USC Viterbi School of Engineering

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Resource Management
Ewa Deelman
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Outline
• General resource management framework
• Managing a set of resources
– Locally
– Across the network
• Managing distributed resources
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Types of resources
Myrinet, infiniband
headnode
Local system
Loose set of resources
LAN
O(100GB-1TB)
ethernet
cluster
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local
Resource
Remote
Submission
Workload
Management
Workflow
Management
network
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local Scheduler
“Super”
Scheduler
Remote
Connectivity
Resource managers/schedulers
Remote
Resource
Basic Resource Management Functionality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Accept requests
Start jobs on the resource
Log information about jobs
Reply to queries about request status
Prioritize among requests
Provide fault tolerance
Provide resource reservation
Management of dependent jobs
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Schedulers/Resource Managers
• Local system
– OS, scheduling across multiple cores
• Clusters
– Basic Scheduler
• PBS, LSF, torque, Condor
– “Super” Scheduler
• Maui
• Loose set of resources
– Condor
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Schedulers/Resource Managers
• Remote Connectivity
– Globus GRAM
• Remote Submission to possibly many sites
– Condor-G
• Workload management
– Condor
• Workflow management
– DAGMan
– Pegasus
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local Scheduler
“Super”
Scheduler
network
Remote
Connectivity
Remote
Submission
Workload
Management
Local
Resource
Workflow
Management
Resource managers/schedulers
Remote
Resource
headnode
PBS
O(100GB-1TB)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
cluster
Cluster Scheduling--PBS
– Aggregates all the computing resources (cluster nodes)
into a single entity
– Schedules and distributes applications
• On a single node, across multiple nodes
– Supports various types of authentication
• User name based
• X509 certificates
– Supports various types of authorization
• User, group, system
– Provides job monitoring
• Collects real time data on the state of the system and job status
• Logs real time data and other info on queued jobs, configuration
information, etc
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Cluster Scheduling PBS
•
•
•
•
Performs data stage-in and out onto the nodes
Starts the computation on a node
Uses backfilling for job scheduling
Supports simple dependencies
–
–
–
–
–
Run Y after X
If X succeeds run Y otherwise run Z
Run Y after X regardless of X success
Run Y after specified time
Run X anytime after specified time
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Cluster Scheduling--PBS
• Advanced features
– Resource reservation
• Specified time (start_t) and duration (delta)
• Checks whether reservation conflicts with running jobs, and
other confirmed reservation
• If OK—sets up a queue for the reservation with a user-level acl
• Queue started at start_t
• Jobs killed past the reservation time
– Cycle harvesting
• Can include idle resources into the mix
– Peer scheduling
• To other PBS systems
• Pull-based
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Cluster Scheduling--PBS
• Allocation properties
– Administrator can revoke any allocation (running or
queued)
– Jobs can be preempted
• Suspended
• Checkpointed
• Requeued
– Jobs can be restarted X times
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Single Queue Backfilling
• A job is allowed to jump in the queue ahead of jobs
that are delayed due to lack of resources
• Non-preemptive
• Conservative backfilling
– A job is allowed to jump ahead provided it does not
delay any previous job in the queue
• Aggressive backfilling
– A job is allowed to jump ahead if the first job is not
affected
– Better performing then conservative backfilling
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling
• Job (arrival time, number of procs, expected
runtime)
• Any job that executes longer than expected
runtime is killed
• Define pivot—first job in the queue
• If enough resources for pivot, execute pivot and
define a new pivot
• Otherwise sort all currently executing jobs in order
of their expected completion time
– Determine pivot time—when sufficient resources for
pivot are available
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling
• At pivot time, any idle processors not required for
pivot job are defined as extra processors
• The scheduler searches for the first queued job
that
– Requires no more than the currently idle processors and
will finish by the pivot time, or
