Week 2 PPT

Monday, August 24
 Learning Target: I can identify
archetypes and how they relate to
 Focus Question: Find a word in your IR
novel that you are unfamiliar with and
use context clues to determine its
Mythology Part I, Chapter 1
due tomorrow
Vocab 1 Packet due Wednesday
Vocab 1 Quiz on Thursday!
What is a myth?
 There is no one
definition, since
myths serve many
different purposes.
The First Purpose
 The first purpose was to explain the
inexplicable. Since the beginning of
humankind’s existence, myths have
functioned as rationalizations for the
fundamental mysteries of life.
 They answer questions such as:
Who made the world?
Where do we come from?
Who was the first human?
Why does the sun travel across the sky
each day?
 Why does the moon wax and wane?
 Why do we have annual
agricultural cycles and seasonal
 Who controls our world, and how
can we influence those beings so
our lives are easier?
 In the absence of scientific
information of any kind, long
ago societies all over the
worlds devised creation myths,
resurrection myths, and
complex systems of
supernatural beings, each with
specific powers, and stories
about their actions.
The Second Purpose
 The second function of mythology is to justify
an existing social system and to account for
its rites and customs.
 One constant rule of mythology is whatever
happens among the gods reflects events on
 Thus, they serve to illustrate moral principles,
frequently through feats of heroism
performed by mortals.
How Myths Began
 Some believe myths began as historical
events that became distorted with the
passage of time.
 Others think myths resulted from man’s
attempt to explain natural occurrences
that he could not understand.
 However, scholars have developed
other theories of how myths began.
Euhemerus was one of the first
scholars to suggest that all myths
are based on historical facts. He
believed that scholars had to strip
away the supernatural elements in
a myth to reach these facts.
Scholars cont…
 Tylor believed that myths began through
man’s efforts to account for the unexplainable
occurrence in dreams. According to Tylor,
man’s first idea about supernatural was his
belief that he had a soul, which lived in his
body. While the body slept, the soul would
wander freely and have many adventures.
These adventures appeared to man in his
dreams. Man then came to believe that
animals had souls. Finally, he decided that
everything in nature had a soul. Man could
then explain such natural events as the
eruption of a volcano.
Scholars cont…
 According to Malinowski, all people
recognize that a frontier exists between
what man can and cannot explain
logically. He said man creates myths
when he reaches this frontier. Thus,
man had create such myths to relieve
the tension brought on by his not why
something happens.
Scholars cont…
 Frazer believed that myths began in
the great cycle of nature-birth, growth,
decay, death and rebirth.
What Mythology Tell Us
About People
 Personal and Collective Unconscious
 Archetypes- recurring patterns in
Mythology and the
 Carl Jung developed an original and controversial
theory about how myths reflect the attitudes and
behavior of individuals. Jung suggested that
everyone has a personal and a collective
 Jung believed that all mythologies have certain
features in common patterns, which he called
archetypes.These features include characters, such
as gods and heroes, and themes, such as love or
 He suggested that archetypes date back to the
earliest days of mankind and by studying them you
could trace the psychological development of a
particular race as well as of all mankind.
Variations in Mythology
 Geography, climate, government, and
other social aspects influence the myths
of various people.
 Thus, despite their differences related
to climate or geography or social
systems all mythologies have certain
features in common.
Tuesday, August 25
 Learning Target: I can identify
archetypes and how they relate to
 Focus question: Use a word from your
vocabulary list and write a sentence
using it about a character in your IR
Agenda and Announcements
 1. IR
 2. Mythology/Creation Stories
 3. Myth Reading time
 Vocab Packet tomorrow/Myth Reading
 Vocab Quiz on Thursday
 Picture Day on Friday. PACKETS!!!
Leading Writers of
Greek/Roman myths
 Greek
 Homer
 Hesoid
 Apollonius
 Roman
 Virgil
 Catullus
The Gods
 Unlike many
creation stories, in
the Greek versions
the gods created by
the universe instead
of the other way
The Gods Cont…
 In the beginning, two entities exist, Heaven
and Earth. Their children are the Titans,
whose children, in turn are the Olympians,
the main Greek gods.
