The business of journal publishing

The Business of Journal Publishing
Rebecca Marsh
Director of Editorial and Production
(….and R&D and Product Management)
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Brief background to Emerald
Serials today
Purchasing options
The economics of publishing
The publishing process
Adding value in the information chain
Selling and licensing content
Working with Consortia
Investment in R&D
Open access/alternative publishing models
Emerald company background
Established 40 years ago, privately held
190 staff, offices worldwide
Originally one title, Management Decision
Today 190+ academic and practitioner titles in
management, library and information science, engineering
and technology
Management is core output (170+ titles)
Serials today
Formats - Print
Serials today
Formats – Online (
Serials today
Electronic features
Online Archive
Range of search options
E-mail alert service
RSS feeds
Access to abstracts from wider literature
Reference linking and Citation linking
Early publication of an online version
Different purchasing
Journal Subscriptions
Database Subscriptions
Pay Per View
Usage Based Pricing
Open Access
Most customers value electronic version above print
version; however transition to electronic-only
delivery is hampered by VAT regulations and
fears about archiving
The economics of
The online medium has become the predominant
way in which we consume and distribute content
(particularly in an academic setting) =
• Demand for lower-priced content (due to budget
constraints and online behaviour)
• Demand for instant gratification
• Demand for delivery mechanisms that meet changing
How does this affect the
business of publishing?
• Individual journal sales are declining and being
replaced by multi-journal or database deals
• Librarians are group purchasing, eg via CHEST
and other consortia
• Print journal sales are increasingly viewed as an
addition to the electronic version of a journal
• Users (rather than authors) increasingly associate
content with a database rather than with a
• Student usage has overtaken faculty usage
(students have become a much more important
key target audience than 15 years ago)
• Consolidation in the industry
Publisher consolidation
Market Share:
Reed Elsevier
Thomson Scientific
Wolters Kluwer
T&F Informa
(The Bookseller, 1 December 2006)
Publisher differentiation
• For example….
“The world’s leading publisher of
management journals and databases”
Content is getting
cheaper due to…
• Improvements in technology and speed to
• Improved marketing to students
What do we do as
Adding value in the
information chain
• Managing the publication process, eg:
– Copy-editing, page make-up, XML and SGML mark
up, proofing
• Investments in developing and delivering new
methods of content distribution, eg mobile
learning and VLEs
• Developing journals
• Investments in supply and supporting research
• Investments in marketing
• Investments in new products
• Protecting the rights of authors
• Archiving in perpetuity
The publishing process
Editorial supply cycle and
journal management
Case studies
EAB and reviewers
Literature reviews
Solicits new papers
Applied research
Handles review
The link between the
publisher and the editor
QA – sub-editing and
proof reading
Access via
Develops journal and
subject communities
Hard copy
Convert to SGML for
online databases
Promotes journal to
Helps editors succeed
in their role and build a
first class journal
Attends conferences
and widens networks
Overall responsibility
for journal
Develops new areas of
Promotion and journal
brand management
Print production
Added value from
Streamline and
efficiency gains
The Editor’s Role
• Providing appropriate content for the journal, which reflects
leading international research and the latest thinking in the
subject area.
• Maintaining and contributing to the strategic development of
the journal.
• Developing and maintaining a network of contacts which will
act as a source of papers.
• Appointing and reviewing the editorial advisory and review
• Devising and meeting the editorial content aims.
• Arranging and managing the peer review system, as
appropriate (double blind review).
Editorial Advisory Board
• Advising the editor on matters of journal development
• Acting as a referee/reviewer of papers, especially if the journal
has no separate editorial review board
• Encouraging the submission of articles (written by self or
• Providing occasional guest editorials/viewpoints/commentaries
• Writing book reviews
• Representing and promoting the journal at conferences and to
interested colleagues/contacts
• Feeding back helpful criticism/information to the editor to assist in
the development and direction of the journal
• Guest editing
The Peer Review Process
Independent quality control mechanism
Ensures value, accuracy and academic integrity
Editor ensures journal meets stated editorial aims
There are a number of different types of review – open,
single blind and double blind - at least two reviewers
who are anonymous to the author and vice versa.
