Literary Response and Analysis CAHSEE F.L.T Today, I will be able to… • read and understand stories, poems, plays, and essays • analyze common literary devices and figurative languages in texts • identify character traits, conflicts, and relationships, and analyze patterns and themes – So that I can pass the CAHSEE. What is this strand all about… 20 • There are about _______ multiple-choice questions. It is most tested strand on the CAHSEE. the _______ • The questions will measure your analytical comprehension _____________________________ and _____________________ skills. • You will read passages that are followed by a series of 3 6 questions ____ to ____ multiple choice _______________. difficult • Some of these skills are more ________________________ than other. • For example, some questions may simply ask you the main _________ idea, while others will ask you the meaning of metaphor symbol particular _________________________ or ___________________ in a passage. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Personification Definition: To give an animal, object, or idea characteristics that are considered _________ human Example: The branches groaned under the weight of the snow. Meaning: The author has given the tree the human ability to groan. Metaphor Definition: A word or phrase that compares two different things, but does not use the words like or as Example: The toddler was a tornado, ripping and tearing through the house. Meaning: The author compares the toddler to a tornado ______________. Simile Definition: A phrase that compares two things using the words like or as Example: The discarded umbrella lay crumpled like _______ a dead bat. Meaning: The author compares an umbrella to a bat, using the word like. Symbol Definition: An object that stands for something with greater meaning, often an abstract concept Example: aside. She gave her heart to him and he cast it Meaning: Heart is a symbol of devoted __________. love Let’s examine the following figurative language questions. 1. In this line from poem, the word whispered suggests that the wind is- 2. What is the meaning of the phrase class clown in the following sentence? The wind whispered its secret to me… A. A. a movement of air. B. a small gust. C. a person. D. a scent. Mike was the class clown, always telling a joke or a silly story in science homeroom. A. Mike was a toy doll. B. Mike was a circus performer. C. Mike was a funny person. D. Mike was the school mascot. Reasoning for your answer: Reasoning for your answer: 3. Which sentence is an example of a simile? A. The waves were rough and frightening. B. The waves turned into a frothing, mad fury. C. The waves became angry and threatening. D. The waves were like grabbing, violent hands. • Reasoning for your answer: 4. What kind of figure of speech does the writer use to help us visualize the mob? The large mob swarmed the state capitol like angry bees. A. metaphor B. simile C. idiom D. symbol Reasoning for your answer: 5. In the passage, what do pineapples symbolize to the narrator? I always look forward to summer when pineapples are fresh and ripe. After I take a bite of pineapple, I always remember the first time I tried pineapple with my parents while on vacation as a young child. A. B. C. D. warm weather the grocery produce section a childhood memory backyard barbecues Reasoning for your answer: Elements of Fiction • You need to be able to identify the tools such setting as plot, _______________, characters, narrator, and _______________in works of conflict literature. Plot events The sequence of _____________________ that make up a story. Setting; characters are introduced • Exposition: ______________________________________ Rising Action • _____________________: the conflict begins. the height of the action • Climax: _________________________________________ Falling Action • ______________________: the conflict begins to get resolved. How the story ends • Resolution: ______________________________________ Conflict challenge • A ___________ that the main character faces in a story. Types of conflict: – Character vs. Character – Character vs. Self – Character vs. Nature/Technology – Character vs. Society Plot Chart: Babysitting Adventure Exposition: Rising Action: Climax: Falling Action: Resolution: Plot & Conflict questions Which of the following BEST explains Darius and Jose’s problem in the story? A. They needed money to get hockey equipment. B. Their brothers and sisters started to get out of control. C. Jose’s parents didn’t trust them. D. They didn’t have any confidence in themselves. Reasoning for your answer: Which of the following is the BEST inference of what will happen next? A. Darius and Jose raise enough money to buy their brothers and sisters new hockey equipment. B. Their brothers and sisters start to get out of control again. C. Jose’s parents are proud of Jose for his hard work. D. Jose and Darius’s parents ask the boys to babysit again. Reasoning for your answer: Setting place The time and _______ that a story takes place. Which of the following BEST describes the setting of “Babysitting Adventure”? A. a school cafeteria B. a suburban home C. an isolated farmhouse D. a restaurant Reasoning for your answer: Character • Those who participate in a ______________. a story • The main characters are protagonist . also called _________ • The secondary characters are called __________________. subordinate • Protagonist: the character who faces the main _________and is involved conflict in the climax and resolution of the story. • Subordinate: all the __________ characters. other • Who are the protagonists in “Babysitting Adventure”? Character Motivation Definition: each main character in a story has ______________for his or her actions. They reasons are often motivated by their own conflicts ______________ and _________________ relationships with other characters. Character Motivation INTERNAL MOTIVATION A character may be motivated _________by his goals or ______________ conflicts internal External Motivation A character may also be motivated by the actions of the ________ other characters in the story. To determine