he fears your harshness

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Latin Literature: Notes and Quotes
**Hadas: the nature of Latin literature
formed from Greek with adornment:
Livius Andronicus translated Odyssey (c. 240 BC)
Plautus and Terence adopted Greek New Comedy of Menander
Horace claimed to adapt Greek meters to Latin
Lucretius adapted Epicureanism to Rome
Vergil's Eclogues virtually translated Theocritus, his Georgics adapted
Theocritus etc., his Aeneid paralleled Homer's works
smaller audience than classical Greek, more serious than Hellenism
"Latin literature is a borrowed creature."
scriba: poet or clerk
Roman character and literature spread throughout Europe.
Rome looked west; hence, Greek through Etruscan from very early Rome.
influence of Cumae: temple of Apollo, sibylline prophecies
Etruscan alphabet (variation of Greek), aristocracy, lucumones
Our version of Roman history is from late 3rd century BC: parallels with Greeks,
myths, tradition of 753 BC and seven kings, Roman expansion and
conflict of the orders (patricians vs plebeians), early heroes idealized
because of conflict with Carthage
Aeneid magnifies an institution (Rome), not an individual hero (except insofar as
Aeneas represents Rome or Roman virtues)
Roman heroes strut on their stage: epic, history, drama; gravitas, dignitas, austeritas,
integritas, fortitudo, pietas, following mos maiorum;
linguistic equivalent: responsibility, formalism, finish, formulae, sententiae
Quotes:
Festus: Scriba proprio nomine antiqui et librarios et poetas vocabant.
(Ancients properly by name of scribe labeled both 'bookster' and poet.)
Cato: Poeticae artis honos non erat. (Poetic skill had no honor.)
Polybius: Can anyone be so indifferent or idle as not to care by what means and
under what kind of polity
almost the entire inhabited world was conquered
and brought under the dominion of the single city of
Rome, and that within
a period of not quite 53 years?
Ennius: Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virtusque. (Roman power rests on
ancient habits.)
Livy: Go and proclaim to the Romans that it is the will of heaven that my Rome
shall be the capital of the
world...They must know and they must
transmit to posterity the knowledge that no human resources
can avail
against Roman arms.
Vergil: Others, I doubt not, shall beat out the breathing bronze with softer lines,
shall from marble draw
forth the features of life, shall plead their
causes better, with the rod shall trace the paths of heaven and
tell the
rising of the stars: remember thou, O Roman, to tell the nations of thy sway: these shall be
thine
arts: to crown
peace with law, to spare the humbled, and to tame in
war the proud.
(Aeneid VI: 847...)
Ammianus Marcellinus: At the time when Rome first began to rise into a position of
worldwide splendor,
destined to live so long as men shall exist, in order
that she
might grow into a towering stature, Virtue
and Fortune, normally
at variance, formed a pact of eternal peace.
Books and readers in the ancient world: Cambridge History of Classical Literature: II 1)
oral culture: reading aloud (until c. 380 AD)
few Latin papyri survive
Ennius' decision to use dactylic hexamemter formally united Latin and Greek cultures.
Did a Greco-Roman culture exist?
Juvenal/Lucian: mutual hatred of Romans/Greeks
vs. Catullus/Cicero: assume Roman audience knew Greek
Marrou: Latin poetry came into existence so that teachers might have something to argue.
Cicero and Vergil became contemporary school texts.
**Quintilian: recte loquendi scientiam et poetarum ennarrationes
(the science of speaking rightly and telling poems)
litterator: form preceded sense, drill in letters
grammaticus: praelectio and ennarratio in great detail
Quintilianí's canon was narrowed by 400 AD to Vergil, Trenece, Sallust, Cicero
purpose of rhetoric: less need for real politics, declamation a public spectacle
Seneca the Elder: Suasoria and Controversia
literature of an elite except drama and some oratory; small public trials (recitation)
**Horace: nescit vox missa reverti (once released the voice cannot be recalled)
may explain executors who edit postumously a text (e.g., Lucretius)
circles of Scipio and Catulus did not share political programs
by time of Augustus: patronage or independently wealthy, but opposition circle of
Messala Corvinus: Ovid, Tibullus
papyrus: roll liber: bark
volumen: roll
paginae: pages
explicare evoluere
umbilici
ad umbilicos explicare
titulae
width of pages one hexameter = 35 letters
2nd century AD Romans adopted continuous (cursive) writing.
volumen: 700-900 lines
edere: give up rights to text no copywright laws
some book trade
Martial and Juvenal: poetry equals poverty.
private collections; public library Pollio 39 BC, but hardly equal of Alexandria
after fire Domitian sent to Alexandria for copies of some texts
later monasteries bought texts or made copies from libraries
roll ----> codex and papyrus ----> parchment
Bible as codex first
2nd century AD: republican texts begin to disappear
epitomes, abstracts, school texts
Varro determined the Plautine canon (21 plays)
artificial dialect by 300 AD
literary criticism: Cicero, Horace, Quintilian
Aeneid 8.731: poem better without it
theft vs. adaptation
Perellius Faustus to Macrobius; rhetorical analysis, allegory, riddle, declamation
Quintilian: professional rhetor, sense of fitness that great men show
analysis of Pro Milone to show how Cicero criticizes Curio and favors Milo
Cicero as craftsman: De Oratore: appeals to sympathy and indignation
forensic speech becomes panegyric: licentious speech as a sign of public luxury!
poetry aims for satire
Ars Poetica
2) Beginnings of Roman Literature (Hadas 2 and Cambridge 2.3-4)
pre-240 BC: songs, chronicles, early inscriptions and speeches
carmina: mihi domo familiaeque nostrae, agrum terram fundumque meum
prohibessis defendas verruncesque: tricolon, pleonasm equals solemnity
**5th c BC at Praeneste: Manios me fhefaked Numasoio = Manius me fecit Numerio.
dedication at Tusculum: M. Fourio C.f. tribunos militare praedad Maurte dedit =
M. Furius C. f. tribunos militaris de praeda Marti dedit.
Scipio Barbatus: quoius forma virtutei parisuma fuit
records, chronicles, Annales, Fasti Capitolini, 12 Tables, Carmen Saliare/Arvale
eventually much became incomprehensible!
Fescennine verses lead to drama: Livy 7.2; challenged by some modern scholars
Appius Claudius 355-275 BC
Est unusquisque faber ipsae suae fortunae.
own fortune.
Negotium populo Romano melius quam otium committi.
for the Roman people.
Every man is the maker of his
Business is better than leisure
Livius Andronicus 284-204; 240 BC
translated Homer's Odyssey
born at Tarentum,
under Livius Salinator
native Saturnian meter: Hadas says not accentual
Virum mihi camena insece versutum I sing a song of a clever man: 

quando dies adveniet, quem profata Morta est: predicted day will come
Mirum videtur quod sit factum iam diu?
Does it seem wondrous because it was done
long ago?
cor frixit prae pavore, solvuntur frigore membra: examples of fear
at Ludi Romani of 240 BC: first comedy and tragedy
his Ajax derived from Sophocles
monodies: like opera
mythological plays: Ajax, Achilles, Aegisthus, Andromeda, Danae, Equus
Troianus, Tereus, Hermione
influenced by Euripides, too
comedy: Gladiolus, Ludius from new comedy; Plautus superceded him
intercessory hymn for Second Punic War: 207 BC
Naevius
270-201
served in First Punic War
comedies
palliatae: Apella, Tarentilae
alii adnutat, alii adnictat, alium amat, alium tenet.
praetextae: Romulus, Clastidium
tragedies: Andromacha, Danae, ET, Hector, Hesione, Iphigenia, Lycurgus
epic: Bellum Punicum
7 books: deals with first Punic War
Greco-Roman world
Desubito famam tollunt, si quam solam videre in via.
They at once start rumors, if they see her alone in the street.
epitaph: Itaque postquamst Orchi traditus thesauro,
obliti sunt Romanae loquier lingua Latina.
When Naevius was handed to underworld, Romans forget to speak Latin.
Ennius 239-169
born at Rudiae
Greek, Oscan, and Latin
centurion
Cato brings him to Rome
partisan, yet patriotism, Roman grandeur
Horace: Numquam poetor nisi si podager: never poet unless ill
supported by Scipio Aemilianus and M. Fulvius Nobilior: mentioned in his works
wrote Annales, 20 tragedies, 2 praetextae, 2 comedies, 4 books of satires etc.
Annales: 18 books in dactylic hexameter of unfolding high destiny of Rome
**Hic vestrum pinxit maxima facta patrum. paint fathers' great deeds
Volito vivus per ora virum.
live on through men's mouths
tragedies based on Aeschylus or Euripides, not Sophocles
Per ego deum sublimas subices umidos
unde oritur imber sonitu saevo et spiritu: note emotion
Otio qui nexcit uti plus negoti habet quam cum est
negotium in negotio.
Iphigenia
There is a race of gods in heaven; and yet
They take no thought, it seems, over mankind's fate;
For if they did care, it would go well with well-doers,
And ill with ill-doers; but this, as things are, is not to be seen.
Quotes: saxo cere-comminuit-brum: head cut with tmesis
Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olympum: Annales I 1
O Tite tute tibi tanta tyranne tulisti: excessive alliteration
At tibi terribili sonitu taratantara dixit: clangor for arms
Incedunt arbusta per alta, securibus caedunt...: calm vs human action
arbustum fremitu silvai frondosai. (N.B. -ai for later -ae)
olli respondit rex Albai longai: Vergil uses archaic olli = illi
reges per regnum statuasque sepulchraque quaerunt:
aedificant nomen, summa nituntur opum vi...
kings seek through power statues and tombs:
they build a name, they strive with the greatest effort...
unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem. One saved country by delay.
noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem; not rumor before safety;
ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.
12: 370
All the more his glory shines forth.
Annales: 18 books
1-3 to fall of monarchy
seems to have Aeneas found Rome
4-6 through Pyrrhus
7-9 mostly 2nd Punic War (Naevius had done the first Punic War)
10-12 up to Antiochus III
13-15: 191-0 BC
16-18 perhaps next 87 years
his satires NOT in dactylic hexameter
fables
own feelings
Epimarchus:
didactic poem showing change from myth to natural substance:
euhemerism
"Jupiter is the name for all I have spoken of, since he rejuvenates all men, cities,
and beasts."
Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Ekder)
234-149 BC
The following perhaps spurious quote gives some idea of his pesonalty:
Fures privatorum in nevo atque in competibus aetatem agunt. Fures publici in
auro atque in purpura.
Private thieves live in chains and prison, public thieves live in gold and purple
vestments.
Pacuvius
220-130
painter born at Brundisium
retired to Tarentum
dozen tragedies: Paulus, others mythological
complicated plots
'who understand the speech of birds and learn more wisdom from another's liver'
Cedo tuum pedem mi, lymphis flavis fulvum ut pulverem
manibus isdem, quibus Ulixi saepe permulsi, abluam
lassitudinemque minuam manuum solitudine.
Niptra
Give me your feet, that in yellow water I may wash away the yellow dust with these
same hands with which I
often soothed Ulysses' and with the softness of my hands let
me wash away your weariness.'
Accius:
170-86
born at Pisaurum
freedmen parents
knew Cicero
nephew of Pacuvius
40-50 mythological tragedies
emotional sententiae
"Possessed by his wild mood and savage spirit Tereus gazed upon her, maddened
with burning passion; in
his madness he resolves a cursed deed." Tereus
"Though fortune could strip me of kingdom and wealth, it cannot strip me of my
virtue."Telephus
Wide awake a man must always be; many are the ambushes laid for the good and
bad.
**Oderint dum metuant. (Let them hate so long as they fear.)
Atreus
praetextae: Decius, Brutus (banned in 44 BC)
more Ennius quotes
Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olympum Annales I 1
muses, who with your feet strike great Olympus
Nam populos Italos rem atque poemata nostra cluebunt,
'for my subject and poem shall have renown among the peoples of Italy'
somno leni placidoque revinctus
tied in light sleep
visus Homerus adesse poeta
Homer the poet seemed to be
present
Quom veter occubuit Priamus sub Marte Pelasgo
aged Priam struck down
under war
transnavit cita per teneras caliginis auras
quickly crossed through
slender mist
Est locus, Hesperiam quam mortales perhibebant
a place mortals called
Western land
O gnata, tibi sunt ante ferendae
O daughter, first you must
endure woes;
aerumnae, post ex fluvio fortuna resistet.
then your fortune will rise (?)
from a river
Teque pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto
And you father Tiber
with holy flood
Haec ecfatus, ibique latrones dicta facessunt.
By his command the robbers
acted.
Iuno Vesta Minerva Ceres Diana Venus Mars
Mercurius Iovis Neptunus Vulcanus Apollo
Unus erit quem tu tolles in caerula caeli templa.
One you will raise to the sky.
Iuppiter, ut muro fretus magis quamde manus vi!
relies on wall not strength
Nec pol homo quisquam faciet impune animatas
You or other will be punished;
hoc nec tu; nam mi calido dabis sanguine poenas.
You will pay with hot blood.
O Tite tute Tati tibi tanta tyranni tulisti!
Romulus in caelo cum dis genitalibus aevum degit.
Romulus lives with gods in
sky.
Mensas constituit idemque ancilia.
shields.
At tuba terribili sonitu taratantara dixit.
Tarquinio dedit imperium simul et sola regni.
and throne
Inicit inritatus, tenet occasus, iuvat res.
Aio te Aiacida Romanos vincere posse.
Navus repertus homo, Graio patre Graius homo, rex.
Nec mi aurum posco nec mi pretium dederitis
nor reward
nec cauponantes bellum sed belligerantes
ferro non auro vitam cernamus utrique.
contest.
Poeni suos soliti dis sacrificare puellos
Certare abnueo; metuo legionibus labem.
ruin.
Hostem qui feriet mihi erit Karthaginiensis,
be a
quisquis erit; quoiatis siet.
may be.
Multa dies in bello conficit unus...
war...
et rursus multae fortunae forte recumbunt;
haudquaquam quemquam semper fortuna secuta est.
Africa terribili tremit horrida terra tumultu.
sound.
Insece, Musa, manu Romanorum induperator
leader did
quod quisque in bello gessit cum rege Philippo.
Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem.
delay.
Noenum rumores ponebat ante salutem;
now shines
ergo postque magisque viri nunc gloria claret.
Nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese
glory
nobis ostendat, si vivimus sive morimur.
Reges per regnum statuasque sepulchraque quaerunt;
power statues and tombs
aedificant nomen, summa nituntur opum vi.
with the greatest effort.
.Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque.
manners and power.
Nec metus ulla tenet; freti virtute quiescunt.
strength.
He established tables and
gave Tarquin power
single combat?
ambiguous prophecy
navus: active
I demand neither gold
not hesitating but fighting
by sword not gold let us
Punic sacrificed sons to gods
I choose not to fight; I fear
Whoever strikes at Rome will
Carthaginian, whoever he
One day causes much in
again by chance fortune falls;
Fortune is not eternal.
Africa trembles with horrid
Muse, tell what each
in war with King Philip.
One man saved country by
put safety before rumor, glory
Now is the day when great
shows to us, if we live or die
kings seek through
they build a name, they strive
State stands on old
With no fear they rest in
Qui vicit non est victor nisi victus fatetur.
concedes
Deque tetondit agros laetos atque oppida cepit.
cities
Omnes mortales sese laudarier optant.
praised.
victor only if vanquished
he strpped fields and took
All mortals wish to be
(all above from Annales)
Serva cives, defende hostes, cum potes defendere.
Achilles
Save your men, drive back (!) the enemy, when you can.
Quod est ante pedes nemo spectat, caeli scrutantur plagas. No one looks down, all scan
sky for plague.
Multis sum modis circumventus, morbo exilio atque inopia;
Alcmaeon
tum pavor sapientiam omnem mi exanimato expectorat;
mater terribilem minatur vitae cruciatum et necem,
quae nemo est tam firmo ingenio et tanta confidentia
quin refugiat timido sanguen atque exalbescat metu.
I am surrounded by many woes-- by disease, exile, and want; fear drives me out of my wits;
mother threatens me with
horrid torture and death, horrors. No one so firm and trusty can
withstand this, but his blood would not flee him in his fright and he himself not urn white with
fear.
Mater gravida parere se ardentem facem
Alexander
visa est in somnis Hecuba, quo facto pater
rex ipse Priamus somnio mentis metu
perculsus, curis sumptus suspirantibus
exsacrificababt hostilis balantibus.
My pregnant mother Hecuba in a dream seemed to give birth to a burning
torch; my father King Priam himself, fearing the dream,
crushed by sighing cares, sacrificed bleating victims.
**O pater, O patria, O Priami domus!
Andromache
Lapideo sunt corde multi quos non miseret neminis.
Erechtheus
many stone-hearted with pity for no one
nisi patrem materno sanguine exanclando ulciscerem.
Eumenides
'unless by spilling out my mother's blood my father I avenged'
Aes sonit franguntur hastae terra sudat sanguine.
Hector
Bronze resounds, spears break, Earth sweats with blood."
Melius est virtute ius, nam saepe virtutem mali
nanciscuntur; ius atque aecum se a malis spernit procul.
"A better thing than bravery is justice;
For bravery the wicked often attain;
But justice and fair play do spurn themselves
Far from the wicked."
Nimium boni est huic cui nihil est mali in diem.
Amicus certus in re incerta cernitur.
need is a friend indeed.
Iuppiter tibi summe tandem male re gesta gratulor.
you thanks
Ego proiector quod tu peccas? Tu delinquis, ego arguor?
wrong?