 The Titans-who include such notables as
Ocean, Mnemosyne (Memory), and
Prometheus, mankind’s benefactor-rule the
universe until Zeus add their other children
conquer them.
The Gods Cont…
 The term “Olympians” comes from
Mount Olympus, the gods’ mystical
home, which is conceived as a high
mountaintop, but is really a magical
place that exist on a heavenly plane
(which Zeus alone rules), earth, sea,
nor the underworld.
 Shared by all the gods, Olympus is
The Twelve Olympians
Greek Creation
 The Creation of the World: The
beginning of the world, no mankind
 Creation of Mankind by
Prometheus: The first story of
Greek Creation Cont…
 Creation Myth:
“In the beginning there was only chaos. Then
out of the void appeared Erebus, the
unknowable place where death dwells, and
Night. All else was empty, silent, endless,
darkness. Then somehow Love was born
bringing a start of order. From Love came
Light and Day. Once there was Light and
Day, Gaea, the earth appeared.”
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LxoRWD-RwtU
Greek Creation Cont…
 Epimetheus created creatures with
qualities such as cunningness,
swiftness, strength, fur and wings.
 Prometheus created man as a mirror
image of the gods, they could stand
upright and were given control of fire.
Homework for tomorrow!!!
 Finish chapter 3 in “Mythology” (How
the World and Mankind Were Created).
Pages 72-77 (The Stories of Prometheus
and Pandora)
Wednesday, August 26th
 Learning Target: I can determine the
meaning of words in context.
 Focus Question: Choose a different word
from your vocabulary list and write a
sentence about a conflict in your IR novel
using the word.
***Get your Vocab packet out. I will check it
during IR!!!
Greek Creation Cont…
 Punishment of mankind: creation of
Pandora (woman) and the box of secrets
 Pandora married to Epimetheus, happily but
cursed with curiosity about the contents of
the box.
 She opened the box releasing the terrors
inside. All that was left for mankind was
 Relate Pandora to Eve from Genesis?
Greek Creation Cont…
 Prometheus was loyal to mankind over
Zeus.This is proved by Prometheus
tricking Zeus
 Zeus is enraged by this, Prometheus is
exiled to the Caucasus Mountains
doomed to eternal pain.
Greek Creation Cont…
 How are the gods anthropomorphic?
 Why is man not created in the original
creation of the world?
 Why do the gods feel the need to
punish their creation, Mankind?
 Why are women the scapegoat?
Thursday, August, 27th
 Learning Target: I can demonstrate
how to use vocabulary words in
 Focus question: Identify an archetypal
theme or character in your IR novel.
The Lesser Gods on Mount
 Eros, god of Love
 The Graces, bestow
charm, grace and
 The Muses, goddesses
of the arts and sciences
 Hebe, goddess of
 Iris, goddess of the
 Themis, Divine Justice
 Dike, Human Justice
 Nemesis, Righteous
 Aidos, the sense of
respect and shame that
keeps human from
The Lesser Gods of the Sea
 Nereids, sea nymphs
 Naiads, freshwater
 Triton, the trumpeter
of the sea
 Proteus, Poseidon’s
son or attendant (able
to change shapes).
 There is a different
god for every river,
and the Titan
Ocean-lord of the
mysterious river that
encircles the earthlives along with
several other minor
water gods.
The Underworld
 Hades and his queen, Persephone, are the
only rulers of the underworld-a place simple
referred to as Hades.
 Hades is divided into sections, Tartarus and
Erebus, Hades has five famous rivers:
Acheron, the river of woe; Cocytus, the river
of lamentation; Phigethon, the river of fire;
Styx, the river of the gods’ unbreakable oath;
and Lethe, the river of forgetfulness.
