# Word

```California University of Pennsylvania
Department of Applied Engineering &amp; Technology
Electrical / Computer Engineering Technology
EET 215: Introduction to Instrumentations
Lab No.6
Instrumentation Amplifier
Names:
1.
2.
3.
Signature:
Date
Instrumentation Amplifier
Objective of the Experiment
The main objective of this experiment is to understand and troubleshot an instrumentation amplifier
circuit
Learning Outcomes
Students will demonstrate:
-
the ability to build and troubleshot IA circuits
the ability to determine the common mode rejection ratio of an IA
CAUTION: It is imperative that students exercise care when handling the ELVIS unit. Make sure all
connections are correctly made. When in doubt, check with your instructor to verify proper circuit
connections.
Introduction
The instrumentation amplifier (IA) used here is designed with a combination of differential amplifier and
op-amp buffers. Instrumentation amplifiers are used extensively when sensitivity, accuracy, and
stability of circuits are needed. Examples include digital scales, ECG circuits, force and strain
measurements, temperature measurements, etc.
Figure -1:
LM 741C
Refer to class notes as a reference as you do this lab.
Components Needed:
-
LM741C op-amp (3)
-
Six equal resistors (may be 10KΩ or close to this values) - refer to them as R in the circuit
Potentiometer to be used as a variable resistor ( 1KΩ or 5KΩ or close) potentiometer (refer to it
as RG in the circuit)
-
Any other two equal resistors (choose 4.7KΩ if possible) (refer to them as R1, R2 in the circuit)
Experiment
For all circuits, the +/- Vsupply = +/- 15Volts.
Component Values are:
R=
R1 = R2 =
?
?
A- Construct the IA circuit
With the power to the board initially turned OFF (top right corner),
a-
Careful, some op-amps in the drawing are flipped vertically.
b-
Ensure all op-amps are connected to the +/-Vsupply (but power is still turned off)
c-
Take great care in making correct connections. This will make this experiment and the next go
smoothly.
d-
SET RG to 500Ω (May used a fixed resistor if available)
e-
Again, Connect circuit very nicely. This makes it easier to troubleshoot and to understand.
f-
NO input signal for Vin yet.
OP-AMP1
V1
R
Vy
10kΩ
R
LM741CN
10kΩ
R
RG
50%
R 10kΩ
Vout
10kΩ
10kΩ
LM741CN
R
R
10kΩ
OP-AMP3
V2
Vx
LM741CN
OP-AMP2
Fig.1.
IA circuit set-up
B-
Determining the Common Mode Gain, AC
a-
Turn the power to the board ON and apply Vin to both inputs as shown
Vin
Connect to V1
Connect to V2
Vin is a sine wave at 0.2Vpk and 1KHz. This input is to mimic a common noise
b-
USE the DMM tool in ELVIS’s instrument launcher to perform the following measurements:
Notice: The AC voltage measurements on the DMM correspond to the RMS measurements
1-
Vin(RMS) =
This is the Common Mode input. Will call it Vin(CM).
2-
Vout(RMS) =
Volts (Should be VERY small, NOT zero)
This is the Common Mode Output. Will call it Vo(CM)
If the value for Vout value is large, then here are possible errors:
c-
i-
check all op-amps output, make sure all are low. If one is near saturation, then
there is a problem with connections or the applied power supply to that opamp.
ii-
double check all connections – (this is part of troubleshooting skills)
Calculate the common mode gain, AC
𝑉𝑜(𝐶𝑀)
AC = 𝑉
𝑖𝑛(𝐶𝑀)
=
(should be very small – near zero, but NOT zero)
C-
Determining the Differential Mode Gain, Ad
a-
Turn the board power off and remove the common mode input connections of step B above
b-
Apply the differential input as shown below and turn the board’s power ON.
Vin
R1
Connect to V1
4.7kΩ
Connect to V2
R2
4.7kΩ
Here, V2 sees the input signal and V1 sees half of it.
cd-
Set Vin to the same value as previously. Vin = 0.2Vpk sine wave at 1KHz.
Verify correct operation by monitoring Vout on the scope. Vout should be near 4.1(pk) sine
wave. If far off, then troubleshoot the circuit and fix the problem (note this part assumes using
the suggested resistor values.)
e-
If step (d) is o.k, then record your measurements using the DMM tool in ELVIS’s instrument
launcher .
f-
1-
V1(RMS) =
Volts (should be near 0.0707V) !
2-
V2(RMS) =
Volts (should be near 0.1414V) !
3-
Vout(RMS) =
Volts (should be near 2.89V) !
𝑉
𝐴𝑑 = 𝑉 𝑜𝑢𝑡
=
−𝑉
2
g-
1
Calculate the theoretical value of the differential gain:
2𝑅
𝐴𝑑 = 1 + 𝑅 =
𝐺
h-
Do the results in steps f and g almost agree? -------------YES, --------------NO
iIf the percentage difference is more that 10%, then the work was not successful. All previous
steps will have to be checked.
Instructor Approval: ------------------------
D-
Determining the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
𝐴
CMRR = 𝐴𝑑
𝑐
=
CMRRdB = 20log10(CMRR)
? (should be large , possible above 800)
=
dB ( should be high, possible more than 60dB)
E-
Typical CMRR values of standard components
From the web, obtain and record CMRR (dB) for each of the following components:
Component
CMRR(dB) (minimum)
CMRR(dB) (typical)
LM741