most famous one is
Things Fall Apart but others include: A Man of
the People, No Longer at Ease, Arrow of God
and The Sacrificial Egg and Other Stories just to
name a few.
Things Fall Apart
• Things Fall Apart was his first novel and was
published in 1958
• It is set in the 1890s around the life of Okonkwo
who is a respected person in his Igbo community.
He is prosperous and has no troubles. But when
he gets into trouble, his downfall begins.
• Liukkonen, Petri. "Chinua Achebe." the Pegasus.
N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov.
2009. <http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/achebe.htm>.
Religion In Africa
By: Gina Torretti
• Africa is known for being a religious continent.
Religion is part of the heritage.
• All of the traditional religions are in Africa such as:
o Buddhism
o Hinduism
o Judaism
• The majority of Africans identify themselves with
one or more of three religious traditions:
o Indigenous
o Islam
o Christianity
o African Religion-has no holy book that they use for
• Africans worship many different ways and places
based on the religion that is being practiced.
• Along with in homes and public squares, they
worship in personal huts, village shrines, places of
deceased chiefs, and places containing the relics
and paraphernalia of dead chiefs.
• They worship by performing sacrifices and prayer
"Religion in Africa." Exploring Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2009.
<a href="http://science.jrank.org/pages/11041/Religion-Africa-WorshipSpaces.html">Religion - Africa - Worship Spaces</a>
Mbiti, John S. Introduction to African Religion. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Google. Web. 12
Nov. 2009.
By: Brianna Bevan
Yams are a vegetable
They are grown in tropical areas
They are a staple food throughout Africa
When men grew them they stood for manliness
Yam casserole
Yam soup
Baked, fried, boiled, pounded, roasted yams
“Yam.” Congo cookbook.
“Yam A Uniquely Delicious African Food Rhizome.” African Foods.
“West African Cuisine – Yams.” Ezine Articles. http://ezinearticles.com/?West-AfricanCuisine---Yams&id=843659
The African Yams
By: Joel Canner
The Yam itself
Not to be confused as a sweet potato the African Yam is often known as the pride of an African
kitchen. It is different from the sweet potato because of differing amount of seed leaves.
Image:Oct11 2007 http://gastronomy.wordpress.com/2007/12/11/vegetation-profile-khoaim%E1%BB%A1/
What is a Yam
• Yams are closely related to lilies and grasses.
Native to Africa and Asia, yams vary in size from
that of a small potato to a record 130 pounds (as
of 1999). There are over 600 varieties of yams
and 95% of these crops are grown in Africa.
Compared to sweet potatoes, yams are starchier
and drier. 2310 2009. Library of Congress, Web.
11 Nov 2009.
How do People use the African Yam in
The African Yam is used in many dishes but the Spiced Yam waffles are considered one of the sweetest ways to use the yam.
2 cups all purpose flour
2/3 cup corn meal
1/4 cup brown sugar
2 t baking powder
3/4 t baking soda
1 t salt
1-1/2 t cinnamon
1 T ground ginger
1/2 t nutmeg
1/3 t ground cloves
1/3 can (5 oz) coconut milk
2-1/3 cups whole milk
1/3 cup pureed yam
3.5 oz apple sauce
1/3 cup butter
2 eggs, separated
Preheat waffle iron.
Brown butter, melting it on medium heat until it’s golden brown, then removing it from the heat immediately
In a large bowl, combine the dry ingredients (flour, corn meal, baking powder, baking soda, salt, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg and clove) and mix well with a whisk.
In a medium bowl, whisk together the egg yolks, coconut milk, yam, brown sugar, milk, and cooled browned butter.
Pour these mixed wet ingredients into the dry ingredients and stir until just combined. Do not overmix!
In a medium bowl, beat the egg whites with a hand mixer until stiff but not dry. Then fold the whites into the rest of the batter.
Ladle batter onto the waffle iron and cook according to the iron’s directions (usually about 5 minutes, or until no steam emerges from the waffle iron).
institute." rodaleinstitute.org. 2008. Web. 11 Nov 2009. <http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/yamwaffles>.
• "rodale institute." rodaleinstitute.org. 2008. Web.
11 Nov 2009.
• 2310 2009. Library of Congress, Web. 11 Nov
The Second Coming
Caitlin McKenna
The Author
William Butler Yeats
> Born in County Dublin, Ireland in June, 1865
> Inspired by Irish folktales
> Attended Erasmus Smith High School and then spent two years at the Metropolitan
School of Art in Dublin, where some of his first poems were published
> Went on to become a successful poet and playwright
The Poem
Turning and turning in the widening gyre
The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
The best lack all conviction, while the worst
Are full of passionate intensity.
Surely some revelation is at hand;
Surely the Second Coming is at hand.
The Second Coming! Hardly are those words out
When a vast image out of Spiritus Mundi
Troubles my sight: a waste of desert sand;
A shape with lion body and the head of a man,
A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,
Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it
Wind shadows of the indignant desert birds.
The darkness drops again but now I know
That twenty centuries of stony sleep
Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,
And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?
Reception and Meaning
• Yeats had a definite interest in mysterious things, and that’s very evident
in “The Second Coming”; there is much criticism of the poem due to its
ambiguity. In short, it is about Yeats’s discomforted view of the world’s
state at the time, and through the poem he tells what he believes will
inevitably happen. Many attribute this to the just-ended World War I and
the numerous unhappy events that had recently taken place.
• http://www.potw.org/archive/potw351.html
• http://www.online-literature.com/yeats/
• http://www.yeatsvision.com/SecondNotes.html