Ch. 9 -

Chapter 8
in Groups
Chapter Objectives
• List the characteristics and types of
groups and explain how groups
• Understand how group size affects
• Identify the influence of networks in
Chapter Objectives
• Analyze aspects that determine a
group’s effectiveness
• Define the roles individuals play in a
• Identify other issues affecting group
Understanding Groups
• A collection of more than two
• Share some kind of relationship
• Communicate in an
interdependent fashion
• Collaborate toward a shared
Characteristics of Groups
• A shared identity
• Common goals
– Specific or general
– Shared sense of purpose
• Interdependent relationships
The behavior of each member
affects the behavior of every other
Group Types
• Primary groups
(Family and friends)
Support groups
Problem-solving groups
Study groups
Focus groups
Self-directed work teams
Group Development
• Forming Stage
– Who will be in charge
– Group’s goals
• Storming Stage
– What roles will members play
– Conflict may occur
Group Development
• Norming Stage
– Establish agreed norms governing
Norms: Recurring patterns of behavior
or thinking that become the “usual”
way of doing things in the group
– Roles solidify
– Leader emerges
Group Development
• Performing Stage
Members work together to achieve
goals and overcome hurdles
• Adjourning Stage
– Members reflect on
accomplishments and failures
– Determine next steps as a group
Group Size and
• The larger the group…
– Interaction is more formal
– Each member has limited opportunities
to contribute
– Communication is less intimate
– Interactions are more time consuming
– The relationships are more complex
Group Size and
Size, Cliques, and Coalitions
• The larger the group…
– Cliques (Coalitions) emerge
Small subgroups of individuals who
have bonded together within a group
– Countercoaltions can develop
Subgroups that are positioned against
each other on issues
Group Size and Social Loafing
• The larger the group…
– The more likely social loafing is to occur
• Failing to invest the same level of effort in
the group that you would put in if working
• Affects participation and communication in
– The more difficult it is to assess
individual contributions to the group
Group Networks
• Patterns of interaction
governing who speaks
with whom in a group
and about what
• Two features
– Centrality
– Isolation
Group Networks
• Types of Networks
Additional Factors Affecting
Group Communication
• Interdependence
• Cohesion
The degree to which group members
have bonded and consider
themselves one entity
• Group Climate
Group temperament
Additional Factors Affecting
Group Communication
• Norms
• Roles
– Task Roles
– Social Roles
– Antigroup Roles
– Role Conflict
• Clarity of Goals
Additional Factors Affecting
Group Communication
• Groupthink and Conflict
A situation in which group members
strive to minimize conflict by
demonstrating loyalty
• Individual Differences
– Cultural factors
– Communication apprehension