The Underworld Cont…
 The Guardian to Hades:
 A three-headed dog, Cerberus
 The Boatman:
 Charon ferries the dead from Erebus across the
junction of the Acheron and the Cocytus to the
gates of Tartarus, where they are judged by three
former kings, Rhadamanthus, Minos, Aeacus
 The wicked are sentenced to eternal torment,
while the good are admitted to the Elysian Fields,
a place of perfect bliss.
 The Furies
 Sleep and Death
The Lesser Gods of Earth
 Pan and Silenus are mischievous and jovial
earth gods.
 Pan rules over the Satyrs, a race of goat
men, and dances with the Dryads, the forest
nymphs, and the Oreads, the mountain
 Castor and Pollux, sometimes spoken as
gods. The twins represent the ideal of
brotherly devotion.
 Aeolus, King of the Winds
The Lesser Beings of Earth
 Centaurs-half-men, half-horses, one whom is
Chiron, an important tutor to many heroes.
 The Gorgons
 The Fates, who are assigned neither a place
in heaven nor earth, spin measure and cut
the threads of men’s lives. The Fates are not
subject to the decrees of any of the gods, not
even Zeus himself.
Mankind’s Two Best
 Scholars differ in their inclusions of some
gods into the Olympian Twelve. Some listings
include Demeter who was the sister of Zeus
and therefore equal to Hera and Hestia.
Dionysus, also, had been included in some
listings since he was the Zeus’ son and of
great importance to the Greeks.
 In Hamilton’s book, she excluded them from
Mount Olympus and brings them to dwell
with those one earth.
Explanatory Myths
 As discussed in previous lessons the
primary purposes/functions of
mythology is to explain imaginatively
something which cannot be explained
scientifically. Thus, there are a great
number of myths explaining the
movements of the sun, or the various
animals or beast roaming the earth, or
the cycles of nature.
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 One of the chief observations was the
birth, growth, reproduction and death
 Example: Corn was planted, grew to
maturity, and died. Yet grains could be
saved until the next planting season,
replanted and the growth process
would begin again
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 The stories of Demeter and Dionysus
follow this cycle. The mystery rites
which grew up around the worship of
these two gods, for example the
Eleusinian mysteries, gave hope to the
people that humans too, might be
reborn after death.
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 In addition to these stories, Greek
mythology has several flower myths
which follow the death-resurrection
concept. Hyacinth, Narcissus, Adonis
and Clytie, all once mortals, live forever
as flowers.
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 Other explanatory myths deal with animals.
How the spider and grasshopper came to be.
 Some tales tell of animals which change in
some way. For example, the crow or raven
was originally white but Apollo turned its
feathers black because the bird delivered an
unwelcome message.
 Another story explains why the peacock’s tail
has eyes.
Example 1
 Zeus had a love affair with Leto (Latona) and
she bore twins-Artemis and Apollo. Hera, in
her jealousy, decreed that no one should give
Leto refuge or hospitality. One day in her
wanderings, Leto came upon a pool of water.
The people surrounding the pool told her she
could not drink, and when she begged them
to take pity on her and her children, they
laughed and kicked up the mud from the
bottom of the pool to make the water
Example 1 Cont…
 Leto asked the gods to punish them
whereupon the people turned green,
began to croak, and were unable to
leave the water. To this day, they
remain in the same conditions-frogs.
Example 2
 In the second story, Demeter told Poseidon
that since the sea was filled with ugly thingssquids, eels, etc.-he must be incapable of
making things beautiful. To prove her wrong,
he labored an entire week on creating the
most beautiful animal, the horse. But he
made many mistakes, with some horses
having humps on their backs, and others
possessing stripes or overly long necks.
 Thus, we have giraffes, zebras, donkeys and
camels, as well as the horse.
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 Still other myths deal with the sun (Helios,
drawn in a chariot across the sky), the dawn
(Aurora, preceding him in her own chariot),
volcanic eruptions (brought about by the fires
of Vulcan’s forge), evil in the world
(Pandora’s fault, of course), and even the
moaning of the wind in the mountains (which
is said to be Prometheus crying out in pain).
