Areas impacted by ADA: Employment, Public Transportation

Americans with Disabilities Act
ISD 651
Assignment #6
Pat Lombard
Barbara Kimble
Melissa Jones
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is the
civil rights guarantee for persons with disabilities in the
United States. It provides protection from discrimination
for individuals on the basis of disabilities. The ADA
extends civil rights protection for people in public and
private sectors, transportation, public accommodations,
services provided by state and local government, and
telecommunication relay services.
Father of ADA
Justin Dart, Jr., was born on August 29, 1930, into a wealthy
and prominent family. His grandfather was the founder of the Walgreen
Drugstore chain, his father a successful business executive, his mother a
matron of the American avant garde.
Dart contracted polio in 1948. Polio left Dart a wheelchair user, but he
never grieved about this. The final turning point in Dart's life came during a
visit to Vietnam in 1966, to investigate the status of rehabilitation in that
war-torn country. Visiting a
"rehabilitation center" for children with polio, Dart instead found squalid
conditions where disabled children were left on concrete floors to
starve. One child, a young
girl dying there before him, took his hand and looked into his eyes. "That
scene," he would later write, "is burned forever in my soul. For the first
time in my life I
understood the reality of evil, and that I was a part of that reality."
The recipient of five presidential appointments and numerous honors,
including the Hubert Humphrey Award of the Leadership Conference on
Civil Rights, Dart was on the podium on the White House lawn when
President George H. Bush signed the ADA into law in July 1990.
How does this impact higher education:
The ADA upholds and extends the standards for compliance set forth in
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to employment practices,
communications, and all policies, procedures and practices that impact on
the treatment of students with disabilities. Employment issues for all
institutions are covered under Title II; private institutions are covered
under Title III.
Areas impacted by ADA:
Employment, Public
Transportation, Telephone
Relay Service, Education,
Labor, Housing, and Parks
and Recreation
Under Title VII, the ADA, and the ADEA, it is illegal to discriminate in
any aspect of employment, including:
hiring and firing;
compensation, assignment, or classification of employees;
transfer, promotion, layoff, or recall;
job advertisements;
use of company facilities;
training and apprenticeship programs;
fringe benefits;
pay, retirement plans, and disability leave; or
other terms and conditions of employment.
Public Transportation
In 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law.
ADA decrees that any entity -- be it a building, a restaurant, an office, a
sidewalk, a restroom, a bus, you name it -- that is open to the public must
be accessible to people with disabilities. ADA also says that people with
disabilities are entitled to equal employment opportunities.
Needless to say, ADA has made quite an impact on the transportation
industry: the act's various titles prescribe an extremely comprehensive
program that affects every aspect of transportation. And that makes sense:
ADA is all about accessibility, mobility, getting from one place to the
other easily, conveniently, reliably.
What is somewhat less obvious is the extent to which the Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA) is involved in ADA oversight and
implementation -- in terms of both public accommodation and
Telephone Relay Service
The term "telecommunications relay services" means
telephone transmission services that provide the ability for an
individual who has a hearing impairment or speech
impairment to engage in communication by wire or radio with
a hearing individual in a manner that is functionally
equivalent to the ability of an individual who does not have a
hearing impairment or speech impairment to communicate
using voice communication services by wire or radio. Such
term includes services that enable two-way communication
between an individual who uses a TDD or other non-voice
terminal device and an individual who does not use such a
Individuals with Disabilities Education ActThe 1997 amendments specifically require that, as a condition of State eligibility
for funding under Part B of IDEA, children with disabilities are included in
general State and district-wide assessment programs. The amendments also
address timelines and reporting requirements.
The final regulations essentially incorporate these statutory provisions on
general State and district-wide assessments verbatim. These provisions
require that States and LEAs must:
Provide for the participation of children with disabilities in general State
and district-wide assessments –with appropriate accommodations and
modifications in administration, if necessary;
Provide for the conduct of alternate assessments not later than July 1, 2000
for children who cannot participate in the general assessment programs; and
Make available, and report, to the public on the assessment results of disabled
children, with the same frequency and in the same detail as reported on the
assessment results of non-disabled children.
