Benchmark Unit 1 STUDY GUIDE KEY

1. your basis for belief or disbelief; proof
2. in the middle of things
3. a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations
4. a punctuation mark (';') used to connect independent clauses; also separates a list when commas are already
in use
5. a man distinguished by exceptional courage and nobility and strength
6. Modern Language Association; governs how citations are used in research
7. the principal character in a work of fiction
8. a brief statement that presents the main points of a piece of literature in a shortened form
9. writing notes while reading
10. a lengthy description of a person, place or thing
11. the ability to form mental images of things or events using the 5 senses
12. the central message in a story; NOT A DETAIL from the story
13. a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
14. a reference to art, literature, history, mythology, the Bible, etc...
15. a repeated pattern or character repeated throughout most literature
16. something that represents something else
17. author’s attitude toward the piece
Be able to apply what you know about the following when you see the term in context:
Evidence: Anything that you can use from the text to back up your answer
Summary: a brief statement or account of the main points of something.
Personification: is giving human characteristics to non-living things or ideas. An author describing the sun smiling on a
field of flowers is an example of personification.
Epithet: is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and
having entered common usage. It can be described as a glorified nickname.
Epic (Homeric) Simile: is a detailed comparison in the form of a simile that is many lines in length.
Characterization: Direct characterization is how an author tells his or her reader about a character. Direct
characterization occurs when the author specifically reveals traits about the character in a direct, straightforward
Karen is bright, energetic and helpful.
Indirect characterization is very different. This is when authors indirectly portray characters using dialogue,
appearance, actions, relationships and overall place in the world.
The student bit her pencil and began shaking' right before a big test.
Hero’s Journey: The Hero’s Journey is a pattern of narrative identified by the American scholar Joseph Campbell that
appears in drama, storytelling, myth, religious ritual, and psychological development. It describes the typical
adventure of the archetype known as The Hero, the person who goes out and achieves great deeds on behalf of the
group, tribe, or civilization.
Archetypes: see above
Invocation: The narrator of the Odyssey invokes the Muse, asking for inspiration as he prepares to tell the story of
Colon: A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean."
Semi-colon: Semicolons help you connect closely related ideas when a style mark stronger than a comma is needed.
Capitalization Rules
Theme: See above