Pro malefactis Helena redeat, virgo pereat innocens?
innocent die?
Tua reconcilietur uxor, mea necetur filia?
die?
Otio qui nescit uti quom otium est, in otio
plus negoti habet quam quom est negotium in negotio...
Incerte errat animus, praeter propter vitam vivitur.
life
nam numquam era errans mea domo efferret pedem
Medea
would never have left her house
nam ter sub armis malim vitam cernere
times than one birthing
quam semel modo parere.
Salvete optima corpora;
cette manus vestras measque accipite.
hands and take mine.
inspice hoc facinus priusquam fiat, prohibessis scelus.
prevent it
Sed virum vera virtute vivere animatum addecet
Nemea
fortiterque innoxium stare adversum adversarios.
Ea libertas est qui pectus purum et firmum gestitat;
aliae res obnoxiosae nocte in obscura latent.
"But it behooves a man to live a life
Inspired with virtue true, to stand steadfast
With guiltless bravery in the face of foes.
The man who bears himself both pure and staunch--
a good to suffer no ill
A friend in
ill deed done, I give
I taunted for your
Helen return,
wife OK, daughter
not use leisure rightly,
work in leisure
weakling lives only for
rather fight three
good bye sweet ones;
give me your
see this deed first and
That is true liberty, All conduct else
Lies lurking in dim darkness, fraught with guilt."
Tum tu isti crede te atque exerce linguam ut argutarier possis.
train tongue to deceive
trust self to him and
Ego deum genus est semper dixi et dicam caelitum;
Telamon
sed eos non curare opinor quid agat humanum genus.
I believe that there are gods
but they care not what we do.
Nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis; quod nunc abest.
For if they cared, good would gain good, bad bad, which does not happen.
Palam muttire plebeio piaculum est.
openly. Telephus
It is dangerous for commoner to speak
Quem metuunt oderunt, quem quisque odit periisse expetit.
unassigned
Whom they fear they hate; whom they hate they wish dead.
Vivam an moriar nulla in me est metus.
live or die.
Aliquot somnia vera sunt sed omnia non necesse est.
comedy
Ille est nugator, nil, non nauci homo.
comedy
Malo hercle magno suo convivat sine modo!
restraint
Saturae
Resistant occurrunt obstant obstringillant obagitant.
hinder, hamper, and harrass.
Numquam poetor nisi si podager.
Simia quam similis turpissima bestia nobis!
tantidem quasi feta canes sine dentibus latrat.
Saturae
Machina multa minax minitatur maxima muris
spuria?
Musas quas memorant nosces nos esse Camenas.
spuria?
Caecilius:
Conducit navem putidam.
Iamdudum depopulat macellum.
Nihilne nihil tibi esse quod edim?
Tum in senectute hoc deputo miserrimum,
loathed
sentire ea aetate eumpse esse odiosum alteri.
Quid narras barbare cum indomitis moribus,
I don't care whether I
a nothing, a nobody
evil to live without
They loiter, meet,
never poet unless ill
monkey much like us
useless
He hires a rotten ship.
destroys the market
nothing for me to eat?
worst in old age to be
Why tell of savage
tale, wretch?
inlitterate inlex?
Ut te di omnes infelicent cum malo monita memoria?
unbless you
Is demum miser est qui aerumnam suam nesciat occultare foris...
Haec erunt concilia hocedie; differar sermone misere.
troubles...meetings full of gossip
Properatim in tenebris istuc confectum est opus.
Audire ignoti quom imperant soleo non auscultare.
commands
Serit arbores quae saeclo prosint alteri.
age
in civitate fiunt facinora capitalia,
declines lover's money
nam ab anico amante argentum accipere meretrix noenu volt.
Homo homini deus est si suum officium sciat.
knows duty
Placere occepit graviter, postquam emortiast.
her, after she died. Plocium
Fata sunt quae divi fantur.
say. ( spurious?)
Livius Andronicus: Tragedies
**Si malas imitabo, tum te pretium pro noxa dabis.
pay
Ipse se in terram saucius fligit cadens.
ground
Iamne oculos specie laetavisti optabili?
sought sight?
Mirum videtur quod sit factum iam diu?
done long ago?
:
adfatim edi bibi lusi
comedy
man
:
Virum mihi, Camena, insece versutum
Odissia
Pater noster, Saturni filie
may gods
poor wretch can't hide
done in secrecy
don't heed unknown's
plant trees for another
capital crime; whore
man a god to man if
I reaally liked
Fates are what gods
if imitate bad, you will
falls hurt to
Have you looked at
wonderful because
I ate, drank, played
Sing of a many-skilled
Our father, Saturn's
son
matrem procitum plurimi venerunt
woo my mother
quando dies adveniet quem profata Morta est
will come
cum socios nostros Ciclops impius mandisset
many have come to
foretold day
when wicked
Cyclops ate my men
Naevius: Bellum Poenicum
Novem Iovis concordes filiae sorores
of Jupiter
Eorum sectam sequuntur multi mortales.
their path.
Multi alii e Troia strenui viri...
active heroes from Troy
Summe deum regnator, quinam me genuisti?
beget me?
Blande et docte percontat Aeneas quo pacto
Aeneas left Troy
Troiam urbem liquisset.
Et venit in mentem hominum fortunas.
fortune
Simul alius aliunde rumitant inter sese.
Plerique omnes subiguntur sub unum iudicium.
judgment
fpt
Semper pluris feci ego
money
potioremque habui libertatem multo quam pecuniam.
Tibi servi multi apud mensam astant; ille ipse astat
on self
quando edit.
Nolo ego
profit
hanc adeo efflictim amare; diu vivat volo
ut mihi prodesse possit.
Utrum est melius, virginemne an viduam uxorem ducere?
as wife
Virginem, si musta est.
fp
populus patitur, tu patias.
should suffer
Alii adnutat, alii adnictat, alium amat, alium tenet.
caresses, embraces
Numquam quisquam animo amanti amica nimis fiet fidelis,
nec nimis erit morigera et nota quisquam.
Deos quaso ut adimant et patrem et matrem meos.
parents
Cedo qui vestram rem publicam tantam amististis tam vito?
Proveniebant oratores novi, stulti adolescentuli.
Contemplo placide formam et faciem virginis.
face and shape.
Omnes formidant homines eius valentiam.
Excidit orationis omnis confidentia.
nine united daughters
Many mortals follow
Many other
Greatest, why did you
cleverly he asks why
thought of men's
all rumored same
all under one
freedom over
slaves wait on you; he
not love to death but
maid or widow
maid if fresh
people suffer, you
nods, winks,
not faithful,
not compliant
may gods kill my
how ruin state quickly
silly new orators come
I look at her
All dread his power.
confidence of speech
lost
Laetus sum laedari me abs te pater, a laudato viro.
happy to be praised by
one praised
Ne ille mei feri ingeni atque animi acrem acrimoniam.
not rouse my
anger
Oderunt di homines iniuros.
gods hate
wrong-acting mortals
Vel quae sperat se nupturam viridulo adolescentulo
hoping to marry green
youth
ea licet senile tractet retritum rutabulum?
She manhandles an
old man.
Quid si taceat? Dum videat, tam sciat...quod scriptum est?
Even though he says nothing, he sees and thus knows what is written.
Cocus esit Neptunum Cererem
cook ate all:
Venerem expertam Vulcanom Liberumque absorbuit pariter.
Venus = greens etc.
Odi summossos; proinde aperte dice quid sit quod times.
Speak plainly!
pati necesse est multa mortales mala
Mortals must bear
many evils.
Fato Metelli Romae fiunt consules.
Fate made the Metelli
consuls.
Immortales mortales si foret fas flere
If right for immortals
to weep for
flerent divae Camenae Naevium poetam.
mortals, Camenae
would weep for
Itaque postquamst Orchi traditus theasauro,
Naevius. He dead,
the Romans
obliti sunt Romae loquier lingua Latina.
have forgotten how to
speak Latin.
Pacuvius:
Quadrupes tardigrada agrestis humilis aspera
capite brevi, cervice anguina, aspectu truci,
eviscerata inanima cum animali sono.
mintabiliterque increpare dictis saevis incipit.
jibes
men servasse ut essent qui me perderent?
destroy me?
Nam canis, quando est percussa lapide, nam tam illum adpetit
qui sese icit, quam illum eumpse lapidem, qui ipsa icta est, petit.
Mortem ostentant, regno expellunt, consanguineam esse abdicant.
They threaten death, expel me from reign, deny I am kin.
Mater est terra; ea parit corpus, animam aether adiugat.
quickens
Utinam nunc matrescam ingenio, ut meum patrem ulcisci queam.
father
1st 3 lines a riddle:
answer: shellback
threatens with
I saved them to
dog attacks stone
not thrower
mother births, air
as mother to avenge
Heu, non tyrannum novi temeritudinem?
I know the rashness of
At si tanta sunt promerita vestra, aequiperare ut queam
To equal you I must do
tyrants
the
vereor, nisi numquam fatiscar facere quod quibo boni.
Regni alieni cupiditas pellexit.
other's kingdom lured you.
Par fortitudo, gemina confidentia.
assurance.)
Habet hoc senectus in sese ipsa cum pigra est.
spisse ut videantur omnia ei confieri.
slowly.
neque te mei mmiseret, surge et sepeli natum...
Mater, te appello, tu quae curam somno suspenso levas
I call on resting mother who pities me not, rise and bury your son.
Di me etsi perdunt, tamen esse adiutam expetunt
they wish to
quom prius quam intereo spatium ulciscendi dabunt.
death I may avenge.
Sed quid conspicio? Num me lactans calvitur aetas
age tricks me.
Cum te expetebant omnes florentissimo
helped you flourishing;
regno, reliqui; nunc desertum ab omnibus
help restore you
summo periculo sola ut restituam paro.
deserted you.
Vos hinc defensum patriam in pugnam baetite.
country.
Consternare, anime? Ex pectore aude evolvere
plan
consilium subito, mens, quod enatumst modo,
qui pacto inimicis mortem et huic vitam afferas.
to him
...regnum potior, coniugem macto inferis.
wife I sacrifice
metus egestas maeror senium exiliumque et senectus.
Flexa non falsa autumare dictio Delphis solet.
advice: twisted but correct
patria est, ubicumque est bene.
best.)
Priamus si adesset, ipse eius commiseresceret.
he would pity.)
Sed cum contendi neqitum vi, clam tendenda est plaga.
stealth
Haut facul...femina una invenietur bona.
good I can.
Lust for
(Equal courage, twin
Old age is lazy;
all appears to be done
Tho gods destroy me,
help me; before
What do I see? Old
I left you when all
Now I alone wish to
although others have
Go to defend your
dare to reveal recent
death to enemies, life
kingdom I possess.,
Delphi's
(Country is where it is
(If Priam were here,
not by force but by
(Hardly one woman
will be found good.)
Id magis verisimile esse usus reapse experiundo educet;
velut Orestes modo fuit rex, factust mendicus modo.
Adulescens, tam etsi properas te hoc saxum rogat
stone asks
Ut sese aspicias, deinde quod scriptum est legas.
what is written.
Hic sunt poetae Pacuvi Marci sita
bones.
Ossa, Hoc volebam nescius ne esses. Vale.
know this.
Patria est, ubicumque est bene.
wherever I do best.
Accius: tragedies
melius quam viri callent mulieres
women hardened')
postremo amplexa fructum quem di dant, cape!
give
Multi iniquo, mulier, animo sibi mala auxere in malis
increases wrong
quibus natura prava magis quam fors aut fortuna obfuit.
than luck
Imani tabe templum obvallatum ossibus.
decay, walled with bones
muliebre ingenium, prolubium, occasio.
disaster, opportunity)
Quid est cur componere ausis mihi te aut me tibi?
ourselves
nam tropaeum ferre me a forti viro
an honor
pulchrum est; si autem vincar, vinci a tali nullum mi est probum.
Virtuti sis par, dispar fortunis patris.
his father in fortune
nam non facile sine deum opera humana propria sunt bona
help
Nihil credo auguribus, qui auris verbis dei vitant
alienas, suas ut auro locupletent domos.
homes
Te propter tot tantaque habemus vastiatis funerum.
died
Veritus sum arbitros, atque utinam memet possim obliviscier!
forget
ut profugiens hostem inimici invadam in manus?
Oderint dum metuant.
as they fear.
practice teaches
from king to beggar
Though you hurry
To see yourself, read
Here rests Pacuvius'
I wish you to
My homeland is
('better tham men are
take enjoyment gods
evil heart
nature harms more
temple with much
(womanly talent:
what reason to match
win trophy from him
lose to him also
= in courage, not = to
blessings with god's
doubt augurs
who enrich own
your fault many have
fear witness, wish
flee foe to meet enemy
Let them hate so long
Adde huc quod mihi portendo caelestum pater
prodigium misit, regni stabilimen mei,
agnum inter pecudes aurea clarum coma
quem clam Thyestem clepere ausum esse e regia;
my wife's help.
qua in re adiutricem coniugem cepit sibi.
Vigilandum est semper; multae insidiae sunt bonis.
good suffer many plots.
Ipsus hortatur me frater ut meos malis miser manderem natos!
to eat my children.
Indecorabiliter alienos alunt.
breed
Scibam hanc mihi supremam lucem et serviti finem dari.
Matrem ob iure factum incilas, genitorem iniustum adprobas.
blame mother for right, credit father for wrong
Minervae donum armipotenti abeuntes Danai dicant.
Minerva
at infando homine gnato Laerta, Ithacensi exsule
friend to
qui neque amico amicus umquam gravis neque hosti hostis fuit.
Non genus virum ornat, generis vir fortis loco.
honor
Multa amittuntur tarditie et socordia.
and stupidity
ut nunc, cum animatus iero, satis armatus sum.
probis probatum potius quam multis fore
many
Pro di immortales, speciam humanam invisita,
tam egrediam, indignam clade et squalitudine!
slaughter and filth
Tot tropeae transdes, summam gloriam evorti sines tam desubito?
glory
Veter faborum terminus sic iusserat.
Principio extispicum ex prodigiis congruens ars te arguit.
you
exul inter hostes expes expers desertus vagus
Gaudent currunt celebrant, herbam conferunt donant tenent,
garland
pro se quisque cum corona clarum conestat caput.
Erat istuc virile, ferre advorsam fortunam facul.
fortune
Ego ut essem adfinis tibi, non te extinguerem
daughter to be your relative
tuam petii gnatam; numero te expugnat timor.
much.
nam si a me regnum Fortuna atque opes
god sends portent
golden ram
Thyestes stole it with
Always watch;
My brother urged me
rudely suckled others'
knew this my last day
Greeks give to
evil Odysseus neither
friend nor foe to foe
birth not generate
much lost by lateness
wrath enough arms
honored by honest not
see human shape
worthy of
yield trophies, give up
ancient limit ordered
augur's science dooms
greet hero with
manly to endure bad
sought
You fear too
fortune took kingdom
and wealth
eripere quivit, at virtutem non quiit.
...nam is demum miser est, cuius nobilitas miserias nobilitat.
foe same
Tereus indomito more atque animo barbaro
her
conspexit in eam; amore vecors flammeo,
depositus, facinus pessimum ex dementia confingit.
from madness
fp
Nihil neque pericli neque tumulti est, quod sciam.
disturbance
quod periti sumus in vita atque usu callemus magis
experience
Patrio exemplo et me dicabo atque animam devoro hostibus
father
Qui recte consulat, consul siet.
rightly, let him be consul.
Multi iniqui atque infideles regno, pauci benivoli.
few favorable
??
Pereant amici dum inimici una intercidant!
enemies also fall.
Mulierum genus avarum est;...auro vendidit vitam viri.
Vos enim iuvenes animum geritis muliebrem, illa virgo viri.
Young man shows woman's spirit; maid shows man's spirit.
??
Mors misera non est, aditus ad mortem est miser.
approach is bad.)
Miseri sunt qui uxores ducunt. At tu duxisti alteram.
You did
Nemo plus est qui pietatem colit.
he who cherishes piety.
Lucilius:
Aetheris et terrae genitabile quaerere tempus.
formed sky and earth.
O curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus inane!
cares! O emptiness!
Consilium summis hominum de rebus habebant.
cares of humans
Concilio antiquo sapiens vir solus fuisti.
ancient council
Vultus item ut facies, mors, icterus morbus, venenum.
Fandum atque auditam iterabimus famam.
vix vivo homini ac mongrammo
Vivite lurcones, comedones, vivite ventris!
Non peperit, verum postica parte profuidt.
Exhalas tum acidos ex pectore ructus.
couldn't take my virtue
wretch makes
struck by love he saw
committed evil deed
no danger, no
skilled in life, hard by
give life to foe as
Whoever advises
many hate kingdom,
Let friends die, if
sells husband for gold
(Not death but its
wretched who marry
No one is better than
Seek time which
O human
meeting on highest
only wise man at
deathly face
tell a repeated tale
sketch barely alive
live guzzlers, gluttons
not bear but sprawl
puff belches
from chest
obtursi ebrius
Qui edit se hic comedit me.
Nam si, quod satis est homini, id satis esse potisset,
enough for me;
hoc sat erat; nunc cum hoc non est, qui credimus porro
divitias ullas animum mi explere potisse?
enough for me?
Deficit alma Ceres, nec plebes pane potitur.
starve
Cecilius praetor ne rusticus fiat.
Cecilius the yokel praetor."
Maior erat natu; non omnia possumus omnes.
do
Non omnibus dormio.
