Social Psychology - LEICHTMANAPPSYCH

Social Psychology
Social Psychology
scientific study of how we
think about, influence, and
relate to one another
How we influence one an
other and how others
influence us
When you change your opinions, judgments, or actions because someone in a position of
authority told you to. The key aspect to note about obedience is that just because you have
changed in some way, it does not mean that you now agree with the change. (ex. You
participate in whatever activity I tell you too  )
 the tendency to agree to do what is requested especially if there are certain factors present: a
feeling that there is give and take, believability, likeability, limited supply and positive feedback
from others. (most students go along with each other)
 adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard (even without authority
figure students will go along with the group even if a bit uncomfortable)
Group Sanctions
The idea that in most groups we are rewarded with acceptance and approval for conformity
and threatened with rejection and or ridicule for non-conformity (ex. When an idea is
 The unwritten but understood rules of a society or culture for the behaviors that are considered
acceptable and expected. (very quickly group set norms about rejecting and accepting ideas)
Social Loafing
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining
a common goal than when individually accountable (some people went along without
contributing any ideas)
Social Influence
 Milgram’s follow-up obedience experiment
Social Influence
 The chameleon effect
of times
rubs face
Confederate rubs face
shakes foot
Confederate shakes foot
Social Influence
 Asch’s conformity experiments
Social Influence
 Informational Social Influence
 influence resulting from one’s
willingness to accept others’ opinions
about reality
Social Influence
Difficult judgments
Percentage of
conformity to
wrong answers
Conformity highest
on important
Easy judgments
 Participants
person in
Slide 2 was
the same as
the person
in Slide 1
• Conformity
• Social Roles
• Attitudes
Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment
(Zimbardo, 1970)
What was this experiment about?
Watch the Video of the experiment
For more info go to
• Informed consent?
• Physical/ Psychological harm ?
Social Influence
 Deindividuation
 loss of self-awareness and selfrestraint in group situations that
foster arousal and anonymity
Social Influence
 Some individual resist social coercion
Social Thinking
 Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 we act to reduce the discomfort
(dissonance) we feel when two of our
thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
 example- when we become aware that our
attitudes and our actions clash, we can
reduce the resulting dissonance by
changing our attitudes
Social Thinking
 Cognitive dissonance
Social Influence
 Group Polarization
 enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes
through discussion within the group
 Groupthink
 mode of thinking that occurs when the desire
for harmony in a decision-making group
overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives
Social Influence
 If a group is likeminded,
strengthens its
Social Relations
 Ingroup
 “Us”- people with whom one shares a
common identity
 Outgroup
 “Them”- those perceived as different or
apart from one’s ingroup
Social Relations
 Ingroup Bias
 tendency to favor one’s own group
 Scapegoat Theory
 theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger
by providing someone to blame
 Just-World Phenomenon
 tendency of people to believe the world is just
 people get what they deserve and deserve what
they get
Social Thinking
 Attribution Theory
 tendency to give a causal explanation for
someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the
situation or the person’s disposition
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
• Pygmallion Principle
• Blue Eyed/ Brown Eyed Experiment
Social Thinking
 Fundamental Attribution Error
 tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s
behavior, to underestimate the impact of the
situation and to overestimate the impact of
personal disposition
 Attitude
 belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond
in a particular way to objects, people and events
Social Thinking
 How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we
react to it
Situational attribution
“Maybe that driver is ill.”
Tolerant reaction
(proceed cautiously, allow
driver a wide berth)
Dispositional attribution
“Crazy driver!”
Unfavorable reaction
(speed up and race past the
other driver, give a dirty look)
Negative behavior
Social Thinking
 Our behavior is affected by our inner attitudes as
well as by external social influences
Social Relations
 Prejudice
 an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude
toward a group and its members
 involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and
a predisposition to discriminatory action
 Stereotype
 a generalized (sometimes accurate, but often
overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Social Relations
 Americans today express much less racial and
gender prejudice
Social Relations
 Vivid cases (9/11 terrorists) feed stereotypes
Social Relations
 Aggression
 any physical or verbal behavior intended to
hurt or destroy
 Frustration-Aggression Principle
 principle that frustration – the blocking of
an attempt to achieve some goal – creates
anger, which can generate aggression
Social Relations
Social Relations
 Men who
Social Thinking
 Attitudes
 Cooperative
actions feed
mutual liking
Some interesting experiments…
• Violinist in the Metro Station
• Do you take the time to stop and
appreciate the beauty around you?
According to an experiment conducted in
2007, chances are you don’t. World famous
violinist Josh Bell posed as a street musician
in a Washington D.C. metro station to see
how many people would stop and listen.
Despite the fact that he was playing a $3.5
million handcrafted violin and had just sold
out a concert in Boston where ticket prices
averaged $100 each, very few people
stopped to appreciate his beautiful
performance. He made a measly $32 that
This started out as an ad…
Check out this social psychology experiment….
Halo Effect
• the idea that our overall impression of a person can be based
on one trait about them.
• For example, if someone has a likeable personality, people
might find that person’s other qualities more appealing.
• In a recent experiment, a man made two videos for a dating
website. In the first video, he read the script in an upbeat
manner, whereas in the second, he read the same script in a
more melancholy fashion. The first video was given to a one
group of girls and the second was given to another group, who
watched the video in a separate room.
• The girls who watched the upbeat video found the man to be
likeable, while the girls who watched the second video found
the man to be unpleasant, even though he had read the exact
same script.
• Thus demonstrating the importance of tone in the perception
of overall attractiveness and modeling the Halo Effect in action.
Missing Child Experiment
• People often fail to notice their
surroundings, an idea that was put to
the test during a missing child
experiment. A flier with information
and a picture about a “missing child”
was posted on the doors of a busy
store. Some people stopped to study
the flier while others merely glanced at
it or didn’t look at all. What all of these
people had in common that they were
completely oblivious of the fact that
the boy on the flier was standing right
in front of the store. This experiment
demonstrates that humans tend to
overlook a lot of the things around
Social Thinking
 Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
 tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request
to comply later with a larger request
 Role
 set of expectations about a social position
 defines how those in the position ought to behave
 Social Facilitation
 improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
 occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that
are difficult or not yet mastered (ex. Homefield advantage)
 Normative Social Influence
 influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or
avoid disapproval
Social Facilitation
Social Relations
 Conflict
 perceived incompatibility of actions, goals,
or ideas
 Social Trap
 a situation in which the conflicting parties,
by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest, become caught in mutually
destructive behavior
Social Relations
Person 1
Person 2
Choose B
Choose A
Choose A
Choose B
 Social trap
 by pursuing our
self-interest and
not trusting
others, we can
end up losers
Social Relations- Attractiveness
 Mere Exposure Effect
 repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
 Conceptions of attractiveness vary by culture
Love and Committment
 Passionate Love
 an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
 usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
 Companionate Love
 deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom
our lives are intertwined
Social Relations
 Equity
 a condition in which people receive
from a relationship in proportion to
what they give to it
 Self-Disclosure
 revealing intimate aspects of oneself to
 Altruism
 unselfish regard for the welfare of
Social Relations
 Bystander Effect
 tendency for any
given bystander
to be less likely to
give aid if other
bystanders are
Social Relations
 The decision-making process for bystander
Social Relations
 Social Exchange Theory
 the theory that our social behavior is an
exchange process, the aim of which is to
maximize benefits and minimize costs
 Superordinate Goals
 shared goals that override differences
among people and require their
Social Relations
 Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in
Tension-reduction (GRIT)
 a strategy designed to decrease international
 one side announces recognition of mutual
interests and initiates a small conciliatory act
 opens door for reciprocation by other party