The Civil Rights Center, enforces various Federal
statutes and regulations that (1) prohibit
discrimination in DOL financially assisted and
conducted programs and activities; (2) prohibit
discrimination on the basis of disability by certain
public entities and in DOL conducted activities; and,
(3) prohibit discrimination within DOL itself.
If you or someone associated with you:
Have a physical or mental disability (including hearing, mobility and
visual impairments, chronic alcoholism, chronic mental illness, AIDS,
AIDS Related Complex and mental retardation) that substantially limits
one or more major life activities
Have a record of such a disability or
Are regarded as having such a disability
your landlord may not:
Refuse to let you make reasonable modifications to your dwelling or
common use areas, at your expense, if necessary for the disabled person to
use the housing. (Where reasonable, the landlord may permit changes only
if you agree to restore the property to its original condition when you
Refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices or
services if necessary for the disabled person to use the housing.
No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, national origin,
age or disability be subjected to unlawful discrimination under any program or
activity conducted by or which receives Federal financial assistance from the
Department of the Interior. Discrimination includes: denial of services, aids, or
benefits; provision of different service or in a different manner; and segregation or
separate treatment. In addition, sex discrimination is prohibited in Federally
assisted educational programs.
ACCESSIBILITY:DOI is developing access to America's public lands and
resources and is working to assure these opportunities are provided to all
ACCOMMODATIONS: DOI provides equal employment opportunity for
individuals with disabilities who are Federal employees or applicants for Federal
Jean; Bruya, Lawrence., Parks & Recreation, May2002, Vol. 37 Issue 5, p66, 5p
Reference Books Bulletin: ADA Requirements and Provisions.; By: Flynn, Barbara;
Walsh, Jim., Booklist, 3/15/95, Vol. 91 Issue 14, p1345, 1/2p
Poverty status of persons with `severe visual limitations'.; Journal of Visual
Impairment & Blindness, Mar/Apr95 Part 2 of 2, Vol. 89 Issue 2, p4, 2p
One in five Americans is defined as disabled.; By: Baker, Denise., Nation's Cities
Weekly, 3/7/94, Vol. 17 Issue 10, p20, 2/5p
Management news.; Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Jul/Aug94, Vol. 88
Issue 4, p12, 3p; Reports on developments concerning the organizations dealing
with the visually impaired. Includes establishment of the Veterans Affairs' National
Partnership Council'; Americans with Disabilities Act's guideline in a video seminar
form for business establishments' compliance of ADA's regulations; Availability of an
electronic discussion group for nonprofit officials who has access to Internet. (item
Helping employers comply with the ADA : an assessment of how the
United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is enforcing title
I of the Ame
Helping state and local governments comply with the ADA : an
assessment of how the United States Department of Justice is enforcing
title II, subpart
Access travel, airports : a guide to accessibility of terminals.
Americans with Disabilities Act : what managers & supervisors need to know about
the ADA /
ADA overview on video.; Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Oct93, Vol. 87
Issue 8, p314, 1/9p; Introduces the videotape `The Americans with Disabilities Act
Video,' from the Disability Book Catalog. Contents; Contact information. (item
Web Page Design Guidelines
Joe’l Lewis
Dawn Wright
Jody Scanlan
Katherine Jackson
Web Page Design Guidelines
Design Components
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): promotes accessibility
of websites.
Web Accessibly Initiative (WAI): Web accessibility issues
addressed in the following areas: technology, guidelines, tools,
education and outreach, and research and development.
Bobby:created to help web page authors identify and
repair barriers to access by individuals with disabilities.
EASI (Equal Access to Software and Information): provides
consulting to colleges, universities and public libraries on how to
make their computer and information systems accessible to
students, faculty and staff with disabilities.