Peccare impune rati sunt
punishment
posse et nobilitate facul propellere iniquos.
in suam enim hos invadere rem atque innubere censent
Qui te diligat, aetatis facieque tuae se
fautorem ostendat, fore amicum polliceatur.
swelled drunk
ate self, now eats me
if enough for man,
not so!
how much riches
grain runs out, plebs
"Let's not make
older, not all can we
I sleep not for all.
thought to sin without
repel enemies by birth
attack their property
loves you bewitched
promises to be your
friend
Dixi. Ad principium venio: vetulam atque virosam
cut off wife rather
than self
uxorem caedam potius quam castrem egomet me.
Muginamur molimur subducimur.
grumble, plan, be
overwhelmed
quod gracila est, pernix, quod pectore puro, quod puero similis.
like a boy
Tum latus conponit lateri et cum pectore pectus.
side by side, heart to
heart
at laeva lacrimas muttoni absterget amica.
wipes tears with organ
Principio exitus dignus exodiumque sequatur.
let end equal
beginning
Annos hic terra iam plures miles Hiberna nobiscum meret.
in Spain many years
Inde venit Romam tener ipse etiam atque puellus.
came to Rome young
non laudare hominem quemquam neque mi facere usquam.
neither praise nor
deed
Primum tollantur dominia atque sodalicia omnia.
revels and clubs be
ended
Paenula. Si quaeris, cantherius, servus, segestre utilior mihi quam sapiens.
overcoat etc. worth more than 'wise ass'
Denique uti stulto nil sit sapis, omnia cum sint.
nothing enough for a
fool
Illi praeciso atque epulis capiuntur opimis.
trapped by rich feast
coniugem infidamque pathicam familiam impuram domum
defiled wife and home
Homines ipsi hanc sibi molestiam ultro atque aerumnam offerunt; create bad from
ducunt uxores, producunt quibus haec faciant liberos.
wives for children
qua propter deliro et cupidi officium fungor liberum.
mad I create
children
Publicanus vero ut Asiae fiam, ut scripturarius pro Lucilio,
not tax collector for
writer
id ego nolo et uno hoc non muto omnia.
not what I am for all
qui sex menses vitam ducunt, Orco spondent septimum.
extend life six months,
die on seventh month
mordicus petere aurum e flamma expediat, e caeno cibum.
gold from flame, food
from filth
Facile deridemur; scimus capital esse irascier.
laugh; don't
lose temper
Principio physici omnes constare hominem ex anima et corpore dicunt.
soul + body
Animo qui aegrotat videamus corpore hunc signum dare.
sick mind, sick body
Homini amico et familiari non est mentiri meum.
warn right, predict
right
contra flagitium nescire bello vinci a barbaro Viriato, Hannibale we don't lose
neque inimicis invidiosam, neque amico exoptabilem
no envy, no
desire
pacem cum peto cum placo, ceu adeo et cum appello meam
when I ...
Ego enim an perficiam ut me amare expediat?
make it worth
her while?
Cocus non curat cauda insignme esse illam, sum pinguis siet;
good tail, bad eat?
sic amici quaerunt animum, res parasiti ac ditias.
parasite for one's
wealth
Certum est quidquid sit, quasi non sit ferre aequo animo ac fortiter. bear bravely
Agite agite fures mendaci arguta manu.
move, thieves
Eidola atque atomus vincere Epicuri volam.
atoms and void
nihil parvi ac pensi, uti litteras doceas lutum.
mud to read and write
Primo redundat aurum ac thesauri patent.
first great wealth
anus russum ad armillum
old woman to wine pot
Conmovet se nusquam neque committet, ut perat sibi.
no move, no lose
Omnia viscatis manibus leget, omnia sumet.
steal with smeared
hands
omnia, crede mihi: praeesse res auferet omnis.
steal everything
Huc alio cum iter haberet praeteriens venit.
here on way elsewhere
Deum rex avertat verba obscena.
Jupiter avert bad
omen
Mihi commodum statuerat dare, vestimenta et in toro reposueram. give self to me
At non sunt similes neque dant. Quid se dare vellent?
they don't offer
Acciperesne? Doce.
would you accept?
Hic corpus solidum invenies, hic stare papillas pectore marmoreo.
Here you will find a firm full body and nippless standing out on a marble-white breast.
deletionem nostri ad unum exercitus.
army totally destroyed
Austerissimarum herbarum sucos exprimebat.
squeeze sour juice
Haec virtutis tuae cartis monumenta locantur.
memorials on
this page
Ante ego te vacuam atque animosam
spirited
Tessalam ut indomitam frenis subigamque domemque.
neminis ingenio tantum confidere oportet.
unmated and
Let me break you.
Trust no one's skills.
Ruis hoc, et colliges omnia furtim.
secretly
Praeservit, labra delingit, delenit amore.
rush here, take all
Nequam et magnus homo laniorum immanis canes ut.
Intereunt labuntur, eunt rursus omnia vorsum
slides back
Virtus, Albine, est pretium persolvere verum
virtue!
quis in versamur quis vivimus rebus potesse
virtus est homini scire id quod quaeque habeat res;
virtus scire homini rectum utile quid sit honestum,
quae bona quae mala item, quod inutile turpe honestum,
virtus quaerendae finem re scire modumque;
virtus divitiis pretium persolvere possum;
virtus id dare quod re ipsa debetur honori,
hostem esse atque inimicum hominum morumque malorum
contra defensorem hominum morumque bonorum,
hos magni facere, his bene velle, his vivere amicum,
commoda praeterea patriai prima putare,
deinde parentum, tertia iam postremaque nostra.
quod sumptum atque epulas vicru praeponis honesto.
honesty
et velli mappas.
Plane stultitiae plenum est
big rascal like dog
all dies and
slaves, licks, sooths
Long definition of
feast before
napkins grabbed
full of stupidity
Law of the Twelve Tables
Rem uti pacunt, orato. Ni pacunt, in comitio aut in foro ante meridiem causam coniciunto
if compromise, announce; if not, announce case in market
Si furiosus escit, adgnatum gentiliumque in eo pecuniaque eius potestas esto.
Agnates shall rightfully take charge of a madman.
ex ea familia in eam familiam
from home to home
Cum nexum faciet manicipiumque, uti lingua nuncupassit, ita ius esto. bond = right hold
Tignum iunctam aedibus vineaeve e compace ne solvito.
no throwing from
beam
quandoque sarpta, donec dempta erunt.
first fruit til gathering
Usus capionem XII Tabulae intra quinque pedes esse noluerunt. not own strip
Viam muniunto. Ni sam delapidassent, qua volet iumenta agito. if not fixed, drive
Si aqua pluvia nocet,
if rainwater damage
Si membrum rupsit, ni cum eo pacit, talio esto.
if break limb, pay
equal
Si nox furtum factum sit, si in occisit, iure caesus esto.
Patronus si clienti fraudem faxit, sacer esto.
undefiled
Hominem mortuum in urbe ne sepelito neve urito.
Mulieres genas ne radunto, neve lessum funeris ergo habento.
may kill night thief
cheat client, be
can't bury dead man
restrained grief
Basic information on early authors:
Livius Andronicus: from Tarentum, plays, Odyssia in Saturnians
Quintus Ennius: born 239 BC at Rudiae, three hearts: Oscan, Greek, Latin, died 169,
tragedies,
Annales: 18 books in dactylic hexameter, a history of Rome chronicled by year
omits 1st Punic War
Gnaeus Naevius: served in 1st Punic War, quarrel with Metelli, tragedies: Romulus, epic
Bellum Punicum (1st)
Lucius Accius: born 170 BC at Pisaurum, parts of 46 tragedies, Brutus, died after 90 BC
Marcus Pacuvius: born 220 BC on Brundisium, died c. 130 BC, tragedies: Niptra, Paullus
Gaius Lucilius: d. 102 BC, satires: personal autobiographical form, varied meters became
only dactylic hexameter
Archaic Inscriptions:
Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus:
Ganivod patre prognatus, fortis vir sapiensque,
wise
quoius forma virtutei parisuma fuit,
bravery
consol censor aidilis quei fuit apud vos
aedile
Taurasia Cisauna Samnio cepit,
and Samnium
subigit omne Loucanam osidesque abdouict.
hostages
Honc oino ploirume cosentiont Romai
all
duonoro optumo fuise viro
Barbatus
Luciom Scipione. Filios Barbati
consol censor aidilis hic fuet apud vos;
aedile
hec cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe,
Aleria
dedet Tempestatebus aide meretod.
Weather.
Protogenes Cloui suavis heicei situst mimus
here
born of ...brave and
whose form equaled
your consul, censor,
he conquered Cisana
seized Lucania with
Lucius Scipio best of
men at Rome, son of
your consul, censor,
captured Corsica and
gave temple to
jolly clown Clovus lies
plouruma que fecit populo soueis gaudia nuges.
Hoc est factum monumentum Marco Caicilio.
Marcus Caecilius
Hospes, gratum est quom apud meas restitistei seedes.
Bene rem geras et valeas, dormias sine qura.
without care
Hospes, quod deico paullum est; aste et pellege.
wrote
Heic est sepulchrum hau pulchrum pulchrai feminae.
pretty woman
Nomen parentes nominarunt Claudiam.
her Claudia.
Suom mareitom corde deilexit souo.
deeply,
Gnatos duos creavit, horunc alterum
left
in terra linquit, alium sub terra locat.
before her.
Sermone lepido, tum autem incessu commodo.
proper bearing
Domum servavit, lanam fecit. Dixi. Abei.
spun wool. Bye!
gave fun with trifles
memorial for
Primae Pompeiae ossua heic.
Prima.Pompeia
Fortuna spondet multa multis, praestat nemini:
assures nothing
vive in dies et horas, nam proprium est nihil.
Salvius et Heros dant.
give (this monument)
Hic est illa sita pia frug. casta pudic. Sempronia
Sempronia who
Moschis cui pro meriteis ab coniuge gratia relatast.
husband
Here bones of
thanks for stopping
be well; sleep well,
Guest, read the liitle I
ugly tomb of
Her parents named
She loved her husband
had two sons, one she
alive, other buried
with nice speech and
she kept home and
Fortune says much,
live for day and hour
Salvius and Heros
Here lies chaste etc.
is honored by her
Helenai sororei meai Antistianai ossa heic cubant.
Here lie bones of my
Rogat ut resistas, hospes, te hic tacitus lapis
dum ostendit quod mandavit quoius umbram tegit.
stone asks you to stop
shows what buried
Pudentis hominis frugi cum magna fide
O.K. That's all. He
Tantum est. Hoc voluit nescius ne esses. Vale.
A. Granius M. l. Stabilio praeco.
you to know.
ADS auctioneer, Sí
Fuit Atistia uxor mihei. Femina optuma veixsit
Atistia my wife, good
sister Helen
wishes
wants
freedman
woman
quoius corporis reliquiae quod superant sunt in hoc panario.
remains are in this
urn.
Hospes, resiste et ëhoc grumum ad laevam aspiceí ubei
continetur ossa hominis ëboni misericordis amantisí
pauperis. Rogo te, viator, monumento huic nil mali feceris.
C. Ateilius Serrani l. Euhodus margaritatius de
Sacra Via in hoc monumento conditus est.
Viator, vale.
Ex testamento in hoc monumento neminem
inferri neque condi licet nisei eos lib. quibus
hoc testamento dedi tribuique.
"Stranger, stop and turn your gaze towards this hillock on your left, which holds
the bones of a poor man of
righteousness and mercy and love. Wayfarer, I ask you to do
no harm to this monument. Gaius Atilius
Euhodus,freedman of Serranus, a
pearl-merchant of Holy Way, is buried in this memorial. Wayfarer,
goodbye." By will no one may be placed here except the designated person.
Alei in venerieis rebus vitam conterunt,
mihei contra rite partam Venerem mors rapit.
my love.
C. Paguri C. l. Gelotis
freedman of Gaius.
Hospes resiste et tumulum hunc excelsum aspice,
tomb
quo continentur ossa parvae aetatulae.
buried bones of
Seputla haec sita sum verna quoius aetatula;
dignity
gravitatem officio et lanificio praestitei.
Queror fortunae caussam tam iniquom et grave.
fortune.
Nomen si quaeras, exoriatur Salviae.
Salvia
Valebis hospes. Opto ut scis felicior.
be happier.
Love destroys others.
Death takes
Pontia Prima heic est sita. Nolei violare.
.Prima. Do no damage.
Tu qui secura spatiarus mente viator
et nostri voltus derigis inferieis,
Si quaeris quae sim, cinis en et tosta favilla,
ante obitus tristeis Helvia Prima fui.
Coniuge sum Cadmo fructa Scrateio,
concordesque pari viximus ingenio.
Nunc data sum Diti longum mansura per aevum,
Here is buried Pontia
of G. Pagurus Gelos,
Stop. look at high
in which are
a little one; I gave
for my wool working.
I complain of unfair
If you ask, I'm named
Farewell and
deducta et fatali igne et aqua Stygia.
"Wayfarer, you who are walking along with carefree mind and turn your looks to these my
funeral gifts, if you ask who I am, being mere ashes, look, and burnt embers, I was Helvia Prima
before my sad departure. The husband I enjoyed was Scrateius Cadmus, and we lived one in
heart and twins in disposition. Now, led down by fatal fire and Stygian water, have I been
given to Dis to remain with him for long ages."
L. Opio C. l. Apolene dono ded. mereto.
C. gives this to Apollo
Menerva dono dedet.
Minerva.
Hercolei sacrum M. Minuci. C. f. dictaor vovit.
gave as a gift
M. Claudius M. f. consol Hinnad cepit.
L. Opius freedman of
He gave a gift to
to H MM dictator
M. Claudius took from
Henna
L. Aimilius L. f. inperator de rege Perse Macedonibus cepet
Macedonia
took from Perseus in
L. Mummi L. f. cos.
son of L. by his
Duct. auspico imperioque eius Achaia capt.
was tsken
Corinto deleto Romam redieit triumphans.
triumphed in Rome
Ob hasce res bene gesta quod in bello voverat
hanc aedem et signu. Herculis victoris
of Hercules
imperator dedicat.
L. Mummius consul
...N. f. Faber...cuneos duos in teatro faciendos coiraver.
building
superintending a
Fortuna Primig. L. Decumius M. f. don. ded.
Fortune
L. Cornelio L. f. Sullae Feleici imperatori publice.
Pompeio magno imperatri Italicei qui Agrigenti negotiantur
businessmen
L. Decimus' gift to
Ser. Folvius Q.f. Flaccus cos. muru. locavit de manubies.
Privatum. Precario adeitur.
auspices and power A
Corinth destroyed, he
As favor he deicates
this temple and statue
to Sulla by public gift
to Pompey by
(a contract)
private. entry by
permit.
L. Cornelio Cinna cos. iter. purgatum mense inr.
L. Mummius L.f. Manlius C.f. pr. duo vir.
Manlius consuls arranged
cleaned in ? month
L. Mummius and L.
pro ludeis turris duas d.d.s. faciundas coerarunt.
building of two
M. Anicius L.f. Basso M. Mersieius C.f. aediles
aediles paid to build
towers.
this
aerarium faciendum dederunt.
Confice piscim.
Med Loucilios feced.
L. Canolei off. sum.
L. Canoleus
treasury
Prepare the fish.
Lucilius made me.
I am from workshop of
Credis quod deicunt? Non sunt ita. Ne fore stultu.
Believe it? You're a
Enos Lases iuvate! etc.
Pompeius Sex. F. Imperator equites Hispanos cives..
help household gods...
named a
Bona pulchra Proserpina...eripias salutem, corpus...Ploti.
N. Vei Barca tabescas!
Amator.vest.faciat.aed. M. Ma.
Proserpina, curse ...
Barca, may you rot!
Elect MM best friend
fool.
knight
aedile
Quintio siqui recusat, assidat ad asinum...
on a donkey
Es bibe lude
If reject Quintius, , sit
eat, drink, play
Quei ager poplicus populi Romanei in terram Italiam P.
Muncio L. Calpurnio cos. fuit, extra eum agrum, quei ager
ex lege pleibeive sc., quod C. Sempronius T.f. tribunus...
public land in Italy when P. Muncius and L.Calpurnius weres consuls, which was
from the law which Sempronius the tribune...
Land distribution occurred in the late second century B.C.
Comedy, Satire, Drama: Hadas (3) and Cambridge (5) notes
comedy: from Greek, familiar to veterans
especially Euripides and Menander, pan-Hellenic,
see Livy 7.2 which is wrong
Greek new comedy to Latin: ordinary human emotions, middle class, dress,
morality, and manners Greek:
"A young man is in love with a charming girl in the possession of a pimp who is
about to sell her to another,
since the young man does not have the price. His cunning
parasite defrauds the young manís father of the
necessary sum. The girl is
discovered to be of free birth (having been kidnaped or exposed in infancy) and a
suitable match for the young man."
no permament stone theater until 55 BC (Pompey)
Turpio patron c. 150 BC,
unruly audience
aedile bought play
actors a crew of males, guilds
meters
Andronicus and Naevius were (sort of) precursors of Roman comedy.