Explanatory Myths Cont…
 Aberrations of the sun, areas of the desert
and areas of artic waste are explained by the
story of Phaëthon. And a sub-story in the
Phaëthon myth tells of the origin of the
 Finally, is the story of Echo; rejected by
Naricissus, cursed by Hera, she pines away
until only a faint trace remains.
Who is a Hero?
 Hero, in the original Greek sense,
means a demigod-the offspring of a god
and a mortal. But in a broader sense, a
hero is one who stands out from the
ordinary individuals as one embodies
the values and ideals of a particular
culture. Because values or ideals
change according to place and time, the
qualities of a hero change also.
Who is a Hero?
 Thus, what is admired and imitated in one
age or place may be considered unimportant
or even looked down upon in another era or
 Greek heroes, coming from a warrior culture
possessed strength and courage. Although
larger than life, in the sense that they were
often half-gods, they were not immortal. But
through their superhuman deeds and
suffering here on earth they achieved a type
of immortality.
Heroes Through the Ages
 Old English Period: As with Greek
culture, this period honors the warrior
hero. Beowulf, from the Old English
epic of that name, embodies qualities
the Anglo-Saxon held in high esteem:
courage, loyalty to a king and fellow
warrior, ability to perform superhuman
Heroes Through the Ages
 Medieval Period: King Arthur or one of his
knights embodies the ideals of this age:
courage, loyalty to God and king, chivalrous
behavior toward women and the helpless.
 Renaissance Period: A courtier whose
versatility led him to excel in art, literature,
diplomacy, warfare, and everything else, is
hero of this period. Leonardo da Vinci is an
example of this “universal human.”
Heroes Through the Ages
 Romantic Period: Lord Bryon himself is the
paradigm for the Byronic hero, a moody,
mysterious, social outcast, yet one who
possesses courage and a fascination for
 American Literature: The early American
hero, a pioneer like Daniel Boone perhaps,
shows the values of a new country: courage,
desire to enter into the unknown, willingness
to endure hardships, need to be independent.
Why were hero myths
 Humanism, nationalism, and individual
or family pride are three suggested
reasons for the creation of hero myths.
Why were hero myths
 Humanism, speaks of the person as the
center of all things, of the entire universe.
 Nationalism believes that a particular nation
or culture is the best.
 Finally, each individual desires to believe
that his or her family, indeed him or herself
embodies all the qualities of a hero or
 So, hero myths exalt the individual, the
nation and the entire human race.
The Hero Cycle
 Primitive man knew life as a cycle: birth and
childhood (dependency), adulthood
(independence), and death (a return to the
eternal). He also saw life that life itself was
an unending series of smaller cycles,
challenges which we face and overcome if we
are to grow.
 This awareness of life’s cycles and their
importance is reflected in the pattern of the
“Hero(ine)’s Journey.
The Hero Cycle cont…
 The Hero’s Journey is similar to the
primitive Rite of Passage, which initiates
a child into adulthood.
 In a rite of passage, a child first faces
separation, when s/he is taken from
their mother to confront some fearful
monster or danger.
The Hero Cycle cont…
 The child faces the monster and goes
through an initiation, giving up the role
of a dependent child.
 Then the child/adult must return to the
village as an adult, ready to on adult
The Basis of the Journey
 Like the rite of passage, the journey
requires a separation from the
comfortable known world: and initiation
to a new level of awareness, skill and
responsibility ; and the return to the
 This pattern is not simply the invention
of the ancient storytellers. It is part of
the human process of growth and
The Basis of the Journey
 The Journey can be divided into eight
different stages. Each if these must be
passed successfully if the initiate is to
become a hero. To turn back at any
point would mean our initiate is
rejecting his own need to grow and
The Basis of the Journey
• The Call
• The Threshold
• The Descent
The Initiation
The Return
• Tests and Ordeals
• Into the Abyss (The
• The Transformation
• The
• Hero receives boon
The Separation
 The Call: invites the initiate into the
adventure, offers him the opportunity
to face the unknown and gain
something of physical and spiritual
value. The initiate may choose willingly
to undertake the quest, or s/he is thrust
into the adventure, whether s/he likes
or not.