– Requires no more than the minimum currently idle
processors and the extra processors
• Once a job becomes a pivot, it cannot be delayed
• Possible that a job will end sooner and pivot starts
before pivot time
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling example
10
Job A
(10 procs,40mins)
processors
8
time
Queue
Job B (12 procs, 1 hour)
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job D (2 procs, 50 mins)
Job E (6 procs, 1 hour)
Job F (4 procs, 2 hours)
Running
Job A(10 procs, 40 mins)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling example
10
Job A
(10 procs,40mins)
PIVOT
Job B
processors
8
JOB D
time
queue
Job B (12 procs, 1 hour)
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job E (6 procs, 1 hour)
Job F (4 procs, 2 hours)
Running
Job A(10 procs, 40 mins)
Job D (2 procs, 50 mins)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling example
10
8
Job A
(10 procs,40mins)
PIVOT
Job B
processors
Job F
Job D
time
Queue
Job B (12 procs, 1 hour)
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job E (6 procs, 1 hour)
Running
Job A(10 procs, 40 mins)
Job D (2 procs, 50 mins)
Job F (4 procs, 2 hours)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling example
10
8
Job A
(10 procs,40mins)
Job B
processors
Job F
Job D
time
Queue
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job E (6 procs, 1 hour)
Running
Job D (2 procs, 50 mins)
Job F (4 procs, 2 hours)
Job B (12 procs, 1 hour)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Aggressive backfilling example
10
8
Job A
(10 procs,40mins)
processors
Job B
Pivot
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job F
Job D
time
Queue
Job C (20 procs, 2 hours)
Job E (6 procs, 1 hour)
Running
Job D (2 procs, 50 mins)
Job F (4 procs, 2 hours)
Job B (12 procs, 1 hour)
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Multiple-Queue Backfill
From “Self-adapting Backfilling Scheduling for Parallel Systems”, B.G.Lawson et al.
Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing (ICPP'02), 2002
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local
Resource
Remote
Submission
Workload
Management
Workflow
Management
network
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Maui
Local Scheduler
“Super”
Scheduler
Remote
Connectivity
Resource managers/schedulers
Remote
Resource
“Super”/External Scheduler--Maui
• External scheduler
– Does not mandate a specific resource manager
– Fully controls the workload submitted through the local
management system
– Enhances resource manager capabilities
– Supports advance reservations
• <start-time, duration, acl>
• Irrevocable allocations
– For time critical tasks such as weather modeling
– The reservation is guaranteed to start at a given time and last for a
given duration regardless of future workload
• Revocable allocations
– The reservation would be released if it precludes a higher priority
request from being granted
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Maui
• Retry “X” times mechanism for finding resources
and starting a job
– If job does not start—can be put on hold
• Can be configured preemptive/nonpreemptive
• Exclusive allocations
– No sharing of resources
• Malleable allocations
– Changes can be made in time and space
• Increases if possible
• Decreases always
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Maui
• Resource Querying
– Request (account mapping, minimum duration,
processors)
– Maui returns a list of tuples
• <feasible start_time, total available resources, duration,
resource cost, quality of the information>
– Can also return a single value which incorporate
• Anticipated, non-submitted jobs
• Workload profiles
• Provides event notifications
– Solitary and threshold events
– Job/reservation: creation, start, preemption, completion,
various failures
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Maui
• Courtesy allocation
– Placeholder which is released if confirmation is not
received within a time limit
• Depending on the underlying scheduler Maui can
– Suspend/resume
– Checkpoint/restart
– Requeue/restart
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Globus GRAM
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local Scheduler
“Super”
Scheduler
network
Remote
Connectivity
Remote
Submission
Workload
Management
Local
Resource
Workflow
Management
Resource managers/schedulers
Remote
Resource
GRAM - Basic Job
Submission and Control Service
• A uniform service interface for remote
job submission and control
–
–
–
–
–
Includes file staging and I/O management
Includes reliability features
Supports basic Grid security mechanisms
Asynchronous monitoring
Interfaces with local resource managers,
simplifies the job of metaschedulers/brokers
• GRAM is not a scheduler.