Titus Maccius Plautus
254-184
born Sarsina in Umbria
worked in theater where he may have learned Greek
(Latin was his third language!)
wrote for a living: see Segal, Roman Laughter
argument: Plautus wrote of real Rome or for holiday vs real life
130 plays attributed to Plautus, Varro's canon is the 21 which survive
All probably follow Greek models although Captivi and Mercator are different.
qualities: robust wit, native Italian comic forms, ebullience, love of fun, farce over
plot, contaminatio: mix of 2 Greek plays, lyric cantica, varied meters,
ph operetta, nonce forms, bizarre identifications, jokes re law and myth
ìuniform surface style in which wildly hyperbolic comparisonî occurs
characters: adulescens amans, servus callidus, pater anxius
language never vulgar, paratactic grammar makes for easy understanding
Amphitruo: Jupiter's affair with Alcmene, Jupiter disguised as Amphitryon and Mercury
disguised as slave Sosia,
doesn't quite work as comedy
Asinaria: surge, amator, one domum; Demanaetus uses son Argyrippus, whore
Aulularia: Lyconides has impregnated the miser Euclio's daughter Phaedria, his
confession to the father creates
pronoun confusion
Bacchides: two sets of lovers with two fathers
Captivi: no sexual matter, slave Tyndarus enables master Philocrates to escape from
captivity and is scarcely saved
by his master, discovery of long-lost brother
Casina: father and son compete for maid Pardaliscaís affections so maid can marry slave,
maid is discovered to be
freeborn and marries young man
Cistellaria: stock new comedy, mistaken identification, lover Alcesimarchus
Curculio: parasite Curculio, identification by ring and girl Planesium given to lover
Phaedromus
Epidicus: clever slave Epidicus twice dupes his master Periphanes,
Menaechmi: twins reunited after stranger takes advantage of long-lost brother
Mercator: father Demipho in love with son Charinus' sweetheart Paicompsa
Miles Gloriosus: girl Philocomasium promised to soldier Pyrgopolinices (almost castrated)
rescued, mistaken ID,
play mocks the military
Mostellaria: clever slave Tranio dupes master Theopropides with story of haunted house
so that son Philolaches and
friend Callidametes may party
Persa: Saturnalia plot, Toxillus mocks pimp Dordalus
Poenulus: trickery to get girl, Carthaginian merchant Hanno portrayed sympathetically,
Punic words appear, characters found to be his long-lost children
Pseudolus: clever slave Pseudolus outwits pimp Ballio
Rudens: shipwreck, romance, Daemones protects the girls and then discovers they are his
long-lost daughters, final
identification and marriage of one daughter to
Plesidippus
Stichus: father Antipho tries to persuade daughters to leave lost husbands, they return
Trinumus: son Lesbonicus uses father Charmidesí money for parties, children marry
Truculentus: three in love with Phronesisum
Vidularia: only part survives, shipwreck, tokens lost
Statius: 220-168 from Milan, friend of Ennius and Turpio, palliatae
Saepe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia. (wisdom under dirty clothing)
Serit arbores quae saeclo prosint alteri. (plant trees for future people)
***Publius Terentius Afer (Terence) born in Carthage c. 195 BC perhaps black
member Scipionic circle
contaminatio, plagiarism:
Nullumst iam dictum quod non sit dictum prius.
(Nothing is written which hasn't been written before.)
His plays are more sophistocated, less humorous than Plautus. He avoided
common plots, has a refined even
subtle style, used comedy of manners, tamely
imitated Menander, his Latin is much closer to classical Latin than
Plautus.
manager Turpio, music by Flaccus
some quotes:
Dictum sapienti sat est
(a word to the wise is
sufficient)
Fortis fortuna adiuvat.
(fortune favors the
brave)
Modo liceat vivere est spes.
(only hope permits us
Quot homines tot sententiae.
(as many opinions as
Tacent, satis laudant.
(They are silent, they
Senectus ipsast morbus.
(Old age itself is a
to live)
men)
praise enough.)
disease.)
Amantium irae amoris integratiost.
Hinc illae lacrimae (from here those tears)
Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto.
human thing is foreign to me)
(I am human: no
plays: Andria: Glycerium seeking respectable marriage after Pamphilus seduced her,
Charinus is to be friend's daughterís suitor, he discovers she
is lost daughter, Pamphilus and Glycerium marry
Heauton Timorumenos: main character Menedemus punishes self in country for forcing
son Clinia to leave instead
of marrying Antiphila, found to be sister of Clitipho, two
marriages
Eunuchus: Chaerea in guise of eunuch rapes Pamphila, later they marry
Phormio: two-fold love story, improbable coincidence, Antipho marries long-lost
daughter
Hecyra: failed once, man Pamphilus leaving wife Philumena because sheís pregnant; when
he is to marry her
discovers he is father
Adelphoi: two brothers Aeschinus and Ctesipho are raised by guardians Micio and Demea
with different disciplinary
styles, ends with marriage
Caesar describes Terence: puri sermonis amator, but lacking in vis comica
Lucius Lanuvinus: opponent of Terence and contaminatio
Lucius Afranius: his Incendium revived by Nero, fabula Atellana, his fabulae riciniata
featured nude women
Laberius vs Publilius Syrus: latters plays survive only as one-liners
Quintilian: satura tota nostra est (satire is entirely ours = Roman)
Gaius Lucilius
c 180 Bc
inventor of satire, member Scipionic circle
30 books
poetry
Bk 3 journey
seemingly ruthless
drew on technical works of many fields and Greek
Hadas (4): Pre-Ciceronian Prose and Cambridge (6): Prose Literature
oratory, historian Fabius Pictor for Rome and his class
Marcus Porcius Cato
born at Tusculum: 234-149
fought in 2nd Punic War and in Spain
censor 184
nationalistic and anti-Greek: how much a pose?
delenda est Cartago: a legend before he died!
his handbooks challenge Greek translations
vir bonus dicendi peritus (good man skilled in speaking)
Rem tene, verba sequentur.
(Stick to subject, words will follow.)
**De Agricultura:
oldest surviving Roman prose: homely advice
small farm
lost Origines: a history of Rome; 7 books, 4-5 Punic Wars
moral and didactic style: paratactic, anaphora, tricolon, use of synonyms
speeches lost
Thieves who steal from individuals spend their lives in prison and chains;
thieves who steal from the commonweal, in purple and gold.'
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus; Hortensius, Mago (Punic) on farming
Cato vs Flamininus and Scipiones
virtus to extended family and then to state
history: Q Fabius Maximus, L Cincius Alimentus
Cambridge (8): Predecessors
nugae: trifles
immense significance in trivial genre = Hellenistic
Callimachus: a big book is a big bore
Cicero: Phaenomena (translation of Greek Aratus) and Laevius
O fortunatam natam me consule Romam
Cinna, Calvus
Greek sources: Callimachus, Theocritus, Euphorion, perhaps Apollonius Rhodius
Lucretius not greatest Roman poet, but perhaps greatest Roman intellectual:
uses Epicureanism to liberate man from fear of gods and death
emotional despite the supposedly calm philosophy he espouses
De Rerum Natura: 6 books of c. 1200 lines each of didactic epic in the standard
meter: dactylic hexameter
1-2: atoms and void
3-4 soul etc. explained materially
5-6 atomic (materialistic) explanation of world and phenomena
Vergil borrowed much from Lucretius
successful attack on neo-Pythagoreans and Stoics:
claim that theology makes men slaves
(compare to Darwinism vs creationism and intelligent design)
some features:
conscious archaism
periphrasis
compound adjectives
alliteration, illustration, imagination,
sensuousness, complex symbol, invoking Muse
Quintus Valerius Catullus
84-54 born Verona
un-Roman themes: nugae, love
woman as end in herself: Clodia = Lesbia (reference to poetess Sappho, not to
lesbianism)
116 poems: yacht, brother, love poems
longer poems: lock of Berenice
Attis (63)
Peleus and Thetis (64):
1-30 love
131-49 wedding
50-264 Theseus and Ariadne (coverlet)
303: Parcae
382-408: nostalgia,
then and now (moral collapse): a story within a story!
Poem 1 dedicated to Nepos
Is 51 the first Lesbia poem? model Sappho
58 as final curse
85: precursor of epigram: 2 lines with feeling
Hadas (6): Caesar, Sallust, and Others; Cambridge (12-13-14)
Caesar as person and literary figure
all except his Commentarii has been lost
culmination of Roman revolution: shrewd and resolute in both life and writings
skill in explanation
Civil Wars more personal
Bellum Gallicum printed as one text, but prepared yearly
(Book 1 has different style, more explanatory)
achievement, character, simplicity
Sallust 86-34 pro-Caesar
born Amiternum, tribune 52 expelled from senate
proconsul in Africa after Thapsus
retirement for writings
both Bellum Iugurthinum and Catilina mongraphs which are anti-optimates
theory: decline of outside threat weakened Rome morally
Historiae lost
proemia: general themes, best life in service to state, moral decadence
partisan: but Cato: esse quam videri bonus malebat
sketch of Sempronia
innovator, archaizer, anti-Ciceronian
Cornelius Nepos
100-30
De Viris Illustribus: 8 pairs = 16 books
superficial
Atticus praised to little effect
'intellectual pygmy'
earliest biographer
syncrisis
Varro: 116-27
born Reate
proscribed and pardoned
encyclopedist
Res Rusticae: on farming, bigger operation than Cato
De Lingua Latina: 25 books, lumpy text
overall 620 books (chapters)
admiral, magistrate
pattern: de hominibus, de locis, de temporibus, de rebus
From Caecilius Statius:
Placere occepit graviter, postquam emortuat.
died. Plocium
Saepe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia.
shabby clothes.
I really liked her, after she
Wisdom is often hidden by
Basic information on Plautus
Titus Maccius Plautus born at Sarsina 254-184 BC, 21 accepted plays have survived, two
can be dated accurately:
Stichus 200 BC, Pseudolus 191 BC, originals from Menander, Philemon etc.,
contaminare: to combine plots of
plays, Plautus exaggerates and expands his originals,
plays for the audience, varied meters, recitative,
fantastic, imaginative, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
Plautus Quotes
from Amphitryon
nam vos quidem id tam scitis concessum et datum
I am in charge of
messages/profit
mi esse ab dis aliis, nuntiis praesim et lucro
Mercury
11-2
Iovis iussu venio, nomen Mercurio est mihi.
Mercury
19
I come by Jupiter's order; my name is Mercury.
Quippe illi iniqui ius ignorant neque tenent.
Unjust know not right.
Mercury
27
Dixi futuram hanc? Deus sum, commutavero.
I said it? I'm a god; I'll
change it.
Mercury
53
virtute dixit vos victores vivere,
Mercury
75-6
non ambitione neque perfidia
win war by worth, not bribery
and treachery
nunc de Alcumena ut rem teneatis rectius,
clearly Alcmene is pregnant
by both Mercury
110
utrimque est gravidus, et ex viro et summo Iove.
her husband and Jove
ego servi sumpsi Sosiae mi imaginem
I have taken the form
of slave Sosia. Mercury
124
Qui me alter est audacior homo aut qui confidentior,
Sosia
153
I know more of youth, who walk alone.
iuventutis mores qui sciam, qui hoc noctis solus ambulem?
opulento homini hoc servitus dura est,
slave of wealthy is worse off
hoc magis miser est divitis servos
Sosia
166
ergo in servitute expetunt multa iniqua:
habendum et ferendum hoc onust cum labore.
Sosia
174
much injustice in slavery: you must carry the burden with work.
neque ego huc hominem hodie ad aedis has sinam umquam accedere.
Mercury
264
I won't let this man (Sosia) approach the house.
nullus hoc meticulosus aeque
most fearful rogue
Mercury
293
M: Timet homo: deludam ego illum. S: Perii; dentes pruriunt.
Mercury
296
M: He's scared: I'll trick him. S: I've had it: my teeth itch (from fear).
This is part of a long scene between Mercury and Sosia!
nonne ego nunc sto ante aedes nostras? non mi est lanterna in manu?
non loquor, non vigilo? nonne hic homo modo me pugnis contudit?
Sosia
405
Do I not stand in front of my house? Is not this lantern in my hand?
Do I not speak? stay awake? Did not this man just hit me with his fists?
nemo id probo
no one will blame Alcmene
profecto ducet Alcumenae; nam deum
not right for god to
blame human for his
non par videtur facere, delictum suom
wrongdoing
suamque ut culpam expetere in mortalem ut sinat.
Mercury
492
Experiri istuc mavellem me quam mi memorarier.
Actions speak louder than
words. Alcmene
512
Ex amore hic admodum quam servos est.
Love has made him savage.
Mercury
541
scelestam, scelus, linguam abscidam.
I'll cut off your wicked tongue.
Amphitruo
557
Apud erum qui vera loquitur,si id vi verum vincitur.
beaten for telling the
truth
Sosia
591
ita cuique comparatum est in aetate hominum;
sorrow after joy
ita divis est placitum, voluptatem ut maeror comes consequatur; more sorrow
neque lac lacti magis est simile quam ille ego similis est mei
as like as two drops of
milk
Sosia
601
voluptatem ut maeror comes consequatur
sorrow with pleasure
Alcmene
635
quin incommodi plus malique ilico adist, boni si optigit
quid.
Alcmene
635
plus aegri ex abitu viri, quam ex adventu voluptatis cepi.
Alcmene
641
'I have felt more unhappy at his going than happy at his coming.'
Virtus praemium est optimum.
Virtue is the greatest reward.
Alcmene
648
Quaene vigilans somniat?
What--awake and dreaming?
Amphitryon
697
S: Inritabis crabones. A: Tace.
S: You'll stir up a hornet's
nest. A: Quiet!
707
S: Verum non est puero gravida. A: Quid igitur? S: Insania.
719
S: She is not bearing a boy. A: What therefore? S: Insanity.
Enim vero praegnati oportet et malum et malum dari,
pregnant woman
needs
ut quod obrodat sit, animo si male esse occeperit.
apple to gnaw
Sosia
723
Immo mecum cenavisti et mecum cubuisti.
You dined and bedded with
me.
Alcmene
735
Mulier es, audacter iuras.
a woman--you swear boldly
Amphitryon 836
Non ego illam mihi dotem duco esse, quae dos dicitur,
my dowry not the usual
sed pudicitiam et pudorem et sedatum cupidinem,
restraint etc.
deum metum, parentum amorem et cognatum concordiam, behaving rightly
tibi morigera atque ut munifica sim bonis, prosim probis.
Alcmene
639
Am: Ubi tu cubuisti? Alc: In eodem lecto tecum una in cubiculo.
Am: Perdidisti. Sos: Quid tibi est? Am: Haec me modo ad mortem dedit.
808
Alc: Quid iam, amabo? Amph: Ne me appella. S: Quid tibi est? Am: Perii miser, quia
pudicitiae huius vitium me hinc
absente est additum.
Am: Where did you sleep? Alc: In the same bed with you in our room. Am: You've killed
me. S: What to you? Am: She has given me death. Alc: What (do you mean)? Amph: Don't
call me. S: What's wrong? Am: Wretched
I've had it. 'She's been seduced while I was gone!'
Alc: meo viro sic me insimulare falso facinus tam malum. he accuses me?
859
Voltum e voltu comparet; tristis sit, si eri sint tristes.
fit face to master's
Sosia
960
Amph: nunc domum ibo atque ex uxore hanc rem pergam exquirere. Now I'll go home
and ask my wife...
1015
Bromia: de ea re signa atque argumenta paucis verbis eloquar, I'll explain briefly:
1087
omnium primum: Alcumena geminos peperit filios.
Alcmene has given birth to
twins.
scene in which Hercules kills the serpents
Iup: tu cum Alcumena uxore antiquam in gratiam redi:
return to Alcmene
1141
from Asinaria
Num me illuc ducis, ubi lapis lapidem terit?
Do you lead me where stone
rubs stone?
31
demiror quid sit et quo evadat sum in metu.
end scares me.
Libanus
51
argentum accept, dote imperium vendidi.
Sold self for dowry.
Demaenetus 86
Dem: Me defraudato. Lib: Maxumas nugas adis.
Cheat me! Trifles!
91
Nudo detrahere vestimenta me iubes.
to strip a naked person
Libanius
92
bene merenti mala es, male merenti bona es.
evil for good: good for evil
Argyrippus 129
perlecebrae, permities, adulescentum exitium:
decoys, destroyers, wreckers
Argyrippus 131
fixus hic apud nos animus tuoí clavo Cupidinis
heart fixed with Cupid
Cleatreta
156
Magis istuc percipimus lingua dici, quam factis fore.
easier said than done
Cleatreta
162
quid modist ductando, amando? numquam expleri potest?
what end? never
sated?
Cleatreta
169
Dedi equidem quod mecum egisti,
Cleatreta
171
par pari datum hostimentumst, opera pro pecunia.
I've let you have the girl.'
a fair trade: girl's services for
money
diem, aquam, solem, lunam, noctem, haec argento non emo:
Cleatreta
198
ceterum quae volumus uti Graeca mercamur fide.
some free, rest we pay for
pro monstro exemplo est quando qui sudat tremit.
bad when shivers and sweats
Leonida
289
Magna est praeda cum magno malo.
Great loot with great
danger.
Leonida
317
Em ista virtus est; quando usust qui malum fert
fortiter guts to take blow
Leonida
323
lupus est homo homini, non homo, quom qualis sit non novit
Mercator
495
man is wolf to a man, not a man, when dealing with a stranger
neque quae recte faciunt culpo neque quae delinquont amo.
Philaenium 510
I approve right mothers and rebuke wrong ones.
Verba blanda esse aurum rere, dicta data pro datis.
pretty speeches gold coins?
Cleatrea
525
intro abi, name te quidem edepol nihil est impudentius.
Go in, shameless!
Cleatreta
543
Equidem hercle non perdidi, ideo quia numquam ullam habui.
Leomida
622
I haven't lost it, since I never had it.
Non omnia eadem aeque omnibus suavia esse.