National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research:
provides materials on principles of accessible design, along with
some specific guidelines.
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST): an educational,
not-for-profit organization that uses technology to expand
opportunities for all people, especially those with disabilities.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL): strives to make the
curriculum adjustable for students with varied abilities and
learning styles rather than forcing students to work with a set
curriculum with inflexible materials.
APrompt Organization: provides comprehensive support for
the WAI guidelines and steps you through repairing the
problems it finds (especially for developers of small sites or
beginners with accessibility.)
Aware Center Organization (Accessible Web Authoring
Resources and Education): resource for web authors for
learning about web accessibility.
Accessibility: Web Design Guidelines
U.S. Architectural and Transportation
Barriers Compliance Board Standards
W3C guidelines
Guidelines in plain english
W3C Guidelines (slide 1)
Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and
visual content.
Don't rely on color alone.
Use markup and style sheets and do so
Clarify natural language usage
Create tables that transform gracefully
Ensure that pages featuring new technologies
transform gracefully
Ensure user control of time-sensitive content
W3C Guidelines (slide 2)
Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user
Design for device-independence.
Use interim solutions.
Use W3C technologies and guidelines.
Provide context and orientation information.
Provide clear navigation mechanisms.
Ensure that documents are clear and simple.
Guidelines in plain English
General Page Design Guidelines (alt
General Graphical Concerns
Special Features
Test Web Pages
General Design
Maintain a simple, consistent page layout
throughout your site.
Keep backgrounds simple. Make sure there is
enough contrast.
Use standard HTML.
Design large buttons.
Caption video and transcribe other audio.
Make links descriptive so that they are understood
out of context.
Include a note about accessibility encouraging
feedback about accessibility problems.
Include appropriate ALT/LONGDESC
Include menu alternatives for image maps to
ensure that the embedded links are
Include descriptive captions for pictures and
transcriptions of manuscript images.
Use a NULL value for unimportant graphics.
Provide audio description and captions or
transcripts of video.
Consider other options for making graphical
features accessible, e.g. alternative text.
Special Features
Use tables and frames sparingly and
consider alternatives.
Provide alternatives for forms and
Provide alternatives for content in
applets and plug-ins.
Test Web Pages
Various browsers
Web Page Design Components
“You should build a site that
transforms effectively regardless
of when, where, and how its
viewed.” @ CNET
Use H1 – H6 tags to structure headings
(not text size) – may be used to build a
Table of Contents by a user agent
Don’t use block quote or list containers
for visual appearance – text-to-voice
software may interpret as a block quote
even if the designer was only trying to
indent a paragraph
Provide a text-only alternative to
audio or video
Tags such as <STRONG> and
<EM> may indicate the same visual
change as <B>, but may indicate
an audible change, such as
inflection or tone.
Text Links
Add text, as well as image, links
Avoid “click here” as those using textto-voice browsers cannot determine
Color can cause problems for the colorblind, black and white monitors, or nonvisual displays
Make content available with & without
Automatic refresh may cause difficulty
for some: page may take a while to
load, or may load too fast for some to
Popup windows may be disruptive
Headers for each column and row
Use the Summary attribute:
SUMMARY= "This table shows the number of
hits registered on the site sorted by
Provide alternative content if you're
creating pages with certain
When you use SCRIPT, provide NOSCRIPT
When using FRAMES, provide NOFRAMES
When using EMBED, provide NOEMBED
When using APPLETS, use ALT text.
When using FRAMESET, make sure to use
Other elements
Addition of ALT-text (text alternatives for
all graphics, including decorative
graphics, graphical representations of
text, bullets, and symbols)
Titles for each frame
What is Bobby?
