Health Informatics PHTR 498 Spring 2014 Lecture #3 Introduction to Information Technology Amar Hijazi, Majed Alameel, Mona Almohaid What is a computer? • A machine that can be programmed • A machine that accepts input, processes that input, and produces output What is a network? • Two or more computers connected together using communications equipment. The computers can be geographically located anywhere All together “online” which means using a computer to access information from another computer through the use of a network. • The Internet • E-mail • Applications • Social Media • E-business • EHR • E-government • E-learning Type of Computers 1. Supercomputers 2. Mainframes 3. Workstations 4. Microcomputers 5. Embedded Computers Supercomputers • Extremely Fast computer • Up to 350 million dollars • Consists of thousands of processors and can carry out several trillion calculations per second. • Used for scientific and engineering problems – – – – computer simulations tracking hurricanes biological contamination understanding ocean currents. JAPAN'S K SUPERCOMPUTER As of 2013 • 80K 2.0 GHz 8-core SPARC64 VIIIfx processors • Contained in 864 cabinets • Consumes 10 MW of power – the equivalent of almost 10,000 suburban homes • A performance of 8.162 petaflops = one million linked desktop computers • Annual running costs are estimated at US$10 million http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K_computer Mainframes • Up to 5 million dollars • Used by corporate and large organizations such as banks, airlines, insurance companies, colleges. • Processes billions of instructions per second. • Used for transaction processing • Very high stabile and reliabile Workstations • Usually used for complex scientific, mathematical, and engineering calculations and for computer-aided design • Example: designing airplanes, special effects in movies Microcomputer • Personal Computer (PC) – Desktop PC – Laptop / Notebook • Mac – Apple Mac • SmartPhones Embedded Computers • Small • Specialized • Exist in: – Home Appliances – Cars – ATM Clients and Servers • Server: A central computer that holds collections of data & running programs to serve the request of clients • Clients: PCs, workstations, & other devices typically connect to a server thru a network • Server + Clients linked together to form a clientserver architecture How Computers Work The purpose of a computer is to process data into information. • Data (Input) • Information (Output) Data Raw facts such as an employee’s name and number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers or sales orders. Information A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. Information Data $35,000 1 Units $12,000 ALI Western Region $100,000 5 Units 7 Units Data Processing Salesperson: ALI Sales Territory: Western Region Current Sales: 147K Units = 13 Main components of Computers • Hardware – The hardware components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts. • Software – The software components of a computer system are the data and the computer programs. Basic operations that a computer can perform Input devices Output devices Processing – Computer box has: • The processor chip (CPU – Central Processing Unit) • Memory chips (RAM – Random Access Memory) • Motherboard with power supply • Video card • Etc. ….. CPU speed CPU speed is measured in gigahertz equal to 109 hertz. Symbol: GHz Storage devices Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Storage devices Solid-State Drive (SSD) Any differences? SSD Vs HDD Comparison Attribute SSD (Solid State Drive) HDD (Hard Disk Drive) Power Draw / Battery Life Less power draw, averages 2 – 3 watts, resulting in 30+ minute battery boost More power draw, averages 6 – 7 watts and therefore uses more battery Cost Expensive, $1.00 per gigabyte (based on buying a 240GB drive) Only around $0.075 per gigabyte, very cheap (buying a 4TB model) Capacity Typically not larger than 512GB for notebook size drives Typically 500GB – 2TB for notebook size drives Operating System Boot Time Around 22 seconds average bootup time Around 40 seconds average bootup time Noise There are no moving parts and as such no sound Audible clicks and spinning can be heard Vibration No vibration as there are no moving parts The spinning of the platters can sometimes result in vibration Storage capacity is measured in: • 1 byte - 1 character is represented using 1 byte. • 1 kilobyte - 1,024 characters. 210 • 1 megabyte - 1,048,576 characters. 220 • 1 gigabyte – 1,073,741,824 characters. 230 • 1 terabyte - more than 1 trillion characters. 240 Software • System software – is computer software designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software • Application Software – is computer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks beyond the running of the computer itself System software • • • • Microsoft Windows Linux Mac OS Unix Application software • Microsoft Office • Adobe Acrobat • Adobe Photoshop Computer Network • A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other LAN, MAN, and WAN • Local Area Network (LAN) is Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building or a Campus) • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is Network in a City • Wide Area Network (WAN) is Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) Components of Network • • • • A minimum of at least 2 computers A network interface card (NIC) on each computer Cables that connect the computers to each other A Switch used to connect various network devices together, like computers, to allow communication between those devices. • Network operating system Network Interface Card (NIC) • is also known as a network card. • It connects the computer to the network cabling • Each computer on a network must have a network card. • Most modern network cards are 10/100/1000 NICs and can operate at either 10Mbps, 100Mbps, or 1Gbps Switches • Switches is ‘boxes’ to which computers, printers, and other networking devices are connected to. Wireless Networks • Refers to two or more computers communicating without the use of cabling to connect the devices together • The computers use wireless radio signals to send information from one to the other Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) • Consists of two major components: – Wireless Access Point (AP) – Wireless Network Card (wNIC) WLAN Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages – Allows mobility and availability – Increases productivity – No need for any more wires or cables • Disadvantages – Less than cable’s bandwidth – Less efficient and reliable – Security Cloud Computing What is it? • provide a variety of computing resources , from servers and storage to enterprise applications such as email, security, backup, voice (VOIP), all delivered over the Internet Cloud Flavors? • • • • SaaS – Software as a Service IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service PaaS – Platform as a Service DaaS – Desktop as a Service What is Software as a Service? (SaaS) • SaaS is a software delivery methodology that provides licensed multi-tenant access to software and its functions remotely as a Web-based service. – Usually billed based on usage – Usually multi tenant environment – Highly scalable architecture • Multi-tenancy is an architecture in which a single instance of a software application serves multiple customers Virtualization What is virtualization? • Virtualization allows one computer to do the job of multiple computers. • Virtual environments let one computer host multiple operating systems at the same time How it works?