Not all have same tastes.
Libanius
641
Decet verecundum esse adulescentem.
young man be modest.
Demarnetus 833
utinam male qui mihi volunt sic rideant.
pretends to smile
Demarnetus 840
Ergo sunt quae exoptas: mihi quae ego exoptem volo.
Argyr.
845
You've got what you want. I wish I had the same.
Fundum alienum arat, incultum familiarem deserit.
plows another's, deserts own
Artgyr.
874
from Aulularia:
scelestiorem me hac anu certo scio
Euclio
60
claudus auctor domi
Staphyla
73
ita inanais sunt oppletae atque araneis
Staphyla
84
Pauper sum: fateor, patior; quod di dant fero.
none worse than old woman
lame cobbler at home
full of cobwebs
I admit I'm a pauper.
Euclio
88
Nam multum loquaces merito omnes habemur,
we women as chatterboxes
nec multam profecto repertam ullam esse
no woman dumb
Me absente neminem volo intro mitti.
admit no one
Euclio
98-9
aut hodie dicunt mulierem aut ullo in saeclo.
Eunomia
120
Lapides loqueris.
You are speaking stones.
Megadorus
152
Ut quidem emoriar priusquam ducam.
to die before marrying
Megadorus
154
Scio quid dictura es: hanc esse pauperem. Haec pauper placet.
poor, but I like
Megadorus
174
Non temerarium est, ubi dives blande appellat pauperem. when rich greet poor, a plan
Euclio
184
M: Ain tu te valere? E: Pol ego haud perbene a pecunia. well? poor!
186
M: Pol si est animus aequos tibi, sat habes qui bene vitam colas.
Megadorus
187
Be of good spirit; a happy mind is enough.
E: Nunc petit, cum pollicetur; inhiat aurum ut devoret.
Euclio
194
Altera manu fert lapidem, panen ostentat altera.
Nemini credo qui large blandust dives pauperi.
he sniffs the gold; stone in one, bread in other hand; trust no one who flatters poor man.
Euclio: Aurum huic olet.
He sniffs the gold.
Euclio
216
Filiam tuam mi uxorem posco. Promitte hoc fore.
I ask your daughter
for wife.
Megadorus
219
quando occasio illaec periit, post sero cupit.
want lost chance
Megadorus
249
Aquam hercke plorat, cum lavat, profindere.
He cries over wash water.
Pythodicus
308
Censen vero adeo esse parcum et miserum vivere?
live so poor!
Pythodicus
315
quam minimo sumptu filiam ut nuptum darem
cut expenses
Euclio
384
Neque ego umquam nisi hodie ad Bacchas veni in Bacchanal coquinatum.
Congrio
408
Ita fustibus sum mollior magis quam ullus cinaedus.
'clubbed looser than a fag '
422
nam quae indotata est, ea in potestate est viri;
man rules without
dowry
dotatae mactant et malo et damno viros.
dowered wife kills
Megadorus
534
se aulam onustam auri abstruisse hic intus in fano Fide
hid pot
Strobilus
617
I foras, lumbrice, qui sub terra erepisti modo.
come out, lobster
Euclio
628
Ecfodio aulam auri plenam.
I dug up the pot full of gold.
Strobilus
709
Perii, interii, occidi. Quo curram? ETC.
I've had it. Where shall I run?
Euclio
713
Nam quid mihi opus est vita, qui tantum auri perdidi?
no life without my
gold
Euclio
723
Nunc eo alii laetificantur meo malo et damno.
others' mock my loss
Euclio
726
Lyconides goes to confess to Euclio.
L: Ego miser sum. E: Immo ergo sum et misere perditus.
731
Deus impulsor mihi fuit, is me ad illam inlexit.
God lured me.
Lyconides
737
Cur id ausuís facere, ut id quod non tuom esset tangeres?
Euclio
740
Why did you dare to touch what was not yours?
Quid vis fieri? Factum est illud: fieri infectum non potest.
Lyconides
741
What do you wish be done? It's done; what's done cannot be undone.
Quia vini vitio atque amoris feci.
From love and wine I did it.
Lyconides
745
Throughout this scene Plautus' masterly use of pronouns enables Euclio and Lyconides to
talk at cross purposes.
Dic bona fide: tu id aurum non surrupuisti?
Honestly, you didn't steal my
gold? Euclio
772
Filiam ex te tu habes.
You have a daughter.
Lyconides
781
Ut mi ignoscas eamque uxorem mihi des, ut leges iubent,
Ego me iniuriam fecisse fiiae fateor tuae,
Pardon me, let me marry. I wronged her through wine and youth.
Cereris vigiliis, per vinum atque impulsu adulescentiae.
Lyconides
793
at festival of Ceres rthriugh wine and youth
aulam auri plenam
a pot full of gold
Strobilus
822
L: I, redde aurum. S: Reddam ego aurum?
Return it! Return it?
829
from Bacchides:
sicut lacte lactis similest
fragment
latro suam qui auro vitam venditat
gold Bacchis
frag.
limaces viri
as like as milk to milk
brigand who sells his life for
slugs for men
Puer
frag.
quae sodalem atque me exercitos habet
She's exercised us.
Pistoclerus
frag.
Pol ego metuo lusciniolae ne defuerit cantio.
I fear bird will lose song.
Bacchis
frag.
Miserius nihil est quam mulier.
nothing worse than a woman
Bacchis
frag.
Ne tibi lectus malitiam apud me suadest?
couch persuades naughtiness
Bacchis
54
Magis illectum tuom quam lectum metuo.
fear woman more than couch.
Pistoclerus
55
quia israec lepida sunt memoratui.
words sound good
Pistoclerus
64
Apud me, mi anime, ut lepidus cum lepida accubet.
Bacchis
61
Friend, at my house we can bed lovey to lovey.
dato qui bene sit: ego ubi bene sit tibi amorem lepidum dabo.
Bacchis
64
It will be well: I'll give charming love to you.
quia istoc inlecebrosius fieri non potest:
Pistoclerus
87-8 nox mulier vinum homini adulescentulo.
There is no more luring arrangement: night, woman, and wine for a young man.
ut hic accipias potius aurum, quam hinc eas cum milite
rather take money than
soldier
Bacchis
104
qui tibi nequiquam saepe monstravi bene.
often gave you good advice
Lydus
133
Iam excessit mi aetas ex magisterio tuo.
too old to listen
Pistocles
148
Fiam, ut ego opinor, Hercules, tu autem Linus.
H to Linus
Pistocles
155
Satis historiarumst.
'Enough of your tales.'
Pistocles
158
Tibi ego an tu mihi servos es?
Which is slave?
Pistocles
162
ita me vacatum amore vinctumque adtines.
I'm all tied up by love.
Pistocles
180
Animast amica amanti, si abest nullus est.
Chrysalus
153
The girl all for her lover; if she is gone, he is nothing.
Ni nanctus Venerem essem, hanc Iunonem dicerem.
Pistocles
217
If I didn't gain it by Venus, I'd say I was Jupiter.
nam istic fortasse auro est opus.
We need gold.
Chrysalus
220
Adibo hunc, quem quidem ego hodie faciam hic arietem
Chrysalus
241
Phrixi, itaque tondebo auro neque ad vivam cutem.
I'll take the gold from the ram
at Colchis.
Deceptus sum. Autolyco hospiti aurum credidi.
trust a thief
Nicobulus
275
Tantas divitias habet; nescit quid faciat auro.
too rich to know
Chrysalus
333
Deos atque amicos iit salutatum ad forum.
gone to forum
Chrysalus
347
Cum se excucurrisse illuc frustra sciverit
discovers he's gone on a wild
goose chase
nosque aurum abusos?
We've stolen the gold.
Chrysalus
359
Pandite atque aperite propere ianuam hanc Orci
open doors
Lydus
368
Bacchides non Bacchides, sed Bacchae sunt acerrumae
Lydus
371
The Bacchants are not Bacchants, but the Bacchae are very fierce.
homini amico, qui est amicus ita uti nomen possidet
real friend
Mnesilochus 386
nam pol quidem meo animo ingrato homine nihil impensiust
Mnesilochus 394
As illam quae tuom
to woman who has ruined
your only son
perdidit, pessum dedit tibi filium unice unicum.
Lydus
406
Minus mirandumst illaec aetas si quid illorum facit
boys will be boys
Philoxenus
409
Paulisper est libido homini suo animo obsequi.
inclined to follow lust
Philoxenus
415
Non sino, neque equidem illum me vivo corrumpi sinam.
Lydus
419
I'll not allow this nor permit my life to be corrupted.
Alii, Lyde, nunc sunt mores.
Times have changed.
Philoxenus
437
At nunc, priusquam septuennis est, si attingas eum manu,
Lydus
440
extemplo puer paedagogo tabula disrumpit caput.
If you strike a young pupil, he will smack his teacher over the head with a tablet.
inhibere imperium magister, si ipsus primus vapulet?
Lydus
448
How will the teacher maintain control, if he is the first to be beaten?
Meretricem indigne deperit.
madly loves a whore
Lydus
470
Nam ego illum periisse dico quoi quidem periit pudor.
Lydus
488
I say that he has perished since he's lost his sense of shame.
mendicum malim menddicando vincere
rather outbeg beggar
Mnesilochus 514
Improbum istunc esse oportet hominem.
perfect villain
Pistocles
552
M: Quid? Amas Bacchidem?
P: Duas...
You love Bacchis?
There are two...
568
Non it. Negat se ituram. Abi et renuntia.
She's not going.
Pistocles
592
ita dentifrangibula haec meis manibus gestiunt
teeth itch
Pistocles
596
Inimos quam amicos aequomst med habere.
should have enemies
Mnesilochus 618
qui patri reddidi omne aurum amans
Mnesilochus 622
I, even a lover, gave my father all the gold.
Mortuos pluris pretist quam ego sum.
corpse more than I
Mnesilochus 630
Sed nisi ames, non habeam tibi fidem tabtam.
love gives hope
Mnesilochus 636
Tace modo; deus respiciet nos aliquis.
A god will help.
Pistocles
638
Hunc hominem decet auri expendi.
(self) man worth gold
Chrysalus
640
Nullus frugi esse potest homo,
no value unless in both good
and evil
nisi qui et bene et nale facere tenet.
Chrysalus
653
Quia patri omne cum ramento reddidi.
given father all
Mnesilochus 680
Enim nil nisi ut ametis impero.
I order you to make love.
Chrysalus
702
Nescis quid ego acturus sim nec facinus quantum exordiar.
Chrysalus
722
You don't know what I will do nor what a scheme I will construct.
Celerem oportet esse amatoris manum.
Lover's hand ought to be
quick. Chrysalus
736
Vos vostrum curate officium, ego efficiam meum,
Chrysalus
760
insanum magnum molior negotium,
metuoque ut hodie possiem emolirier.
You take care of your business, I'm doing mine, I build a madcap scheme; I fear I won't be
able to finish it today.
tam frictum ego illum reddam quam frictum est cicer
roast as pea
Chrysalus
767
Nil iam me oportet scire. Oblitus sum omnia.
forget all
Chrysalus
790
Quem di diligunt
Whom gods love die young in
full bloom.
adulescens moritur, dum valet sentit sapit.
Chrysalus
816
Dic, scelerim caput.
Speak, evil one.
Nicobulus
829
Dic sodes mihi, bellan videtur specie mulier?
pretty wench?
Chrysalus
837
Vir hic est illius mulieris quacum accubat.
husband with wench
Chrysalus
851
Rus misit pater.
His father sent him to the
country.
Chrysalus
899
Lippi illic oculi servos est simillimus.
slave like sore eye
Nicobulus
913
Miles Menelaust, ego Agammemno, idem Ulices Lartius
Chrysalus
946
sed Priamum adstantem cecum ante portam video.
Chrysalus
973
Turbat equos lepide ligneus.
Wooden horse makes a
perfect mess. Chrysalus
988
Inde a principio iam inpudens epistula est.
impudent letter
Chrysalus
1006
Prius te cavisse ergo quam pudere aequom fuit.
prudence then better than
shame now
Nicobulos
1017
Nihil ego tibi hodie consili quicquam dabo.
no advice from me
Chrysalus
1036
Dem potius aurum quam illum corrumpi sinam.
give money
Chrysalus
1040
stulti, stolidi, fatui, bardi, blenni, buccones
Nicobulus
1087
ita miles memorat meretricem esse
soldier says she's a whore
Nicobulus
1097
perdidit filium, me atque rem omnem meam.
destroy son and all
Nicolbulus
1113
Ambo aeque amicas habent.
Both have mistresses.
Nicolbulus
1115
Quis has huc oves adegit?
drove these sheep here?
Bacchis
1122
quae nec lac nec lanam ullam habent
neither wool nor milk
Soror
1134
Quia nostros agnos conclusos istic esse aiunt duos.
Philoxenus
1145
They say two of our sheep are shut in.
Meum pensum ego lepide accurabo, quamquam odiost mortem amplexari.
1152
I'll take care of him even at death's door.
Soror
Pol vero ista mala et tu nihili.
She's bad; you're nothing.
Nicobulus
1162
Si amant, sapienter faciunt.
If in love, they're wise.
Philoxenus
1165
Ego quidem ab hoc certe exorabo.
I'll convince him.
Soror
1177 Malo illos ulcisci ambo.
avenge
both
Nicobulus
1187
Accipias, potesque, et scortum accumbas.
Eat, drink, bed her.
Philoxenus
1189
Egon ubi filius corrumpatur meus, ibi potem?
where son corrupted
Nicobulus
1190
Caput prurit, perii, vix negito.
Head itches, can't say no.
Nicobulus
1193
Tam pol id quidem esse haud perlonginquom
life ís short
Bacchis
1194 Hanc veniam illis sine te exorem.
urge you to pardon
Bacchis
1199
It dies, ite intro accubitum,
Bacchis
1203
filii vos exspectant intus.
Day passes; go in to lie down;
your sons are waiting.
from Captivi:
seni huic fuerunt filii nati duo
Prologus
7
hic nunc domi servit suo patri, nec scit pater.
father
Prologus
21
Enim vero di nos quasi pilas homines habent.
Prologus
22
Itaque inter se commutant vestem et nomina.
Prologus
37
Ita nunc ignorans suo sibi servit patri:
father: see how
homunculi quanti sunt, quom recognito!
Prologus
50-1
Neque spurcidici instunt versus, immemorabiles
Prologus
56
Liber captivos avis ferae consililis est:
bird: once given chance
semel fugiendi si data est occasio,
him.
satis est, numquam postilla possis predere.
Hegio
116
Omnes profecto liberi lubentius sumus quam servimus.
Lorax
119
Tum denique homines nostra intellegimus bona,
when
quom quae in potestate habuimus, ea amisimus.
your
Ego, postquam gnatus tuos potitust hostium,
old man had two sons
unknowing slave to
gods treat us as balls
change name and clothes
unknowing slave to his
the gods treat us little men
a clean play
Captive is like wild
to escape, you'll never catch
rather be free
We realize our good fortune
we lose what we have. After
son was taken, I know my
desire.
expertus quanti fuerit nunc desidero.
Ergasilus
139
Laudo, malum cum amici tuom ducis malum.
praise you for caring for your
friend Hegio
151
Ut saepe summa ingenia in occulto latent.
hidden talents
Ergasilus
165
Cum calceatis dentibus veniam tamen.
I'll come with shod
teeth.
Ergasilus
187
Si di immortales id voluerunt, vos hanc aerumnam exsequi. If the gods will that, you must
accept these woes.
195
indigna digna habenda sunt, erus quae facit.
Lorax
200
No matter we do, we must put up with master's orders.
In re mala animo si bono utare, adiuvat.
In crisis good spirit helps.
Lorax
202
Nam doli non doli sunt, nisi astu colas.
managing is the trick
Philocrates
222
Dum id impetrant, boni sunt.
Men good while they seek a
favor Tyndarus
233
.Non ego erus tibi, sed servos sum.
I am your slave, not master.
Tyndarus
241
Scio quidem me te esse nunc et te esse me.
know we switched
Tyndarus
249
Quid tu? Servosne esse an liber mavellis?
wish to be slave or free
Hegio
270
Fortuna humana fingit aratque ut lubet.
luck moulds us
Tyndarus
304
Tam ego fui ante liber quam gnatus tuos.
once free as your son
Tyndarus
310
Est profecto deus, qui quae nos gerimus auditque et videt. A god hears and sees what we
do.
Tyndarus
313
Odi ego aurum: multa multis saepe suasit perperam.
hate
gold
Hegio
328
Ego me amitti, donicum ille huc redierit, non postulo.
not until
Tyndarus
339
Quod bonis bene fit beneficium, gratia ea gravida est bonis.
Hegio
358
'A good deed done a good man yields a large return of good.'
Ut eum redimat et remittat nostrum huc amborum vicem. that he redeem us in turn
Tyndarus
397
Meus mihi, suos cuique est carus.
He's mine, as each son.
Philocrates
400
nam quasi servos meus esses
as if my slave
Philocrates
417
Videas corde amare inter se.
how they love each.
Hegio
420
Fac fidelis sis fideli
faithful to faithful
Tyndarus
439
Serva tibi in perpetuom amicum me.
Keep me a friend always.
Tyndarus
441
Miser homo est, qui ipse sibi quod edit quaerit et id aegre invenit,
Ergasilus
461
sed ille est miserior, qui et aegre quaerit et nihil invenit;
ille miserrimumst, qui cum esse cupit, tum quod edit non habet.
wretched one always seeks food to eat; worse yet the one who seeks and does not find.