Comprehensive Web Accessibility
Software Tool
Released in 1996 Based on Trace
Research and Development Center
Now based on World Wide Web
Consortium’s (W3C) Web Accessibility
Bobby Uses
Identify barriers to accessibility
Encourage compliance with existing
Evaluate web pages and websites
Support developers
Bobby report consists of three
Priority 1 Accessibility
Priority 2 Accessibility
Priority 3 Accessibility
Section 508 Accessibility Analysis
Priority 1 Accessibility
Serious problems with usability
Conformance = Level A for Web
Content Guidelines
Priority 1 Example
Priority 2 Accessibility
Not as serious but areas should try to
be revised
Conformance = Level AA for Web
Content Guidelines
Priority 2 Example
Priority 3 Accessibility
Problems that should be considered
Conformance with Priority 1 & 2 and
User Checks = Level AAA for Web
Content Guidelines
Priority 3 Example
Section 508 Accessibility
Problems receive equal priority
All areas must meet standards to
receive this rating
Bobby Approved 508
Bobby Approved Website
Bobby Approved Website
Commuting and the ADA; By: Miklave, Matthew T.; Trafimow, A.
Jonathan., Workforce, Apr2002, Vol. 81 Issue 4, p72, 4p;
Website for Visually Disabled People : Does title III of the ADA
Apply to Internet Websites?;By: Schloss, Adam M.., Columbia
Journal of Law & Social Problems, Fall2001, Vol. 35 Issue 1,
p35, 25p;
Web Design and Accessibility through a Trainer’s Eyes;, Library
Technology Reports, Jul/Aug2001, Vol. 37 Issue 4, p45, 12p;
Bobby Approves Web Accessibility for Print Disabled; By: Clyde,
Anne., Teacher Librarian, Apr2001, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p52, 2p;
Curb Cuts on the Information Highway: Making the Web
Accessible; By: McDermott, Irene E.., Searcher, Mar2001, Vol. 9
Issue 3, p65, 5p, 3c;
Making Websites Work for People with Disability; By: Foster,
Andrea L.., Chronicle of Higher Education, 2/2/2001, Vol. 47
Issue 21, pA30, 3p, 3c;
U. S. to Issue Rules Giving the Disable Access to Most
Government Websites; By: Simpson, Glenn R.., Wall Street
Journal - Eastern Edition, 12/21/2000, Vol. 236 Issue 121, pB11,
Assuring the Provision of Accessible Digital Resources; By:
Sloan, David; Rowan, Murray; Booth, Paul; Gregor, Peter.,
Journal of Educational Media, Oct2000, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p203,
Locking Out the Disabled; By: Heim, Judy., PC World, Sep2000,
Vol. 18 Issue 9, p181, 5p, 5c;
The ADA Stalks the Internet: Is your web page illegal?: By:
Frezza, Bill., InternetWeek, 02/28/2000 Issue 802, p33, 1/2p;
Web References
Center for Applied Special Technology
Equal Access to Software and Information
Archimedes Project
Aware Center Organization
Web References @ CNET
APrompt software
World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C)
Web Accessibly Initiative WAI
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
Assistive / Adaptive
Darryl Hollins
Linda Spain
Chotika Kalyanamitre
Jane Wimberg
What is adaptive/assistive
technologies designed to help
individuals with disabilities overcome
barriers encountered when using
computer technology
enabling hardware/software
components that reduce/remove
barriers to specific disabilities
Common Types of Disabilities
Verbal Communication
Blind and Visually Impaired
Cognitive Disabilities
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Verbal Communication
Augmentative Alternative
Communication devices
For clients with autism, laryngectomies, Cerebral Palsy,
head injury, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)
LightWRITERsTM by ZYGO Industries, Inc.
Are portable text-to-speech communication aids.
Unique in having dual displays, one facing the user so
he or she can see what is being typed, and a second
outfacing display to allow communication in a natural
face-to-face position.
Verbal Communication
DynaVox, lightweight
portable device, allows
for more vocabulary
A miniature DynaVox, the 3pound DynaMyte is the only
easy-to-carry device with
powerful communication
Visually Impaired
A Screen Reader software application reads aloud
information displayed on a computer monitor screen.