a character’s motivation, you may want to ask yourself the following questions: – What is the character’s goal? – Why is the character acting that way? – What is the character reacting to? Reread “Babysitting Adventure” to answer the following questions. How do you think Darius’s and Jose’s parents react to the boys’ babysitting? A. Both sets of parents are impressed. B. Jose’s parents upset and Darius’s parents are supportive. C. Jose’s parents are angry and Darius’s parents are sad. D. Darius’s parents are happy and Jose’s parents are mad. Reasoning for your answer: Another Example for character motivation What motivates Darius to seize control of his siblings and start giving orders to “Babysitting Adventure”? A. He had a bossy nature. B. He wanted his parents to trust his babysitting skills. C. He was angry with his sister. D. Jose didn’t seem to care, so he had to do something. Reasoning for your answer: Characterization Definition: description of character’s _________________, traits motivations, and conflicts. An author can introduce a character to the reader in several ways: – What the character says about himself – What the narrator and other characters say about the character – The character’s own actions To get to know a characters as your read a story, you may want to ask the following questions as you read: – How would I introduce this character to one of my friends? – Could I be friends with this character? Why or why not? – What is the character going to do next? Read the excerpt from the story “Family Ties” and answer the characterization questions that follow. Which of the following BEST describes the relationship between the narrator and Ms. Gretch? A. Ms. Gretch is the narrator’s grandmother. B. Ms. Gretch is the narrator’s landlady. C. Ms. Gretch is the narrator’s neighbor. D. Ms. Gretch is the narrator’s landlady but acts like her grandmother. Reasoning for your answer: What kind of person is Roger in the story? A. Roger is troubled and distant from his family. B. Roger is a criminal. C. Roger is a dedicated son. D. Roger is happy and distant. Reasoning for your answer: Which of the following characteristics of Ms. Gretch is emphasized most in the passage? A. her artistic nature B. her love and generosity C. her frugality D. her confidence Reasoning for your answer: Point of View narrator Definition: the use of a ____________or outside observer ____________________ that tells the story. TYPES OF POINT OF VIEW character First person: a narrator who is also a _____________ in the story. sees They tell the story as he or she______________ it, and how he or she feels ____________ about the action in the story. I me The pronouns ______, ________, and ________ are used. you Example: I got off the train in San Francisco with Julia ready to start our adventure. We weren’t sure where we were going to live or how we were going to support ourselves, but we knew we were ready to take on our exciting new life. outside Third person: a narrator who is an ___________ observer not and _____a character in the story. he she they The pronouns ______, ______, and _______ are used. Example: Jessica and Julia arrived in San Francisco on a Monday morning. They got off the train loaded with suitcases and bags. Their smiles showed excitement and anticipation as they stood in the middle of the train station deciding where to go. Third-person omniscient: a narrator who is an outside observer of the read action in the story who also has the ability to ___________ the thoughts and the emotions of all the characters in the story. he she they The pronouns ______, ______, and _______ are used. Example: Jessica and Julia arrived in San Francisco early in the morning. They were both very excited about starting a new life, but Julia was especially nervous about finding a place to live. Julia had two job interviews set up for the next day, but Jessica had none. As Jessica loaded her arms with luggage, she worried about finding a job in this large new city. Reread “Babysitting Adventure” to answer the following question. From whose point of view is the story told? A. Darius B. Jose C. third-person point of view D. third-person omniscient Reasoning for your answer: Elements of Poetry poem • A ____________is a text that uses words artistically in order to create a mental picture message ____________and convey a _____________. • Poets rely on special tools called poetic ____________ devices. • You may be required to identify the meaning figurative language and ____________ poetic of ___________ devices. Imagery Definition: a word or phrase that creates a picture mental ____________ in the readers’ mind ___________ that appeals to the five ___________ senses. Five senses: taste 1. _______________ touch 2. _______________ 3. _______________ smell sight 4. _______________ hear 5. _______________ Repetition repeat Definition: _____________ words or phrases in poems to emphasize an idea or ____________ the theme of the poem. In Mending Walls, the poet repeats two lines: – “Good fences make good neighbors.” “Something there is that doesn’t love a wall” – _________________________________________ Symbolism • _______________ are Symbols objects that stand for something of greater meaning. • Poets use _______________to symbols emphasize the theme of the poem. Read the following lines from the poem. He is all pine and I am apple orchard. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him. What does the author convey from these sentences? A. what each person grows on his land B. the purpose of the wall C. that there is no purpose for the wall because the neighbors do not pose a danger to each other D. what each neighbor thinks about the wall Which of the following lines is an example of personification? A. He only says, ‘Good fences make good neighbors’ B. Before I built a wall I’d ask to know / What I was walling in or walling out C. My apple trees will never get across / And eat the cones under his pines D. The gaps I mean, No one has seen them made or heard them made / But at spring mending-time we find them there Reasoning for your answer: Allegory • In an allegory, the setting, events, ____________, and objects in the story are characters ___________ symbols for something of greater meaning. • Fables are stories in which animals, plants, and objects are given __________ traits in human order to illustrate a _______________. These moral are examples of _____________. allegory Elements of Drama – Drama is a form of literature that is meant to be _______________on stage. performed – Drama has the same elements of fiction and poetry conflict such as plot, _____________, characters, figurative language, and setting, but the story is created differently. – When you read drama on page, it is not organized in paragraphs instead, it is a series of ________________; ___________ for the actors and directions to the lines director ______________ of the play. Read the excerpt from the following scene of a play and use the sidebars to identify the elements of drama. Dialogue Soliloquy speech Definition: a ______________ between two or more characters on the stage. Definition: a long _____________ speech given by a character in a drama that is not directed at anyone in the play. The use of dialogue helps to move _____________ the plot of the drama forward and ____________ characters. Also, create characterization for the provides _____________ characters in the play in two ways: allowing the characters to describe _______________ themselves through what they say, and allowing characters to talk about each other. _______ It is meant for the ____________ audience and usually gives the audience information about the character’s _____________ or background motivations What is the purpose of Georgiana’s soliloquy in the passage? A. to describe how Mr. Harriman looks B. to let the audience know that Georgiana is uneasy about Mr. Harriman C. to explain why Georgiana wants a roommate D. to explain Mr. Harriman’s strange behavior Reasoning for your answer Asides Definition: a short remark in the _____________ of presence other characters, but is meant only for the _______________. audience What character traits do Mr. Harriman’s asides reveal about him? A. He is stern and hardworking. B. He is funny and not very serious. C. He is relaxed and warm. D. He is deceitful and uneasy. Reasoning for your answer: Theme message Definition: the _____________ of a story or poem that the author is trying to convey. The theme _____________ all of connects the elements of the passages and gives them a single __________ purpose of conveying a _______________ message to the reader. The following questions may help you identify the theme of a passage: • How do characters _______? act Do they set a good example or a bad example, and what can a reader learn from their actions and consequences? • Does the action in the story __________ highlight a particular message? • How does figurative language ____________ emphasize a message? gloomy • Is the setting ____________ or happy? Reread “Family Ties” to answer the question. Which of the following themes is developed in the story? A. Neighbors should be friendly. B. Family are the people who are closest to you rather than people related by blood. C. Renting an apartment is better living in a house. D. Landladies should be generous. Reasoning for your answer: Tone and Mood Two of the puzzle pieces that can help you understand theme the __________ of a story, play, or poem are __________ tone and mood. Mood feeling The __________________ that is conveyed to a reader while reading a story or poem. (How the words make you feel.) Ask yourself the following question: – What emotions does this poem make me feel? For example, what is the mood of the following sentence? How do the words help create the mood? The gleeful kids sang with delight as they danced around the radiant campfire and roasted scrumptious marshmallows. The mood of the sentence is _____________________. happy Tone attitude the _______________ that a piece of writing expresses to the reader. (How the speaker feels.) Ask yourself the following question: • What is the author trying to tell me about her attitude? For example, what is the character’s tone in the following sentence? How do the words help create the tone? I knew you would lose the keys! I never should have trusted you! What do you expect me to do now?” The tone of the sentence is _______________________. angry/resentment Reread Mending Wall and answer the following question. Which pair of words BEST describes the tone of this poem? A. happy and carefree B. awe and amazement C. frustration and annoyance D. anger and distrust Reasoning for your answer Author’s purpose – Author’s usually with a particular _____________ goal in mind. – This goal is what the author intends the reader to take ___________ from the text. away – There are four main purposes: to describe inform,_____________, persuade, and _________________. narrate Inform or describe Example: Instruction manuals, newspaper articles, biographies nonfiction Characteristics: ___________________, facts, statistics, data Author’s Goal: to tell the reader about a particular topic Persuade Example: Newspaper, editorials, ______________, advertisements speeches Characteristics: Opinions, examples, supporting facts and data Author’s Goal: to convince the reader to do or believe something Narrate Example: Fiction, poetry Characteristics: Figurative language, hyperbole emotion Author’s Goal: To create _______________ within the reader Reread Mending Wall to answer the following question. In addition to the chart, you can ask the following questions as you read a text in order to identify the author’s purpose: • What does the author want me to take away from the _______________? text • Why is the _________________ writing author this? characteristics • What ____________________ of the specific purpose does the author include? What is the author’s main purpose in the poem? A. to entertain his neighbor B. to describe the relationship between two neighbors C. to inform his neighbor about building a wall D. to persuade people to build walls Reasoning for your answer: Summary Write what you learn with this strand in 3-5 sentences. Are you ready? Review! Quiz!