Neque iam Salus servare.
Safety can't save me.
Tyndarus
529
Quid loquor? Quid fabulor? Quid negabo aut quid fatebor?
Tyndarus
531
What shall I say? What shall I tell? What shall I deny or confess?
Immo iste cum sese ait, qui non est, esse, et qui vero est, negat.
Aristophontes 567
He says who he is not and denies who he is.
Nam is est servos ipse, neque praeter se umquam ei servos fuit.
Aristophontes 580
He is a slave; indeed, the only one his master had.
Est miserorum ut malevolentes sint atque invideant bonis.
Tyndarus
583
The wretched are backbiting and envy the good.
Iam ille hic nos insectabit lapidibus.
He'll pursue with stones.
Tyndarus
593
Iam deliramenta loquitur, larvae stimulant virum.
Tyndarus
598
He speaks madness, the ghosts stun the man.
Aiacem hunc cum vides
Ajax whom you see
Tyndarus
615
inter sacrum saxumque
between altar and rock
Tyndarus
617
Puerum te vidi puer.
saw you when young.
Aristophontes 630
Ubi ego minime atque ipsus se volt maxume.
don't want him there
Hegio
641
Vae illis virgis miseris.
woe for wretched whips
Tyndarus
650
Verba mihi data esse video.
'I've been duped!'
Hegio
631
Quid hic negoti? Quid ego deliqui?
what did I do wrong
Tyndarus
659
Decet innocentem servom atque innoxium
guiltless slave should boldly
face master
confidentem esse, suom apud erum potissimum.
Tyndarus
665
Illum esse servom credidi, te liberum.
assumed falsely
Hegio
675
Dum ne ob male facta, peream, parvi aestumo
If not wrong, let me
die.
Si ego hic peribo, ast ille ut dixit non redit,
memorable deed to save
at erit mi hoc factum mortuo memorabile,
me meum erum captum ex servitute atque hostibus
reducem fecisse liberum in patriam ad patrem,
to return him to country and
master
father
meumque potius me caput periculo
praeoptavisse, quam is periret, ponere.
Tyndarus
682
Qui per virtutem, periit, at non interit.
Tyndarus
690
Sed hoc mihi aegre est, me huic dedisse operam malam.
Aristophontes 701
It makes me ill that I have done a bad deed.
At erum servavi, quem servatum gaudeo.
Tyndarus
707
Quia illi fuisti quam mihi fidelior.
Hegio
716
Per deos atque homines ego te testabor, Hegio,
Aristophontes 726
ne tu istunc hominem perduis.
at my danger
dies worthy not all die
glad I saved master
because more for him
Don't totally destroy
him.
Diu ego hunc cruciabo, non uno absolvam die.
Hegio
731
I will be tortured for a long time, I will not be freed in one day.
Cur ego te invito me edde salvom postulem?
why seek rejected mercy
Tyndarus
739
Post mortem in morte nihil est quom metuam mali.
after death no fear
Tyndarus
741
Satis sum semel deceptus.
enough to be tricked once
Hegio
757
Quae illaec est laetitia, quam ille laetus largitur mihi?
Hegio
828
What is this joy, which he happily grants me?
Hic vigilans somniat.
He dreams watching.
Hegio
848
Nam filium tuom modo in portu vivom, salvom, et sospitem vidi
Ergasilus
872
For just now I saw in harbor your son alive, safe, and well.
Te facio cellarium.
I appoint you cellarman.
Hegio
895
clades calamitasque, intemperies modo in nostram advenit domum
Puer
911
slaughter, disaster, tempest in our house
Vae misero mihi, propter meum caput labores homini evenisse optumo.
Woe to me for making this fine man suffer so much.
Philocrates
945
Per tuom te genium obsecro, exi, te volo.
I want you.
Hegio
977
Cur ego te non novi?
Why don't I know you?
Philocrates
985
Et miser sum et fortunatus,
wretched and lucky.
Hegio
993
At nunc liber in divitias faxo venies.
You'll be free and rich..
Philocrates
1010
Quid huius filius?
'What about his son?'
Tyndarus
1015
from Casina:
Qui utuntur vino vetere sapientis puto
Wise take old plays
and wine.
Prologus
5-6
et qui libenter veteres spectant fabulas.
Sed tamen absentes prosunt pro praesentibus
.
profit as if here
Prologus
20
Postquam ea adolevit ad eam aetatem, ut viris
When she matured,
both father and
placere possent, eam puellam hic senex
son fell madly in love with
her.
amat efflictim, et item contra filius.
Prologus
47-9
meus pullus passer, mea columba, mi lepus
my lovey-dovey
Olympio
138
Mira sunt, vera si praedicas, nam viri
men
can't get rights from women
ius suum ad mulieres optinere haud queunt.
Myrrhina
191
Hoc viri censeo esse omne, quidquid tuum est.
Myrrhina
202
I think that all is the man's, whatever is yours.
nam ubi amor condimentum inerit, cuivis palcituram escam credo
Lysidamus
221
When love is added to a spice, I believe that food will please anyone.
senecta aetate unguentatus per vias
old perfumed through streets
Cleostrata
240
Illum mi aequist quam me illi quae volo contendere.
he gives in
Lysidamus
265
Liber si sim, meo periclo vivam; nunc vivo tuo.
live at your expense
Chalinus
293
Dies atque noctes cum cane aetatem exigis.
live with a dog
Olympio
320
Ego edepol illam mediam diruptam velim.
wish she burst
Lysidamus
326
Erit hodie tecum quod amas clam uxorem.
with lover not wife
Olympio
451
Solet hic barbatos sane sectari senex.
love for bearded
Chalinus
466
Miseriorem ego ex amore quam te vidi neminem.
no one more wretched with
love Alcesimus
520
Metuo ne non sit surda atque haec audiverit.
She heard it all.
Lysidamus
575
Per omnis deos et deas deieravit.
She swore she'd kill the man
she slept with.
occisurum eum hac nocte quicum cubaret.
Pardalisca
670
Tu amas, ego esurio et sitio.
You're in love; I hunger and
thirst. Olympio
724
Mala malae male monstrat.
vile advising vile one vilely
Olympio
826
Nebula haud est mollis aeque atque huius pectus est.
A
cloud is not softer than her breast. Lysidamus
847
Duobus nupsi, neuter fecit quod novae nuptae solet.
Chalinus
1011
I have married two and neither has done her duty.
from Cistellaria:
Aquam frigidam subdole subfundunt,
They pour cold water on us.
Syra
37
Amor et melle et felle est fecundissimus.
much honey and gall in love
Gymnasium 71
Perfifiosus est Amor.
Love is treacherous.
Gymnasium 72
Non potest suam rem obtinere sola sine multis viris.
Syra
81
She is not able to obtain property without many men.
Nihil amori iniuriumst.
All's fair in love.
Syra
103
Credo ego Amorem primum apud homines carnificinam commentum.
Alcesimarchus 203
Love first devised torturer.
Video ego te Amoris valde tactum toxico.
struck by love
Tertius
298
Cave sis cum Amore tu unquam bellum sumpseris.
Watch out if you fight with
Cupid. Tertius
300
Adhinnire equolam possum ego hanc, si detur sola soli.
I can swindle this mare, if
alone. Senex
308
An, amabo, meretrix illa est quae illam sustulit?
Where is whore who supports
her? Lampadio
564
Quid nunc supina susum in caelum conspicis?
Lampadio
622
why look at sky?
from Curculio:
Malus clandestinus est amor.
Secret love is bad.
Palinurus
49
flamma fumo proxima
flame next to smoke
Palinurus
53
Qui e nuce nuculeum esse volt, frangit nucem.
crack shell for nut
Palinurus
55-6
qui volt cubare, pandit saltum saviis.
get girl with kisses
At illa est pudica neque dum cubitat cum viris.
never had sex
Phaedromus 57
Credam, pudor si cuiquam lenoni siet.
if innocent pimp
Palinurus
58
Quisnam istic fluviust, quem non recipiat mare?
river too big
Palinurus
86
Magnum inceptas, si id exspectas quod nusquamst.
Palinurus
144
You undertake a great task, if you wait for for the impossible.
Nullum homini est pepetuom bonum.
no blessing permanent
Planesium
189
Auro contra cedo modestum amatorem, a me aurum accipe.
Phaedromus 201
If find a controlled lover, I'll give you gold.
cum collativo ventre atque oculis herbeis
big belly, green eyes
Palinurus
231
Facile est miserum inridere.
It's easy to laugh at the
unfortunate. Cappadox
240
Facit hic quod pauci, ut sit magistro obsequens.
let teacher rule
Cappadox
258
Tenebrae oboriuntur, genus inedia succidunt.
No food makes one
weak.
Curculio
309
Meus hic esthamum vorat.
He's mine, swallowed hook.
Curculio
431
Ubi ipsus? Cur non venit?
Where captain? Wny hasn't
he come?
Lyco
437
mulieres duas peiores esse quam unam
two women worse than one
Curculio
592
Non male creditur qui numquam reddunt, sed prorsum perit.
Cappadox
681
'Money is not ill-trusted to men that never repay you; it is gone forever.'
Th: Quodne promisti? Ca: Qui promisi? Ph: Lingua. Ca: Eadem nunc nego.
Dicendi, non rem perdendi gratia haec nata est mihi.
promise with tongue
705
Tu autem in nervo iam iacebis, nisi mi argentum redditur.
718
You'll go to jail, if you don't pay me.
Therapontigonus
from Epidicus:
Th: Minus iam furtificus sum quam antehac. Ep: Quid ita? Th: Rapio propalam.
12
Thesprio: I'm not the thief I was. Epidicus: How so? Th: 'I'm a highway robber.'
Th: Quia forma lepida et liberali captivam adulescentulam de praeda mercatust.
43-4
Th: Because he bought from the loot a charming wench.
Is est amicus, qui in re dubia re iuvat, ubi rest opus.
'A friend in need is a friend
indeed.'
Stratippocles 113
A morbo valui, ab animo aeger fui.
I've been well in body, not
mind. Stratippocles 119
miserum est ingratum esse homini id quod facias bene.
hard to do good with no
thanks Epidicus
136
Facile tu istuc sine periculo et cura.
easy without danger and
worry Epidicus
146
Ap: Pulchra edepol dos pecuniast. Per: Quae quidem pol non maritast.
180
Ap. Dowry is beautiful. Per. If without a wife!
Mihi istic nec seritur nec metitur.
Not my crop, but yours.
Epidicus
265
Sapit hic plene pectore.
excess of wisdom
Apoecides
286
Ibi intro, argentum accipiam ab damnoso sene.
Go get cash.
Epidicus
319
mihi hunc diem dedistis luculentum
dazzling day I've been given
Epidicus
341
Nihil homini amicost opportuno amicius.
A friend in need...
Periphanes
426
Virtute belli armatus promerui ut mihi
By arms I've earned
the favor of all.
Miles
442
omnis mortalis agere deceat gratiast.
All mortals ought to give
thanks.
Non novisse me meam rere amicam posse?
can't see own whore
Miles
480
Planissume meum exenteravit Epidicus marsupium.
Epidicus clearly has
gutted my purse.
Periphanes
510
Malleum sapientiorem vidi excusso manubrio.
dumber than hammer
Peripiphanes 524
Aliter catuli longe olent, aliter sues.
puppies and pigs smell unlike
Philippa
578
plaustrum perculi
'I've capsized the cart.'
Periphanes
592
Ego modo amator sum huic frater factus
lover to brother
Stratippocles 650
Maxima hercle iniuria vinctus asto, cuius haec hodie opera inventast filia.
wrong to be tied when I've found the daughter
Epidicus
715
At ob eam rem liber esto.
In return be freed.
Periphanes
729
from Menaechmi:
N.B. Shakespeare adopted this play in his Comedy of Errors. I call the
newly arrived Menaechmus Sosicles (his original name) to keep the two straight. Remember that
they look alike and share the same name,Menaechmus.
Mercator quidem fuit Syracusis senex,
There was an old merchant
from Syracuse
ei sunt nati filii gemini duo,
who had twin sons so like that
neither
ita forma simili pueri ut mater sua
wet nurse nor true mother
could tell them
non internosse posset quae mammam dabat,
apart.
neque adeo mater ipsa quae illos pepererat.
Prologus
17
Puer aberravit inter homines a patre.
boy wandered away
Prologus
31
Illius nomen indit illi qui domi est.
gave same name
Prologus
42
Idem est ambobus nomen geminis fratribus.
twins w/ same name
Prologus
48
Apud mensam plenam homini rostrum deliges.
Tie man by beak to full table.
Peniculus
89
ita istaec nimis lenta vicla sunt escaria
belly fetters
Peniculus
94
nullus melius medicinam facit
no better medicine
Peniculus
99
domi domitus sum usque cum caris meis
fasting at home
Peniculus
105
me retines, revocas, rogitas
you hold, call me
Menaechmus 104
Hodie ducam scortum ad cenam.
today whore to meal
Menaechmus 124
Uxorem abegi ab ianua.
I've driven my wife from the
door. Menaechmus 127
hoc facinus pulchrumst, hoc probumst, hoc lepidumst, hoc facinumst fabre.
this beautiful, proper, clever, masterly deed
Menaechmus 132
Avorti praedam ab hostibus.
I've taken booty from the
enemy. Menaechmus 134
M: Quid olet? Responde. P: Furtum, scortum, prandium. M: What smell of? Answer.
P: Theft, whore, lunch.
170
Nunc ad amicam deferetur hanc meretricem Erotium.
Menaechmus 171
Now I'll take the palla to my friend the whore Erotium.
Ut ego uxorem, mea voluptas, ubi te aspicio, odi male.
Menaechmus 189
How much I hate my wife when I see you, Erotium.
Meretrix tantisper blanditur, dum illud quod rapiat videt.
Peniculus
193
The whore whispers sweet-talk when she sees money to steal.
Nos prodimus ad forum.
I'll go to the forum.
Menaechmus 213
Voluptas nullast navitis maior quam quom ex alto procul terram conspiciunt.
Sosicles
226
The greatest pleasure for sailors is to see land from the deep sea.
Quam ob rem nunc Epidamnum venimus?
why come here
Messenio
230
Fratrem quaesitum geminum germanum meum.
to find my twin
Sosicles
232
Si acum quaereres, acum invenisses.
find needle (in haystack)
Messenio
238
hominem inter vivos quaeritamus mortuom
find dead among live
Messenio
240
In scirpo nodum quaeris.
knot in bulrush.
Messenio
247
Illoc enim verbo esse me servom scio.
I'm a slave.
Messenio
251
Nam ita est haec hominis natio: in Epidamneis
These types live in
Epidamnus: Messenio
258
voluptarii atque potatores maxumi,
greatest voluptuaries and
drinkers,
tum sycophantae et palpatores plurimi
many flatteres and
wheedlers,
in urbe hac habitant; tum meretrices mulieres
the swwet-talking
whores.
nusquam perhibentur blandiores gentium.
Tu magnus amator mulierum es, Messenio
You're a great lover.
Sosicles
268
Menachme, salve.
Hello, Menaechmus.
Cylindrus
279
qui mihi molestuís homini ignoto
to bother a stranger
Sosicles
293
Ubi ego noverim?
Where did I know you
Cylindrus
299
Ego non novi; cum hoc quem novi fabulor.
not you, I know him
Cylindrus
324
Ut eas maximam malam crucem.
Go to a bad cross.
Sosicles
328
Nam istic meretricem credo habitare mulierem.
whore lives here
Messenio
335
Sed miror qui ille noverit nomen meum.
how know my name
Sosicles
337
Amanti amoenitas malost, nobis lucrost.
lover's
loss, our gain
Erotium
356
te hic stare foris, fores quoi pateant
door's open
Erotium
362
S: Quicum haec mulier loquitur? E: Equidem tecum.
With whom is this woman
talking? Indeed, with you.
368
Ceret haec mulier aut insana aut ebria est.
crazy or drunk.
Sosicles
373
Dixin ego istaec solere fieri. Folia nunc cadunt,
the usual; leaves fall, in three
days
praeut si triduom hoc hic erimus; tum arbores in te cadent. tree will fall; stealing whores
Nam ita sunt hic meretrices: omnes elecebrae argentariae.
Messenio
375
Quin, amabo, is intro? Hic tibi erit rectius.
come in; better there
Erotium
382
Oboluit marsuppium.
She sniffed the purse.
Messenio
384
Eamus intro ut prandeamus.
Let's go in to eat.
Erotium
387
Ego quidem neque umquam uxorem habui.
never had a wife
Sosicles
399
Prandi in navi, inde huc sum egressus, te conveni.
Sosicles
401
I dined on the shiop, came here, and met you.
S: Pernegari potest.
can't resist her
Sosicles
414
Adsentabor quidquid dicet mulieri, si possum hospitium nancisci.
Sosicles
417
I'll agree with whatever she says to gain some hospitality.
Nunc, quando vis, eamus intro.
Let's go in.
Sosicles
422
Pallam illam, quam dudum dederas, ad phrygionem ut deferas.
Erotium
426
That palla, which I just gave to you, take it to the embroiderer.
Habeo praedam: tantum incepi operis.
have loot, begin work
Menaechmus 434
S: Non tu istas meretrices novisti, ere? M: Tace, inquam, You don't know these whores?
mihi dolebit, non tibi, si quid ego stulte fecero.
I suffe,r if I err.