The Separation
 The Threshold: is the point at which the
initiate leaves the known to enter the
unknown. It is the “jumping off point”
between everyday life and adventure.
 At this point, the initiate will encounter a
helper(s) or a guide. Helpers provide
assistance or direction. The help may come in
a form of a divine gift, such as a talisman
which will help in the ordeal ahead.
The Separation
 The Descent: may not actually involve
“descending: into something. It is
rather, a voyage in to uncharted
territory, either physical or mental. The
initiate gets farther and farther into the
unknown, becoming more at risk.
The Initiation
 Tests and Ordeals: On his/her quest,
the initiate faces a series a tests and
ordeals which challenge him to the
utmost, force him/her to grow
physically or mentally.
 Into the Abyss: When s/he reaches
the Abyss, the initiate faces the
greatest danger and challenge of the
The Initiation
 The Transformation: As the initiate
meets the challenge of the abyss and
overcomes his/her fear, s/he is
transformed. The transformation is a
moment of death and rebirth: some
part of the initiate dies so that a new
part can be born.
The Initiation
 The Revelation/Atonement: After the
initiate has been transformed, he goes on to
achieve atonement; that is to say, s/he is “at
one” with a new self and life. The initiate is
now truly a hero.
 Here s/he is given a “boon” a gift which
bestowed based on the new level of skill and
awareness. S/he may be stronger or richer;
s/he may become a better leader or a more
able fighter; s/he may be enlightened
The Return
 After the transformation and
atonement, the hero faces one of the
most difficult stages of the journey;
s/he must return to everyday life to
begin the labor of bringing the boon
back to humanity. The hero and boon
may renew the community, found a
nation, create a great order.
The Return
 Sometimes, however, things don’t go
smoothly. The hero(ine) finds
frustration with the state of the world
as s/he tries to maintain the new-found
cosmic viewpoint in a fragmented
Jason and the Golden
Gathering of Heroes
 Like an all-star baseball team, people enjoy
seeing the best of the best join together to
compete. The Argonauts are the Greek
version of the Justice League- all the
greatest heroes together on one team.
 Jason’s father, King Aeson, had the
kingdom stolen from him by Pelias.
When Jason was born, his parents
feared that Pelias would try to kill the
child to prevent the kingdom being
taken back at a later time.
 Therefore, Jason’s parents announced
his death and pretended to mourn their
son, but secretly sent him away to a
place of safety.
Jason cont…
 Jason journeys to regain
the throne his uncle
Peleas stole from his
father. His uncle sends
him on a quest to acquire
the magical Golden
Fleece, located in Colchus
at the end of the world.
To achieve this, he
assembles the greatest
heroes of Greece
including Theseus,
Atalanta and the powerful
The Education of Jason
 Jason was
smuggled into the
countryside where
he was raised by
the wise centaur
Chiron, who also
taught both the
mighty Heracles
and the future
warrior, Achilles.
 The greatest of the
Greek heroes is
Heracles, the son of
Zeus. From birth, his
strength far
surpassed that of any
mortal. Hated by
Hera, he is driven
mad by the goddess
and murders his
family. In retribution,
he undertakes twelve
deadly labors.
 The only female hero of the Greek
myths, Atalanta was raised by bears
and showed great skill as a hunter.
She defeated Peleus in a wrestling
match and was a featured participant
in killing the terrible Caledonian Boar.
As a follower of Artemis, she
refused to marry any man,
unless he could beat her in a
foot race. By distracting her
with Aphrodite’s golden apples,
Melanion wins the race and her
 Orpheus descends into the
underworld of Hades to
retrieve his deceased bride,
Eurydice. He sings the three
headed guard dog, Cerberus,
to sleep and makes Hades
cry with his music. He loses
his love when he turns back
to look at her despite Hades’
warning. Orpheus meets his
fate at the hands of the
Mineads, the crazed female
followers of Dionysus, who
tear the musician apart with
their hands.