• Reviewers asked to provide constructive criticism based
on a number of principles appropriate to the journal
• Most publishers have invested in online submission and
peer review systems, eg ManuscriptCentral, Editorial
Manager, Allen Track, Espere, Bench>Press
Developing editorial
• Editorial objectives and subject coverage
• Position of journal in relation to subject field and
• Submission rates and copy flow
• Acceptance/rejection rates
• Referee ratings and perception of EAB
• Citation ranking and impact factor analysis
• Other journal rankings
• Usage
• Editor performance
• Production quality and design
Publishing rules –
copyright and plagiarism
• Copyright protects the interests of those who create and
invest in creativity.
• Authors’ moral rights
– the right of attribution
– Object to derogatory treatment (including adaptation
and alteration)
– Not have a work falsely attributed
• Emerald does not restrict authors’ rights to re-use their
work – we are ROMEO Green.
• Emerald has a comprehensive Copyright Policy and Author’s
• Emerald has invested in protecting authors from plagiarism
through Ithenticate software
Publishing ethics
Fabrication of data
Unethical research
Politically controlled research
Authorship disputes (eg limited to those who
have made a significant contribution)
Dual publication – led to Plagiarism Policy and
Confidentiality – editors/reviewers
Disclosure of conflicts of interest
Process of launching a
new journal
• What are the reasons for publishing a new
Portfolio expansion
Subject coverage
Transferred ‘Society’ journals
Acquired journals
New revenue?
Publisher strategy
New journal considerations
What is your rationale for launch?
Is there a gap in the current journals market?
How do you see the subject field evolving over the next 5-10 years?
Will the journal have international applicability and reach?
What is the proposed editorial scope and coverage of the
What are the key topics that the journal will cover?
What will make it stand out from the competition?
How will you attract submissions to the proposed journal?
Who will be the journal’s target audience, both in terms of
authors and users?
Sales & Marketing
Local sales agents are also appointed where appropriate.
Sales are carried out on an account (customer) level across the Sales &
Marketing Area.
Specific sales activities are managed by each of the different teams in Sales &
Field Sales
Customer Retention
Customer Operations
Customer Support
Customer visits, direct sales, account management, training
Direct mail, e-mail marketing, lead generation, brand awareness
Account management, renewals reminders, remote training / usage development
Invoicing, subscription enquiries, subscription agent enquiries
Setting up online access, technical enquires
At Emerald the Sales & Marketing Teams are now based in regions: America; Europe;
Asia and Africa; China and India
Licensing electronic
Terms of an agreement include:
• Who is licensed to use the content, eg short
course participants, distance learners etc
• Licensee permissions, eg to make back-up copies,
mirrored storage, number of copies permitted for
research purposes at the institution, content
made available to other libraries, use in course
packs, conformance to copyright law
• Publisher obligations, eg to inform licensee of any
specified changes to content, provision of usage
data, ensure adequate capacity on the Publisher
Working with consortia
Each agreement is different, but will generally fall
into one of the following 3 categories:
• An established consortia group with an officially
appointed representative or coordinator
• A group of customers who work with a third party
(often a subscription agent) to negotiate on their
• A group of libraries within a region that a
publisher recommends work together
Benefits for consortia
• Preferential pricing guaranteed over a
fixed term
• Flexible pricing and product options
• Tailored technical support and training
Benefits to the
• Secured revenue
• Increase awareness / dissemination
• Closer relationship with key purchasing
Investment in Research
& Development
• Research into new product development
(excluding journals)
• Attract new product ideas/enhancements each
year and refine to a list of 10-12 feasible
• 2-4 new products or services for the company to
trial each year
• Failure of some products needs to be tolerated
and afforded
Open access/alternative
publishing models
• Author pays models (Oxford Open, Open Choice etc)
• Institutional repositories (research funding bodies
mandating open access – NIH asking for deposit within 12
months, Wellcome – requiring deposit within 6 months,
RCUK – requiring deposit as soon as possible, subject to
copyright restrictions)
• We support independence and demand-regulated market
orientation, rather than supply regulated or government
• Publishing needs organising and funding, capital, people
and infrastructure, research and development
• Emerald Asset
Implications for
• Demonstrate added value in the
information chain
• Demonstrate value for money, eg dollar a
• Become actively involved in the debate
• Review copyright assignment forms, eg
allow authors to self-archive
Thank You
Any Questions?
Rebecca Marsh
[email protected]