Sosicles
437
Non hercle is sum qui sum, ni hanc iniuriam
I'm
not myself, if I don't prevent injury.
neque ultus pulchtre fuero.
beautifully
Peniculus
471
Pro di immortales, quoi homini umquam uno die
To whom have you givem
more,
boni dedistis plus, qui minus speraverit?
who expected less? I dined,
drank, bedded
Prandi, potavi, scortum accubui, apstuli
the wench, stole palla for
good.
hanc, quoius heres numquam erit post hunc diem.
Sosicles
473
quoniam sentio errare...coepi adsentari.
She wrong, I agree.
Soscicles
481
Minore nusquam bene fui dispendio.
never got more for less
Sosicles
485
Adibo ad hominem, nam turbare gestio.
I approach to bother.
Peniculus
486
P: Menaechme, vigila. S: Vigilo.
Stay awake. I am awake.
503
P: Non me novisti? S: Non negem, si noverim.
Don't know me? I'd not
deny, if I knew you.
504
Omnis cinaedos esse censes, tu quia es?
Sosicles
513
Do you think all are gay, because you are?
Quid hoc est negoti? Satune, ut quemque conspicor,
Why do all who see me
mock me?
Sosicles
522
ita me ludificant?
Si me quidem omnes adiuvant, augent, amant.
Sosicles
551
If indeed all help, increase, and love me
Propera, Menaechme, fer pedem, confer gradum.
Move it!
Sosicles
554
Idem quod semper: male habeas.
As always, treat him badly.
Peniculus
569
Viro me malo male nuptam.
Bad
man has me in bad marriage. Matrona
602
Clientes sibi omnes volunt esse multos.
All want many clients.
Menachmus 574
Aufer hinc palpationes.
Hands off!
Matrona
607
Scit, sed dissimulat malus.
knows. but pretends
Peniculus
608
Nugas agis.
You speak trifles.
Matrona
621
Aufer manum.
Hands off.
Matrona
627
Neque edepol ego prandi neque hodie huc intro tetuli pedem.
Menaechmus 630
I neither ate lunch nor entered this house.
M: Quis is Menaechmus? Ma: Tu istic, inquam. M: Egon? Ma: Tu.
651
What Menaechmus? You, I say. I? You.
Male mi uxor sese fecisse censet, quom exclusit foras;
wife punishes by excluding
quasi non habeam, quo intromittar, alium meliorem locum. better place to go
Si tibi displiceo, patiundum; at placuero huic Erotio,
displease wife, please
Erotium
quae me non excludet ab se, sed apud se occludet domi.
place sheíll shut me in
Nunc ibo, orabo ut mihi pallam reddat, quam dudum dedi; ask for palla and give better
aliam illi redimam meliorem. Heus, ecquis hic est ianitor? doorkeeper, call her
Aperite atque Erotium aliquis evocate ante ostium.
Menaechmus 667
M: Scin quid est quod ego ad te venio? E: Scio, ut tibi ex me sit volup.
677
Do you know why I come to you? Sure, for pleasure.
Ego tibi redimam bis tanto pluris pallam.
I'll give you a palla twice as
valuable.
Menaechmus 680
Abiit intro, occlusit aedis. Nunc ego sum exclussimus;
Shut out; none believe.
Neque domi neque apud amicam mihi iam quicquam creditur.I'll go for advice.
Ibo et consulam hanc rem amicos, quid faciendum censeant.
Menaechmus 698
Adibo atque hominem accipiam quibus dictis meret.
Matrona
707
I'll go to him amd treat him as he deserves.
Quid est? Quae te res agitat, mulier?
What bothers you?
Sosicles
709
Non ego istaec tua flagitia possum perpeti.
I'll not accept this.
Matrona
719
Iam patrem accersam meum atque ei narrabo tua flagitia... tell dad
Matrona
734
Pallam atque aurum meum domo suppilas tuae uxori et tuae degeris amicae.
Matrona
739
You stole my palla and gold and gave them to your whore.
Ego te simitu novi cum Porthaone.
I know you with Porthaon.
Sosicles
745
Novi cum Calcha simul.
I know you with Calchas.
Sosicles
748
Negas novisse me?
You deny you know me?
Matrona
750
Idem hercle dicam, si avom vis adducere.
even with grandpa
Sosicles
751
Quotiens monstravi tibi, viro ut morem geras.
Accept husband
Senex
788
At enim ille hinc amat meretricem ex proxumo.
loves whore
Matrona
789
Serviren tibi postulas viros?
want husband to be slave
Senex
795
Ibo ad hominem atque adloquar.
I'll go and speak to him.
Senex
808
Tun, senex, ais habitare med in illisce aedibus?
I live there!
Sosicles
820
Quaeso, quid mihi tecum est?
What have I to do with you?
Sosicles
826
Viden tu illi oculos virere?
his green eyes
Matrona
828
Ut pandiculans oscitatur.
gapes and stretches!
Matrona
833
Euhoe Bacche, Bromie...
Euhoe! Bacchus! Bromius!
Sosicles
835
Vae capiti tuo.
Woe to your head!
Senex
840
Perii, mi pater, minatur mihi oculos exurere.
to burn my eyes
Matrona
842
Fuge domum, quantum potest, ne hic te obtundat.
Flee lest he beat you.
Senex
850
Ibo atque accersam medicum.
I'll go get the doctor.
Senex
875
qui me vi cogunt ut validus insaniam
They make me crazy.
Sosicles
877
Atque eccum ipsum hominem.
I see the man.
Senex
898
parasitus..meus Ulixes
parasite, my Ulysses
Menaechmus 901
Salvos sis, Menaechme, quaeso, cur apertas brachium?
Medicus
910
Be healthy, Menaechmus. I ask, why to you bare your shoulder?
Quin tu te suspendis?
Go hang yourself!
Menaechmus 912
Med: Album an atrum vinum potas? M: Quin tu is in malam crucem?
915
Do you drink white or red wine? Why don't you go to a bad cross?
Occidis fabulans.
You kill me with stories.
Senex
922
qui te Iuppiter dique omnes, percontator, perduint.
Menaechmus 930
May Jupiter and all the gods damn you, interrogator!
Nam dudum uxorem suam esse aiebat rabiosam canem.
Senex
933
Just a while ago he called his wife a rabid bitch.
Ellaborum potabis faxo aliquos viginti dies.
drink potion
Medicus
950
At ego te pendentem fodiam stimulis triginta dies.
Menaechmus 951
I'll hang you and whip you for thirty days.
Abiit socerus, abiit medicus. Solus sum. Pro Iuppiter,
Menachmus 957
quid illuc est quod med hisce homines insanire praedicant?
Nam equidem, postquam gnatus sum, numquam aegrotavi unum diem,
neque ego insanio neque pugnas neque ego litis coepio.
Salvus salvos alios video, novi homines, adloquor.
An illi perperam insanire me aiunt, ipsi insaniunt?
Quid ego nunc faciam? Domum ire cupio, uxor non sinit.
huc autem nemo intromittit. Nimis proventum est nequiter.
Hic ero usque; ad noctem saltem, credo, intromittar domum.
Father-in-law and doctor are gone. I am alone. By Jupiter, why do these men say that I
am crazy? I've never been sick a day. I'm not crazy and I satart neither the quarrels nor the
fights. Healthy I see these other healthy men, I
know the men, I speak with them. Why
finally do they say I am crazy? What shall I do? I want to go home; the wife
won't allow it.
Here at least I'll spend the night.
Erum meum indignissime nescio qui sublimen ferunt.
Some are carrying off my
master Mesenio
1002
.Obsecro te, quisquis es, operam mihi des.
Help me, anyone!
Menaechmus 1007
Agite, abite, fugite hinc in malam crucem
Go to a bad cross.
Menaechmus 1017
At tibi di semper, adulescens, quisquis es, faciant bene.
Menaechmus 1021
May the gods be kind to you, whoever you are.
Ergo edepol, si recte facias, ere, med emittas manu.
Please, if you do right, free
me.
Messenio
1023
Liberem ego te?
I should free you?
Menaechmus 1024
med erum tuom non esse
I'm not your master.
Menaechmus 1025
Nunc ibo ad tabernam, vasa atque argentum tibi referam.
Menaechmus 1035
Now I'll go to the shop and bring back the gold and vase for you.
Nimia mira mihi quidem hodie exorta sunt miris modis:
Menaechmus 1039
alii negant eum esse qui sum atque excludunt foras.
Remarkable things have happened to me; they deny who I am and lock me out.
Socer et medicus me insanire aiebant.
They say I'm crazy.
Menaechmus 1046
Mepte potius fieri servom, quam te umquam emittam manu
Sosicles
1059
I'd rather be a slave than free you.
Mes: Pro di immortales, quid ego video? S: Quid vides? Mes: Speculum tuom.
1062 Mes: Great God, what do I see? S: What do you see? Mes: Your
copy.
Mihi est menaechmo nomen.
My name is Menaechmus.
Menaechmus 1068
Hunc ego esse aio Menaechmum.
I say he ís Menaechmus.
Messenio
1077
Hi sunt gemini germani duo.
They're twins!
Messenio
1082
Neque aqua aquae nec lacte est lactis
drop to drop identical
Messenio
1089
Spes mihi est vos inventurum fratres germanos
I hope to prove that you are
twins. Messenio
1102
Mi germane gemine frater, salve! Ego sum Sosicles.
Sosicles
1125
My twin brother, greetings. I am Sosicles.
Hunc censebat te esse.
She thought you were he.
Messenio
1136
Hanc, dicis, frater, pallam, quam ego habeo?
this palla?
Sosicles
1139
Prandi perbene, potavi atque accubui scortum, pallam et aurum hoc abstuli.
1141
Sosicles: I dined, drank, bedded the wench, stole the gold and palla.
Both S and M: Liber esto.
Be free.
1148
In patriam redeamus ambo.
Let's both go back home.
Sosicles
1152
Venibunt servi, supellex, fundi, aedes, omnia...
All to be sold; wife if
1158
Venibit uxor quoque etiam, si quis emptor venerit.
bidder.
Messenio
1160
Nunc, spectatores, valete et nobis clare plaudite.
Applaud loudly.
Messenio
1162
from Mercator:
Pater ad mercatum hinc me meus misit Rhodum,
two years
biennium iam factum est, postquam abii domo.
love.
Ibi amare occepi forma eximia mulierem.
Charinus
11-3
Emi atque advexi heri.
brought her here.
Charinus
106
Hominem ego iracundiorem quam te novi neminem.
Charinus
141
an boni quid usquam est...sine malo pmni
Charinus
145
Nescio ego istaec; philosophari numquam didici.
Acanthio
147
Vim metum cruciatum curam iurgiumque atque inopiam.
Acanthio
162
Father sent me to Rhodes;
I've been away; there I fell in
I bought her and
hot-tempered
good gained only with evil
not philosopher
A: Tuam amicam--C: Quid eam? A: Vidit. C: Vidit-vae misero mihi.
181
A: Sed scelestus subugutare occepit...mirum quin me subigitaret.
Acanthio
202
He began to pet her...Wonder he didn't pet me.
Num esse amicam suspicari visus est?
didn't suspect
Charinus
215
Miris modis di ludos faciunt hominibus
gods make sport of us and
send dreams
mirisque exeplis somnia in somnis danunt.
Demipho
225
Atque ego illi aspicio forma eximia mulierem.
saw a beauty
Demipho
260
Non sum occupatus umquam amico operam dare.
help friend
Lysimachus 288
senex...repuerascere
old man a child again
Lysimachus 295
signum pictum in pariete
painting on a wall
Lysimachus 315
Humanum amarest, humanum autem ignosceret.
love and pardon
Demipho
320
Homo me miserior nullust aeque
no one worse off
Charinus
335
Muscast meus pater, nil potest clam illum haberi/
My father, a fly, gets into all.
Charinus
361
_Quippe haud etiam quicquam inepte feci, amantes ut solent
I haven't given anyone
my love.
Demipho
381
Horunc illa nihilum quicquam facere poterit.
useless girl
Demipho
399
Contemplent, conspiciant omnes...
Everyone will look at her.
Demipho
407
Pentheum diripuisse Bacchas
Bacchants ripped Pentheus
Charinus
469
Sanun es?
Are you crazy?
Eutychus
489
Et inter nos coniuravimus, ego cum illo et ille mecum;
Pasicompsa 536
ego cum viro et ille cum muliere,nisi cum illo aut ille mecum.
We swore an oath; we
treat each other like spouses.
Decurso spatio breve quod vitae relicuomst
Demipho
547
voluptate, vino et amore delectavero.
wine, woman, song in old age
Odiosast oratio, cum rem agas longinquom loqui.
Eutychus
608
canum, varum, ventricosum, bucculentum, breviculum
deeds, not words
food
Eutychus
639
Quia enim me adflictat amor.
I'm madly in love.
Charinus
648
ut illum persequar qui me fugit
to pursue the one fleeing me
Dorippa
669
Miserior mulier me non fiet, nec fuit, tali viro quae nupserim.
Dorippa
700
No one more wretched than I: to be married to such a man.
Nam qui amat quod amat si habet id habet pro cibo
has lover in place of
Cocus
744
Palam istaec fiunt te me odisse.
Clearly you hate me.
Lysimachus 772
Utinam lex esset eadem quae uxori est viro
same for both
Syra
823
vitam amicitiam civitatem laetitiam ludum iocum
Eutychus
846
Cogito quonam ego illum curram quaeritatum.
I know where to look .
Eutychus
857
Si huc item properes ut istuc properas, facias rectius:
Eutychus
874
huc secundus vwntus nunc est.
hurry for fair wind
Loquere propere ubi sit.
Tell me where she is.
Charinus
892
Servata res est demum, si illam videro.
safe if I see her
Charinus
909
Ad patrem ibo ut matris iram sibi esse sedatam sciat.
I'll tell dad mom's
cooled off.
Eutychus
962
Qui bono genere nati, si sunt ingenio malo,
Blame self for bad if noble
born.
suapte culpa genere sapiunt, genus ingenio improbant.
Eutychus
969
Filio suo qui innocenti fecit tantam iniuriam.
injure own son
Lysimachus 979
Consuetudine animus rursus te huc inducet.
self-indulgence
Eutychus
1001
Suam quisque homo rem meminit.
think of own things
Lysimachus 1011
Certon scis non suscensere mihi tuam matrem?
mother not angry
Lysimachus 1012
from Miles Gloriosus:
Stat propter virum
Artotrogus
9-11
fortem atque fortunatum et forma regis
tum bellatorem.
He stands near a brave, fortunate, kingly man and a warrior.
quasi ventus folia aut paniculum tectorium.
Artotrogus
18
et adsebtabdumst quidquid hic mentibitur
Artotrogus
35
sunt homines quos tu occidisti uno die
Artotrogus
45
Offae monent.
Artotrogus
49
Amant ted omnes mulieres; neque iniuria,
Artotrogus
58
qui sis tam pulcher.
who are so handsome.
Nimiast miseria nimis pulchrum esse hominem.
handsome.
Artotrogus
68
illest miles meus erus,
Palaestrio
88
qui hinc ad forum abiit, gloriosus, impudens,
stercoreus, plenus periuri atque adulteri.
my soldier boasting, bold, smelly, full of lies and adultery
Is amabat meretricem acre Athenis
Palaestrio
100
neque peius quemquam odisse quam istum militem
soldier.
Palaestrio
128
Vae mihi misero, quoi pereundumst propter nihili bestiam.
Palaestrio
180
I am wretched since I have to endure that beast.
confidentiam, confirmitatem, fraudulentiam
Palaestrio
189
Erus meus elephanti corio circumtentust, non suo,
Palaestrio
235
nec habet plus sapientiai quam lapis.
and dumber than a rock
sororem geminam germsanum
twin sister
Palaestrio
238
Maxumum in malum cruciatumque insuliamus.
Sceledrus
279
Medicum istuc tibi meliust percontarier.
Palaestrio
292
Edepol facinus fecit audax.
Sceledrus
309
Non ego possum quae ipsa sese venditat tutarier.
Sceledrus
312
Mirumst lolio victitare te tam vili tritico.
Sceledrus
Mihi ego video, mihi ego sapio, mihi ego credo plurumum.
Sceledrus
331
Non minitari: scio crucem futuram mihi sepulcrum;
as wind scatters leaves
agree with lies
killed in one day
food warns
All women rightly love you,
It is a bother to be so
madly loved a whore
I hate no one worse than that
cheek and fraud
covered with elephant's hide
slave's trouble
better ask doctor
a bold deed indeed
whore on market
live on darnel
trust self
Sceledrus
372
ibi mei sunt maiores siti, pater, avos, proavos, abavos.
Non possunt mihi minaciis tuis hisce oculi exfodiri.
no threats; cross for my tomb; so dad etc.; can't gouge eyes
Nescio quid credam egomet mihi iam.
don't know what to believe
Sceledrus
402
geminam germanam meam hic sororem
twin sister here
Philocomasium 441
Plus oportet scire servom quam loqui.
know more than tell
Palaestrio
477
non hisce homines me marem, sed feminam
woman not man
Periplectomenus 486
similiorem mulierem
similar woman
Sceledrus
528
me fuisse excordem, caecum, incogitabilem
me a blockhead
Sceledrus
544
Nam ex uno puteo similior numquam potis
two drops of water no more
like than she
aqua aquai sumi quam haec est atque ista hospita.
and guest
Sceledrus
551
ex ista nassa ego hodie escam petam
nibble at bait
Sceledrus
581
Nam bene consultum inconsultum est, si id inimiciis usuist a good plan bad if it helps
enemy Palaestrio
600
Facilest imperium in bonis.
easy to command the good
Palaestrio
611
Nam nisi qui ipse amavit, aegre amantis ingenium inspicit takes lover to understand
lover Periplectomenus 639
Tu homo et alteri sapienter potis es consulere et tibi.