 Theseus journeys to
Athens to meet his
father, fighting
bandits and
murderers along the
road. He then travels
to Crete and, with the
help of Princess
Ariadne, enters the
labyrinth and slays
the Minotaur.
The Other Argonauts
 Calais and Zetes- Sons of the
North Wind who had winged feet.
 Pirithous-Theseus’ friend who
loved Persephone and for her sake
descended to Hades.
 Periclymenus- Poseidon granted
him the power of changing his
 Nestor- A famous charioteer,. in
old age he went to the war in Troy.
 Hylas- Hercules squire,drowned
by Nymphs and disappeared.
 Autolycus- Son of Hermes who
was a master thief .
 Castor and Polydueces- Twins
who excelled at wrestling and
 Peleus- Future father of Greece’s
greatest warrior, Achilles.
The Argo
 Built by Argo/Argus,
the greatest ship
builder of the time,
and named after
 The Argo could
outrace any other
ship of its day.
The Argo cont…
 In the bow of the ship was a piece of wood
from the oak grove at Dodona, which was
where the oracle of Zeus resided. A wind
rustled the leaves of the trees, the oaks
reportedly made sounds which would then be
interpreted as prophecies from Zeus.
 Since this sacred wood was used to make the
prow, the ship’s figure head supposedly had
the magical power of speech.
The Argo cont…
 The ship carried the Argonauts across
the Adriatic up to the northern reaches
of the Black Sea to the land of Colchis.
The Voyage
 The Argonauts’ first stop was on an
island inhabited only by women.
The Death of Hylas
 When stopping for food and water,
Hercules’ squire, Hylas, is lured into a river
by the nymphs and drowns. Hercules stays
behind when the Argo sets sail to continue
the search for his missing friend.
The Sirens
 The Argo must sail past
the dreadful Sirens,
women who lure sailors
to their death with their
beautiful song.
Orpheus saves the
Argonauts by
overwhelming the
Sirens’ song with his
beautiful music.
 Jason and his crew
land on the island
of the blind
prophet, Phineas,
who is plagued by
terrible bird
women, the
 The last of the
ancient race of
violent, bronze
men, Talos hurls
rocks at the Argo
as it sails past his
 King Aetes welcomes
Jason but will only
hand over the fleece
if he can pass two
favors Jason by
causing the king’s
daughter, Medea, to
fall in love with
Jason. She uses her
magic to aid Jason in
his quest.
Taming the Bulls
 Jason’s first task is to tame the firebreathing, bronze bulls and yoke them
to a plow.
 Medea gives Jason an ointment to
protect his body from the bulls’ flames.
The Sown Men
 The second test is to
plow the field with
the bulls sowing
dragons teeth as
seeds. Instantly
from the seeds grow
armed warriors who
attack Jason. He
diverts them by
throwing a rock so
that they fight each
Taking the Fleece
 With the help of
Medea’s spells
and Orpheus’s
music, Jason is
able to steal the
fleece from the
The Pursuit of King Aetes
 King Aetes and the
Colchians board
their ship in pursuit
of the Argonauts.
Medea thwarts her
father by killing her
brother and
chopping him into
bits so he must
stop to collect the
parts of his son.
Medea’s revenge
 Long after the
return, Jason
wrongs Medea by
marrying a princess.
Medea takes
revenge by
poisoning the
princess and
murdering her
Jason’s sons before
flying off in a
chariot pulled by
 Jason lives to be an
old man. One day,
while walking on the
beach, he comes
upon the rotting hull
of the Argo. Weary,
he rests for a while in
the shade of the old
ship’s prow. As he
sleeps, the bow
breaks off, crushing
the king beneath it.
 King Acresias and Danae
 Polydectes loved Danae,
Perseus protects by offering
Medusa’s head
 Athena’s shield, nymph’s
invisibility helmet, winged
sandals, and magic pouch,
Hermes’ knife
 He succeeds
 Pegasus born
 Saved Andromeda, froze her
family for deceit
 Also froze Polydectes for
hassling Danae