Tenth Grade Research Paper Overview A Cause and Effect paper answers the questions WHY and HOW. It looks backwards in time to show the factors that lead up to an event, and it looks forward in time to consider the consequences resulting from that event. Think about the following sentence. I have no money, because _____________________ (cause); therefore, I cannot ___________________________ (effect). You can probably come up with at least one major reason why you have no money, and you can probably think of at least three things you cannot do without it. This is the process of Cause and Effect. Focus In sophomore English, the essential question is “What are our individual rights and responsibilities?” The Cause and Effect paper allows for the student to study how one’s rights are obtained and reflect upon what happens when one’s responsibilities are not met. In each sophomore text, there is a character who fights for his/her rights and manages (or fails to manage) his/her responsibilities. From those general categories, you can choose a topic that relates to the course’s essential question, For example, Holden Caulfield spends a great deal of time drinking in The Catcher in the Rye. You could research the causes and effects of alcohol abuse in teens. Requirements Sources: You must use at least four sources in developing your paper. You must submit at least 20 notecards. Your evidence must come from reputable sources. Page length: 3-5 typed pages double-spaced, exclusive of the Works Cited page Margins: One-inch margins Font: 12-point font New Times Roman Format: MLA (See DRG page 11) Steps 1. Discovery phase Due date _________________________ The first thing a student must do in any research assignment is to choose a topic. Think about the books you have read in sophomore English. Consider the themes and ideas presented in each one. Find a topic that interests you. Discuss the topic with the teacher and get approval. 2. Research/note cards Due date _________________________ The first thing you need to do is locate sources. (See DRG page 3)Make a note card for each source. (See DRG page 4) Keep all your notecards and research information in a manila envelope. Once you have found sources, you should read them carefully writing note cards. (See DRG page 5) Your notecards can be organized into categories. As you are conducting your research, start thinking about how you can develop your topic into a thesis statement. The next thing you should do is to review your research and finalize your thesis statement. You may decide that you need to complete more research at this time to fill in any missing information. 3. Pre-writing Due date _________________________ After you have completed your research, review your information and finalize your thesis. Organize your notecards into a logical format. Cause and Effect papers lend themselves to a chronological arrangement, and visual learners might want to create a flow chart of ideas. (See Cause and Effect: Effects and Consequences Handout). Other students may prefer to write an outline (See Cause and Effect Outline Handout) There should be one primary cause (also known as the main cause, necessary cause, or first cause) that leads up to the event. The body of your paper should begin with the primary cause. There may be one or more secondary (or sufficient) causes that may have contributed to the event. There may be many effects of a particular event. Choose only those that are relevant to your thesis, and organize them in order of most to least important. 4. First draft Due date _________________________ As in all papers, the Cause and Effect requires an introduction, a body and a conclusion. The introduction provides a hook to interest the reader, discusses the topic in general, and presents the thesis statement. The body develops in detail the cause(s) leading up to the event and examines the effects of the event. Make sure that all ideas are connected. There should be no “missing links.” At this point you should also include your quotes and paraphrases, ensuring that the parenthetical citations are correct. (See DRG page 10-11) Be careful of writing a process paper that only shows a chain of events. A cause and effect paper shows the significance of the event and its effect on society. The conclusion should return to the thesis and recommend how to correct a bad cause or change the resulting effect. 5. Works cited page Due date _________________________ Organize your source cards and type them on a separate sheet of paper according to MLA format as outlined in the (See DRG page 15). 6. Revisions Due date ________________________ Edit your paper for grammar and mechanical errors. Use transitions for effect. Make sure all quotes are correctly cited and the works cited page is correctly formatted. Your paper should meet all the requirements in the DRG on page 16. 7. Final draft Due date ________________________ When you are satisfied that your paper meets all the requirements of the assignment, print it, put in your envelope with your notecards and drafts, and hand it in. Submit a copy to turnitin.com. Event #1 Happened because: Consequence: Event #2 Happened because: Consequence: © 2006 Education OasisTM http://www.educationoasis.com May be reproduced for classroom use only. Cause and Effect Outline I. Introduction Lead Background Information Thesis II. Body Paragraph (use as many as you need) One cause/effect of/reason why _________________________ Support/example Show connection between cause and effect III. Conclusion Review logical progression Suggest a solution to correct a bad cause or change the resulting effect.