Dec. 2015 - Mercer Island School District


ELL Training for Primary Teachers

December 16, 2015

Reflection on Language Learning Experiences

Reflect on the questions about your first language and foreign language learning experiences.







what order

did you acquire your first language?

How was foreign language taught when you were in high school or college?

Was it an

effective way of learning a new

language? What language domain/skill was the

hardest to


Which language domain/skill was


over the years?

Acquisition vs. Learning

Acquisition (case of first language)

Subconscious process Unaware of grammatical rules “Feel” for what is and isn’t correct Emphasis on function, not form


Conscious process Result of direct instruction of rules Language production is not emphasized More emphasis on form (grammar) Judie Haynes,

Factors that Affect Second Language Acquisition

Motivation and attitude Anxiety level Access to the language

(e.g. immersion, EFL)

Personality and learning style Age


1 st language development Quality of instruction

(meaningful and authentic?)

Cognitive ability Cultural background Acculturation to the new culture


Elementary ELL Student Profiles

Island Park: 48 students

(19 new / 29 continuing)

West Mercer: 29 students

(21 new / 8 continuing)

Lakeridge: 9 students

(3 new / 6 continuing)

17 languages spoken

(Mandarin, Korean, Japanese, Cantonese, Russian, Spanish, French, German, Dutch, Portuguese, Hebrew, Vietnamese, Tegulu, Tamil, Malayalam, Icelandic, Urdu)

ELL Program Goals


develop ELL student’s proficiency in English

so he/she can participate more fully in the regular classroom setting Help new students

adjust to the new school environment

(academically, emotionally, socially)

Program Model: Supportive Mainstream

Students are in

mainstream classrooms most of the day

ELL teachers provide

supplemental English language support

(push-in or pull-out) Use of specific strategies to foster English language development and

making grade level content meaningfully accessible

ELL teachers

collaborate with classroom teachers

Support Time and Delivery


of service and


are determined by: of support

Student proficiency level Grade level

Classroom teacher observations/assessments ELL teacher observations/assessments Self assessment by the students

o o o o o o

Celebrate Native Language and Culture

Many words in English are borrowed from other languages.

Can you guess the origin of these words?

Algebra, spinach, cotton, coffee, magazine, sherbet Essay, table, opinion, family, quarter, bacon, waste Alphabet, cinnamon, apron, cider, sapphire, aloe Coconut, zebra, cougar, breeze, junk, embarrass Canoe, chocolate, tomato, plaza, canyon, patio, coyote Snack, wagon, bundle, sketch, roster, waffle, dollar

Double Challenge

ELLs must


learn how to acquire enough of a second language to participate in an academic setting while gaining an understanding of the knowledge and skills in multiple disciplines through that second language.

from Framework for ELP Standards Summary

General Strategies for Comprehensible Input

Speech appropriate for proficiency level Enunciate



your speech Take frequent

pauses Simplify

sentence structure

General Strategies for Comprehensible Input


, body language


, graphics,


Model processes and tasks

Demonstrations Hands-on

activities Multimedia/

technology Chunk information

into smaller bits

Graphic organizers

General Strategies for Comprehensible Input

Clear explanations of academic tasks Step-by-step instructions

Provide a

model or example Think-alouds Oral (and written) directions

Check for comprehension (



General Strategies for Comprehensible Input

Use of multiple modes of communication Verbal

(give instructions)


(show what you mean)


(let students process/talk about it) Color coding to make concepts/directions clear Create flow charts or graphic organizers to conceptualize thinking

Challenges as Listeners


active processing

being conveyed of the sounds, stresses, intonations, grammar, and meaning of the message