The screen reader reads aloud text within a document,
and it also reads aloud information within dialog boxes
and error messages. Screen Readers also read aloud
and menu selections, graphical icons on the desktop.
Recent upgrades are much better reading aloud
information on the World Wide Web.
Screen Magnification software enlarges the viewing area
of a computer monitor display. Magnification levels are
measured in power levels. Such has 2x (2 power), and
can go as high a level as 16x magnification.
Cognitive Disabilities
Specialized user interface designed for
people with visual, cognitive, and motor
Uses graphics and sounds to remind users
when to start and stop tasks.
Cognitive Device
by Attention Control Systems, Inc.
(Planning and Execution Assistant and Training
System) is a program designed to provide cueing
and planning assistance for people with memory and
attention disorders. Typical users include patients
with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neurodegenerative
conditions including Alzheimer's disease, and
attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
PEAT's patented planning software was developed by
a NASA computer scientist who develops automatic
planning software for robotic spacecraft.
The planning software is also based on
neuropsychological models of frontal lobe and
executive brain functions.
Deaf and Hard of Hearing
NexTalk-VMTM software for voice modems (for
A personal communications software that allows you to
use compatible voice modems to make and receive TTY
• Simple Dialing and Answering
• Built-in Text Answering Machine
• Custom Phone Books
• Regular direct-dialed TTY and modem calls.
• User defined phone book entries for calls through relay
Additional Technology
Mouse Alternatives
Keyboard Alternatives
Switch Access
Text - To - Speech
Speech Recognition
Web Resources
Adaptive Technology Resource Center
Trace Research and Development Center
World Institute on Disability
Collaborative Center for Assistive Technology
and Training
Web Resources
Innovative Products, Inc
Mainstream Magazine
Ability Hub: Assistive Technology
Special Needs. [SITE 2001 Section].
Braswell, Ray, Ed.
March 1, 2001 (ED457840)
Milone, Michael. " Special Teachers for Special
Needs. " Technology & Learning, Apr 01, 2000,
Vol. 20, Issue 9, p 40.
Making Freehand.; By: Sheryl E. Davis; M.J.
Mulcahey; Randal R. Betz., Technology & Disability,
1999, Vol. 11 Issue 1/2, p29, 6p
Online Resources for Adaptive Information
Technologies. Balas, Janet L
Computers in Libraries, v19 n6 p38-40 Jun 1999
Shaping the Future for Students with Special Needs:
A Review of Special Education in Alberta. Final
November 1, 2000 (ED451627)
Levelling the Playing Field: The Role of Libraries in
Providing Online Services for People with Disabilities.
Williamson, Kirsty; Wright, Steve; Schauder, Don;
Jenkins, Louise; Stillman, Larry
October 1, 2000 (ED452881)
The Internet and the Independence of Individuals
with Disabilities.
Grimaldi, Caroline; Goette, Tanya
Internet Research, v9 n4 p272-80 1999
Computer and Information Technologies: Student and
Service Provider Perspectives.
Fichten, Catherine S.; Barile, Maria; Asuncion,
Jennison; Judd, Darlene; Alapin, Iris; Lavers, Jason;
Havel, Alice; Wolforth, Joan
July 1, 1998 (ED433626)
Development and Evaluation of the Expertise Module
of a System for Training Teachers in Adapting
Alternative Communication to Disabled Children.
Mioduser, David; Waldman, Shoshi; Neventzal,
Innovations in Education and Training International,
v35 n1 p36-48 Feb 1998
Adaptive Computing Technology and the Disabled.
Harrell, William L.
On-Call, v12 n3 p35-41 1998
Assistive and Adaptive Technology--Supporting
Competence and Independence in Young Children
with Disabilities.
Brett, Arlene
Dimensions of Early Childhood, v25 n3 p14-15,18-20
Sum 1997
College Students with Disabilities and Assistive
Technology: A Desk Reference Guide.
Thompson, Anne R.; And Others
April 30, 1997 (ED407810)