Chapters 36 & 37

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Chapters 36 & 38
The Postmodern
Turn
Chapter 36
The
Quest for
•Racial Equality
•Gender Equality
The
Quest for
Racial Equality
American History (1)

1861-65 the Civil War, southern states
secede from the Union and
founded the Confederate
States of America

1865-77 Reconstruction

1877
Segregationist Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws –
Segregation –
sharing facilities
prohibited
The Harlem Renaissance:
1920s-1940s



During the 1920s, Harlem became the capital of
black America, attracting black intellectuals and
artists from across the country and the
Caribbean.
Many of the greatest works sought to recover
links with African and folk traditions.
A fierce racial conscious and a powerful sense
of racial pride animated the literature of the
Harlem Renaissance.
http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
Harlem

by Langston Hughes
What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore—
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over—
like a syrupy sweet?

Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?
American History (2)

1924

1941

1942
Exclusionary immigration act
barred Asians
Japan bombed Pearl Harbor
US entered WWII
President Roosevelt ordered
internment of Japanese
Americans in camps
The Civil Rights Movement:
1950s-1960s
1954 School segregation banned
 1955-1964 Negro Revolt (non-violent protests

led by Martin Luther King, Jr.)
 1964 the Civil Rights Act, banning segregation
in public places

1965 the assassination of Malcolm X, dynamic
leader of the Black Revolution, who rejected nonviolence and advocated black nationalism
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and Malcolm X met
before a press
conference. Both men
had come to hear the
Senate debate on the
Civil Rights Act of 1964.
This was the only time
the two men ever met;
their meeting lasted
only one minute.
http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/File:MLK_and_Mal
colm_X_USNWR_crop
ped.jpg
Political
Art
Robert Colescott, Les Demoiselles of Alabama
Yasumasa Morimura, Portrait (Twins), 1988
Manet, Olympia, 1863
The
Quest for
Racial Equality
Feminist
Art
Cindy
Sherman
•Untitled Film Stills, 1995
Barbara
Kruger
Chapter 38
Postmodernism
 1.
After modernism?
 2. Contra modernism?
Differences (1)
 The
modernist laments
fragmentation while the
postmodernist celebrates
it.
Differences (2)
 Postmodernism
rejects the
distinction between ‘high’ and
‘popular’ art which was important
in modernism, and believes in
excess, in gaudiness, and in ‘bad
taste’ mixture of qualities.
Postmodern
Literature
 (1)
combines disparate styles in
works (references to other
cultures and world views)
 (2)
quotes from various works
(intertextality 互文性)
Postmodern
Literature
 (3)
rejects traditional style in
favor of parodying writing
 (4) authors are often selfconscious: address the reader,
inject commentary worlds of
author and reader blur
Postmodern
Literature

(5) questions the authoritative
interpretations of literary works
• questions whether a work exists
in and of itself, or if the work only
exists in its interpretations
Postmodern
Literature
 (6)
questions the absolute nature
of the meaning of language
 (7) metalanguage: works are
often "about" language rather
than simply use language to
communicate ideas
References
 Barry, Peter. Beginning
2nd ed. Manchester:
Theory.
Manchester UP, 2002.
 http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jsa3/hu
m355/readings/37/chapt37.htm
Jackson
Pollock
(19112-1956)
 Process,
uncertainty, change

"When I am in my painting, I'm not aware
of what I'm doing. It is only after a sort of
‘get acquainted’ period that I see what I
have been about. I have no fears about
making changes, destroying the image,
etc., because the painting has a life of its
own. I try to let it come through. It is only
when I lose contact with the painting that
the result is a mess. Otherwise there is
pure harmony, an easy give and take, and
the painting comes out well."
Alchemy, 1947.
http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_work_lg_129_1.html
Eyes in the Heat, 1946.
http://www.guggenhei
mcollection.org/site/a
rtist_work_lg_129_5.
html
Pop
Art
Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Can
Andy Warhol, Elvis
Andy Warhol, Mint Marilyn Monroe, 1962
Andy Warhol, Mao #91
Comic
Strips
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Assemblage
Richard Hamilton, Just What Is It That Makes Today's
Home So Different, So Appealing?, Collage, 1956
Robert Rauschenberg, Tracer, 1963
Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive I, 1964
Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954
 “Using
the designs of the
American flag took care of a
great deal for me because I
didn’t have to design it, so I
went on to similar things. . .
things the mind already knows.
That gave me room to work on
other levels.” Jasper Johns
Duane
Hanson
Suane Hanson, Tourist, 1970
Total
Art
Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970
The
End
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