– No scheduling
– No metascheduling/brokering
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Grid Job Management Goals
Provide a service to securely:
• Create an environment for a job
• Stage files to/from environment
• Cause execution of job process(es)
– Via various local resource managers
• Monitor execution
• Signal important state changes to client
• Enable client access to output files
– Streaming access during execution
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Job Submission Model
• Create and manage one job on a resource
• Submit and wait
• Not with an interactive TTY
– File based stdin/out/err
– Supported by all batch schedulers
• More complex than RPC
– Optional steps before and after submission message
– Job has complex lifecycle
• Staging, execution, and cleanup states
• But not as general as Condor DAG, etc.
– Asynchronous monitoring
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Job Submission Options
• Optional file staging
– Transfer files “in” before job execution
– Transfer files “out” after job execution
• Optional file streaming
– Monitors files during job execution
• Optional credential delegation
– Create, refresh, and terminate delegations
– For use by job process
– For use by GRAM to do optional file staging
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Job Submission Monitoring
• Monitor job lifecycle
– GRAM and scheduler states for job
• StageIn, Pending, Active, Suspended, StageOut, Cleanup,
Done, Failed
– Job execution status
• Return codes
• Multiple monitoring methods
– Simple query for current state
– Asynchronous notifications to client
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Secure Submission Model
• Secure submit protocol
– PKI authentication
– Authorization and mapping
• Based on Grid ID
– Further authorization by scheduler
• Based on local user ID
• Secure control/cancel
– Also PKI authenticated
– Owner has rights to his jobs and not others’
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Secure Execution Model
• After authorization…
• Execute job securely
– User account “sandboxing” of processes
• According to mapping policy and request details
– Initialization of sandbox credentials
• Client-delegated credentials
• Adapter scripts can be customized for site needs
– AFS, Kerberos, etc
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Secure Staging Model
• Before and after sandboxed execution…
• Perform secure file transfers
– Create RFT request
• To local or remote RFT service
• PKI authentication and delegation
• In turn, RFT controls GridFTP
– Using delegated client credentials
– GridFTP
• PKI authentication
• Authorization and mapping by local policy files
• further authorization by FTP/unix perms
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Users/Applications:
Job Brokers, Portals, Command line tools, etc.
GRAM WSDLs
+
Job Description
Schema
(executable, args,
env, …)
GRAM4
WS standard
interfaces for
subscription,
notification,
destruction
Resource Managers:
PBS, Condor, LSF, SGE, Loadleveler, Fork
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
GRAM4 Approach
compute element and service host(s)
compute element
Delegation
sudo
xfer request
client
GRAM
services
GRAM
adapter
GridFTP
RFT
FTP control
FTP data
GridFTP
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
remoteofstorage
element(s)
USC Viterbi School
Engineering
local sched.
user job
File staging retry policy
• If a file staging operation fails, it may be nonfatal and retry may be desired
– Server defaults for all transfers can be configured
– Defaults can be overridden for a specific transfer
• Output can be streamed
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Throttle staging work
Headnode
GRAM/PBS
O(100GB-1TB)
cluster
• A GRAM submission that
specifies file staging
imposes load on the service
node executing the GRAM
service.
– GRAM is configured for a
maximum number of
“worker” threads and thus a
maximum number of
concurrent staging
operations.
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Local Resource Manager Interface
• The GRAM interface to the LRM to submit,
monitor, and cancel jobs.
– Perl scripts + SEG
• Scheduler Event Generator (SEG) generated by local
resource manager provides efficient monitoring between
the GRAM service and the LRM for all jobs for all users
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
Fault tolerance
• GRAM can recover from a container or host
crash. Upon restart, GRAM will resume
processing of the users job submission
– Processing resumes for all jobs once the service
container has been restarted
Job cancellation
• Allow a job to be cancelled
– WSRF standard “Destroy” operation
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
State Access: Push
• Allow clients to request notifications for state changes
– WS Notifications
• Clients can subscribe for notifications to the “job status” resource
property
State Access: Pull
• Allow clients to get the state for a previously submitted
job
– The service defines a WSRF resource property that contains
the value of the job state. A client can then use the standard
WSRF getResourceProperty operation.
Slide courtesy of Stuart Martin
USC Viterbi School of Engineering
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