One of the more difficult demands

language of learning a new Listening is

used nearly twice as much as speaking

, 4-5 times as much as reading and writing Listening is

exhausting for newcomers Difficult to listen while trying to copy

from the board when words are just symbols, not meaningful

Listening Strategies

Point out

purpose for listening

(e.g. listen for main idea, listen for the character’s feeling) Seating arrangement (student facing the front of room)


tell) rather than explain (show, not Total Physical Response (TPR) - demo

Give a copy of the notes

the board afterward so students can focus on listening rather than copying from

Challenges as Speakers

On-demand production

of language

Sentence structure Limited vocabulary


Translation in the head first

Oral Language Practice

Spoken language and literacy are inextricably linked

You cannot write if you don’t have the language to express

Oral rehearsal should precede writing on paper Instruction must be interactive and the focus must be on

listening and speaking

(e.g. turn and talk for processing) Many

opportunities to test the rules of language

with scaffolding provided by supportive adults from Mondo’s Let’s Talk About It! and Ballard Tighe’s Strategic Oral Language Instruction in ELD

Speaking Strategies

Use pair or small group work to increase student talk time (10/2 rule)

Consistently give

sufficient wait time

Provide explicit oral language practice

Respect the silent period and know they are taking in language

Create a relaxed, non-threatening environment where risk taking is encouraged

Teach functional/content language Use sentence frames/starters Don’t overcorrect

in speaking and give students the chance to correct themselves

Model correct grammar

; provide correct input in response


Chants for Oral Fluency and Concept Reinforcement

GLAD chants (Google “pasco chants”)


Challenges as Readers



Phonics vs. sight words Multiple meanings Fluency vs. comprehension Complex sentence structure

Too many new words make the text impossible

Word Knowledge Rating

How well do you know a word?

Thumbs up – I know the meaning and can use it in a sentence Thumbs on the side – I have seen the word but not sure of its meaning Thumbs down – I don’t know the meaning sophomoric petulance urbane

Reading Strategies

Illustrated vocabulary cards

Vary the way you explain words

Search images

on the internet Build background knowledge

Chunk reading

into smaller sections Have students record reading passages and listen afterwards Have students listen to


Translator apps (e.g. Google Translate, Speak and Translate)

Story Map

Challenges as Writers

Spelling Writing process

(prewriting, draft, revising, editing, and final)

Generating own ideas

for writing “Writing in your words” or


is difficult

Show, not tell Different types of writing

: narrative, expository (informational), persuasive (opinion), how-to May come from cultures where plagiarism is somewhat acceptable (individual ownership of words or ideas is not well understood, especially info on the internet)

Common Grammar Errors

Mix up


s (e.g. he/she, him/her) Omit



word endings

(-ing, -s, -es, -ly) Mix up

word order Conjugation Prepositions Consistent tense use

Negative statements and questions

Plural nouns

(regular ad irregular)



Writing Strategies

Sentence frames/starters Word bank Oral rehearsal Graphic organizer

/mind map

Signal words

Interactive writing (cooperative paragraph)

Sentence halves

to build sentences Cloze sentences/passages

Reading aloud of own writing for editing

Color-coded sentence structure


Strategies in Content Areas

Organize key info through

drawing Act out

math story problems

Illustrated math vocabulary Science


charts with labels


pictures for academic vocabulary


copies of teacher’s notes Social Studies


pictures for academic vocabulary Paraphrase key points Graphic organizers/flow charts

Input Chart

Process Grid

Cultural Differences in Behavior (workshop on Jan 27 4-5 at WM)

Perceived Negative Behavior

Avoids eye contact when interacting with teacher Calls the teacher “teacher” rather than by last name Doesn’t collaborate readily with peers on assignments Doesn’t ask for help when he/she doesn’t understand directions or instruction Doesn’t use quotations to cite sources Overly competitive

How We Can Support You

Monthly workshops

focused on different ELL topics K-5 ELL website with students resources and teacher resources


teachers planning units of study with grade level

iPad apps/support materials

Translated books – give two week notice to search and order (if available) Easier non-fiction books in content areas

Writing Strategy Brainstorm

Scenario: During independent writing, my ELL student doesn’t do anything or just copies instead of producing original work.

*What strategies can you use in your class that would support your ELL writer?

Use the post-its at your table to record some strategies.

Post the notes on the chart.

Some Writing Strategies

Start with drawing with details to get ideas rolling Write in native language Provide a picture and a word bank Use a sentence starter Spin off of patterned picture books Use cloze writing activity Provide prompt or topic Explicitly model writing

Exit Survey

Please take a few minutes to fill out the survey before you leave or later today. L8JCJ Thank you!