Palaestrio
684
You can advise wisely for self and other.
Nam bona uxor suave ductust.
good to marry good wife
Periplectomenus 685
Haec atque horum similia alia damna multa mulierum
Periplectomenus 699
me uxore prohibent
Those expenses deter me from
marrying.
Nam hercle si istam semel amiseris
liberty lost not easily
regained
libertatem, haud facile in eundem rusum restitues locum.
Palaestrio
701
Ille miserrimum se retur, minimum qui misit mihi.
cheap sad
Periplectomenus 712
Qui deorum consilia culpet, stultus inscitusque sit.
stupid to blame the gods
Peri.
736
Serviendae servituti ego servos instruxi mihi.
taught slaves
745
Quod eorum causa obsonatumst culpant et comedunt .
Periplectomenus 756
Bonus bene ut malos descripsit mores.
Palaestrio
763
Aequi istuc facio, dum modo
supports self with
eam des quae sit quaestuosa, quae alat corpus corpore,
cuique sapiat pectus; nam cor non potest, quod nulla habet.
Palaestrio
784
miles quem ad modum potis sit deasciari
Acroteleutium 884
At nemo solus satis sapit.
Peri.
885
Mala mulier mers est.
Periplectomenus 894
magnidicum, cincinnatum, moechum unguentatum
Acroteleutium 923
a luculenta atque festiva femina
Palaestrio
958
Senis huius uxor Periplectomeni ex proxumo
Palaestrio
969
quae te tamquam oculos amet
Palaestrio
984
hac forma et factis frustra
Pyrgopolinices 1021
expectando excrucior
Pyrgopolinices 1022
Nullumst hoc stolidius saxum.
Palaestrio
1024
Conlaudo formam et faciem et virtutis commemorato.
Palaestrio
1027
Praise his appearance and face and recall his deeds.
M: Tecum aetatem exigere ut liceat-- P: Nimium optas.
You ask too much.
1039
Multae aliae idem istuc cupiunt.
Pyrgopolinices 1040
Nam volturio plus humani credo est.
Palaestrio
1044
Nam ita me occursant multae; meminisse haud possum.
Pyrgopolinices 1047
So many come to mind that I cannot recall which.
Eu ecastor nimis vilest tandem.
Milphidippa 1062
Non mihi avaritia umquam innatast.
Pyrgopolinices 1063
Periplectomenus
gripe/eat
good describes bad
give one who wants money,
body, has no mind
soldier to lose
'two heads better than one'
woman bad merchandise
nuisance
from a fine festive woman
Periplectomenus' wife
loves you as her eyes
handsome and bold in vain
I'm tortured by waiting.
dumber than a rock
May I spend my life with you.
Many woman ask for that.
more humanity in vulture
too cheap
not greedy
Ita me mea forma habet sollicitum.
my beauty bothers me
Pyrgopolinices 1087
Quin si voluntate nolet, vi extrudam foras.
use force
Pyrgopolinices 1124
quom ex alto puteo sursum ad summum escenderis.
Periplectomenus 699
maxumum periclum inde esse ab summo ne rusum cadas? worse fall from top
Militem lepide, et facete et laute ludificarier volo.
Palaestrio
1161
I wish to trick the soldeir cleverly, charmingly, cutely.
Nunc nos tempus est malas peioris fieri.
two bad worse
Acroteleutium 1218
Ut amari videor.
How I seem to be loved.
Pyrgopolinices 1223
Ut tu inclituís apud mulieres.
How renowned among ladies
Palaestrio
1227
Patiar, quando ita Venus volt.
I'll accept it.
Pyrgopolinices 1227
Nam tu te vilem feeris, si te ultro largiere.
Let her come.
Palaestrio
1243
Naso haec plus videt quam oculis.
see better with nose
Pyrgopolinices 1259
Quia stare nequeo.
because I can't stand.
Acroteleutium 1260
Omnes mulieres te amant ut quaeque aspexit.
love at first sight
Palaestrio
1264
Ut tremit atque extimuit, postquam te aspexit.
lovestruck
Milphidippa 1272
Vide ne sies in exspectatione, ne illam animi excrucies.
Don't wait lest you torture her
Milphidippa 1279
.Mulier profecto natast ex ipsa Mora.
woman child of Delay
Pleusicles
1292
Orant te ut eas, ventus operam dum dat, ut velum explicent.
Pleusicles
1317
They beg you to come with fair wind so they can sail.
Fer aequo animo.
Endure bravely.
Pyrgopolinices 1343
alios fideliores semper habuisti
others more faithful
Palaestrio
1354
Et si intestatus non abeo hinc
if I get away a man
Pyrgopolinices 1436
salvis testibus
as safe witness
Cario
1420
Nam postquam porta exierunt, nil cessarunt ilico
Servus
1432
osculari atque amplexari inter se.
At once they kiss and hug.
iure factum iudico
Pyrgopolinices 1435
a true bill
from Mostellaria:
Ego pol te ruri, si vivam, ulciscar probe.
get even on farm
Grumio
4
An ruri censes te esse? Abscede ab aedibus.
Get away from house.
Tranio
8
te in pistrinum scis acutum tradier.
you will be punished
Grumio
17
Lubet potare, amare, scorta ducere.
I drink and wench.
Tranio
36
Tu fortunatuís, ego miser: patiunda sunt.
must take my misery
Grumio
49
Decet me amare et te bubulcitarier.
I love, you farm.
Tranio
53
Quia numquam merui, te meruisti et nunc meres.
You deserve it.
Grumio
59
nimio celerius veniet quod noles quam illud quod cupide petas.
Grumio
72-3
'Swifter come the things unwelcome, swifter far, than things we crave.'
Nam eccum erilem filium
Grumio
82-3
video, corruptum ex adulescente optumo.
I see my master's son, a good one now corrupted.
Cor dolet, cum scio ut nunc sum atque ut fui
sick to see what I am
Philolaches 149
Id vero meopte ingenio repperi.
My own disposition made me
.
Philolaches 156
Non vestem amatores amant, sed vestis fartim.
Lovers love the woman, not
the dress
Scapha
169
Virtute formae id evenit, te ut deceat quidquid habeas.
Scapha
173
You make the dress, not the dress makes you.
Ego verum amo...mendacem odi.
Love honesty, hate liar.
Philolaches 181
Matronae, non meretricium est unum inservire amantem.
Scapha
190
A married woman, not a whore, should serve only one man.
Insperata accidunt magis saepe quam quae speres.
Scapha
197
'More oft come true our hope-nots than our hopes.'
Gaudeo moho nihil esse huius causa.
glad to be ruined for her
Philolaches 207
Libera es iam. Tu iam quod quaerebas habes.
Scapha
209
Ut fama est homini, exin solet pecuniam invenire.
Philematium 227
Ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives.
free as you wanted
get money from reputation
Siquidem hercle vendundust pater, venibit multo potius.
rather sell dad
Philolaches 229
Videas eam medullitus me amare.
loves me with whole heart
Philolaches 243
Mulier quae se suamque aettem spernit, speculo ei usus est. Doubtful women need a
mirror. Scapha
250
ebur atramento candefacere
to whiten ivory with ink
Scapha
259
mulier recte olet, ubi nihil olet
smells best when
doesn't
Scapha
273
Pulchra mulier nuda erit quam purpurata pulchior.
nude prettiest
Scapha
289
Nimis diu abstineo manum.
gotta touch her
Philolaches 290
Tu me amas, ego te amo.
You love me, I love you.
Philolaches 305
Erus advenit peraegre, periit Tranio.
master ís back, Teanio
doomed
Tranio
353
fodere puteum, ubi sitis fauces tenet
dig well when thirsty
Philolaches 379
Ubi maxime esse vis: cum hac.
where want:with girl
Tranio
392
Omnium primumdum aedes iam face occlusaen sient,
Tranio
400
First of all shut the house, bolt the doors.
Nimio edepol ille potuit exspectatior
Tranio
442
venire, qui te nuntiaret mortuom.
Rather
meet announcer of your death.
Heus, ecquis intust? Aperitin fores?
Anyone home? Open the door?
Theopropide 445
Eho an tu tetigisti has aedis?
Did you touch the door?
Tranio
453
Fuge, obsecro atque abscede ab aedibus.
Flee, run away.
Tranio
460
Hospes necavit hospitem captum manu.
host killed guest
Tranio
479
Ait venisse illum in somnis ad se mortuom.
said dead came to him
Tranio
490
Interdum inepte stultus es.
I think you are dumb.
Tranio
495
Hospes me necavit.
The host killed me.
Tranio
501
Fuge, obsecro.
Please, flee.
Tranio
513
Et ego--tibi hodie et det, senex, magnum malum. _
Tranio
529
Pro di immortales, obsecro vestram fidem,
quid ego hodie negoti confeci mali.
May Hercules damn you, old man. Really, what a great deed I've done.
Nihil est miserius quam animus hominis conscius.
nothing worse than a guilty
mind Tranio
544
Tam facile vinces quam pirum volpes comest.
as easy as a fox eating a pear
Tranio
559
natus dis inimicis omnibus
born under an evil star
Tranio
562
Non dat, non debet.
He'll pay nothing, he owes
nothing.
Tranio
595
Neque ego taetriorem beluam Tranio
Tranio
607
vidisse me umquam quemquam quam te censeo.
I think that I have never seen
a fouler beast than you.
Non edepol tu nunc me istis verbis territas.
don't scare me
Misargyrides 608
Responde mihi: quid eo est argento factum?
Where ís the money?
Theopropides 635
Aedis filius tuos emit.
Your son bought a house.
Tranio
637
Nec minus bono cum iure, quam danisticum.
no worse men moneylenders
Tranio
658
calidum optimum mendacium
hot lie the best
Tranio
665
Peius posthac fore quam fuit mihi.
future worse than past
Simo
710
Vita quam sit brevis simul cogita.
Think how short life is.
Simo
727
ventus navem nostram deseruit
wind has failed our ship
Tranio
737
Tam liquidust quam liquida esse tempestas solet.
as
calm as a storm
Tranio
751
qui solus facio facinora immortalia
immortal deeds I do alone
Tranio
777
Ero servus multis modis fidus.
slave devoted to master
Tranio
785
Simul flare sorbereque haud factu facilest.
hard to sip and blow
Tranio
791
Sibi quisque ruri metit.
Each for himself at harvest.
Theopropides 799
lucri quidquid est, id domum trahere
get what you can
Theopropides 801
At tu isto ad vos optuere, quoniam cornicem nequis
.
Tranio
837
conspicari, si volturios forte possis contui.
Since no one sees the crow, perhaps you can see the vultures.
Boni sunt bonust; improbi sunt,, malus fit.
He's good to the good, bad to
bad. Phaniscus
873
Illi erunt bucaedae multo potius quam ego sim restio.
Phaniscus
884
'They'll go in for tanning long before I go for roping.'
Mihi sum, libet esse.
I live for myself and
like it.
Phaniscus
889
Dat sapio, si aps te modo uno caveo.
smart to guard against you
Theopropides 928
Erus hic noster potat.
Our master drinks here.
Phaniscus
946
scorta duci, pergraecari, fidicinas tibicinas ducere
Phaniscus
960
whores to be led, be wild like a Greek, lead out the flute girls
Postquam pater ad mercatum hinc abiit, hic tibicinam liberavit.
Phaniscus
971
After his father went on a business trip, he freed a music girl.
Unus istic dervos est sacerrimus Tranio
Tranio the worst curse
Phaniscus
983
amburet corculum carbunculus
burn like a lump of coal
Phaniscus
986
Vicine, perii, interii.
Neighbor, I'm ruined.
Theopropides 1030
Pergunt turbare usque ut ne quid possit conquiescere.
Tranio
1057
They continue to disturb everything so I can't put things to rest.
quisquam quam lapidi
no less than a rock
Tranio
1072
Veniunt rure rustici.
farmers come from the farm
Tranio
1076
Ego interim hnc aram occupabo.
I'll sit at altar.
Tranio
1094
consilia firmiora sunt de divinis locis
solid advice from altar
Tranio
1104
cerebrum omne e capite emunxti meo
cleaned out my brain
Tranio
1110
Cum pedibus, manibus, cum digitis, auribus, oculis, labris.
Tranio
1118
Ego ferre faxo...in crucem.
to the cross
Theopropides 1133
Filium corrupuisse aio te meum.
You corrupted my son.
Theopropides 1138
Fateor potavisse, amicam liberasse.
he drank, freed a girl
Tranio
1139
Me ludificatust.
made me look like a fool
Theopropides 1147
Omnium primum sodalem me esse scis gnato tuo.
Callidamates 1153
You know that I am your son's best friend.
Immo me praesente amato bibito, facito quod lubet.
Theopropides 1164
Rather in my presence love, drink, do what you want.
verberibus caedere multum pendens.
Theopropides 1167
Quasi non cras iam commeream aliam noxiam
Tranio
1178
as if you won't find something to punish me for tomorrow
Age, abi, abi impune. Em huic habeto gratiam.
Theopropides 1180
Spectatores, fabula haec est acta, vos plausum date.
You'll be tortured.
OK, but thank him. Applaud
us.
from: Persa
Qui amans egens ingressus est princeps in Amoris vias,
broke lover toils more than
Hercules
superavit aerumnis suis aerumnas Herculi.
Toxilus
1-2
Ego neque lubenter servio.
I'm an unwilling slave.
Sagaristo
10
quasi lippo oculo
as if a sore eye
Sagaristo
11
aquam a punice
water from a pumice stone
Sagaristo
41
Cave fuas mi in quaestione.
Don't make me look for you.
Toxilus
51
Pater, avos, proavos, abavo, atavos, tritavos
quasi mures semper edere alienum cibum.
Saturio
57-8
My father, gf, ggf, gggf, ggggf, gggggf ate others' food like a mouse.
Sed sumne ego stultus, qui rem curo publicam,
Saturio
75
ubi sint magistratus, quos curare oporteat?
Very stupid to care for country, when there are officials.
Dum mane est, omnis esse mortalis decet.
all should eat in morning
Saturio
113
Nihili parasitus est, cui argentum domi est.
rich sponge ruined
Saturio
120
quia forma lepida et liberali est
because she's beautiful
Toxlus
130
Pereunt reliquiae.
leftovers die
Saturio
138
Ter tanto peior ipsa est quam illam tu esse vis.
three times worse
Saturio
153
pro barda et pro rustica aps te.
me a ninny
Sophoclidisca 169
Amas pol misera; id scatit animus.
lover feeling bad
Sophoclidisca 177
Miser est qui amat.
Lover feels miserable.
Lemniselenus 179
Melius quam tu qui docuisti.
'Better than my teacher.'
Paegnium
184
Istuc marinus passer per circum solet.
ostrich in a circus
Paegnium
199
Nullus esse hodie hoc puero peior perhibetur. little rascal
Sophoclidisca 202
Tuo ex ingenio mores alienos probas.
judge others by self
Paegnium
212
lenonis familiae
pimp's house
Sophoclidisca 213
Qua enim nihil amas, quom ingratum amas.
unwanted, useless
Paegnium
228
confidentia quam pondere
spirit than weight
Paegnium
231
Malitia certare tecum miseria est.
compete with you in sadness
Sophoclidisca 238
tippulae levius pondust
weight of a water spider
Paegnium
243
tux tax tergo erit meo, Non curo
don't care
Sagaristo
264
verberibus caedi iusserit, compedes impingi
order torture
Sagaristo
269
Iam incubitatus es.
You're the master's pet.
Sagaristo
285
nam nil habes
You own nothing.
Paegnium
292
Nam umbra mea iam intus vapulat.
My shadow's thrashed.
Sagaristo
297
proserpens bestiast bilinguis et scelestus
two-tongued snake
Sagaristo
299
Magis calleo quam aprugnum callum callet
I am cleverer than a
groundhog. Sophoclidisca 305
Quamquam libenter escis alienis studes,
Virgo
337
tuin ventris causa filiam vendas tuam?
sell daughter for
food?
ad paupertatem admigant infamiae
insult added to poverty
Virgo
347
Nam inimici famam non ita ut natast ferunt.
Virgo
351
'Enemies don't carry about a scandalous tale in its original form.'
cage
bad.
Neque ego inimicitias omnes pluris exitimo.
Saturio
353
I think nothing more hostile than an empty table.
Hominum immortalis est infamia.
dishonor forever
Virgo
355
Virgo atque mulier nulla erit quin sit mala,
Saturio
365
quae praeter sapiet quam placet parentibus.
woman bad, if knows more than parents want her to know
reticet, si quid fieri pervorse videt
see something bad
Virgo
368
Dum dos sit, nullum vitium vito vortitur.
dowry over flaw
Saturio
386
dotis tibi inde sescenti logi
six hundred jokes for a dowry
Saturio
394
Cum hac dote poteris vel mendico nubere.
dowry for beggar
Saturio
396
lutum lenonimnum,
string of insults!
Toxilus
406
commixtum caeno sterculinum publicum,
impure, inhoneste, iniure, inlex, labes popli,
procax, rapax, trahax
Sine respirare me ut tibi respondeam.
breathe to answer
Dordalus
417
scortorum liberator, suduculum flagri,
string of insults!
Dordalus
419
compedium tritor, pistrinorum civitas,
perenniserve, lurco, edax, furax, fugax
eodem mihi pretio sal praehibetur quo tibi
same price for me
Dordalus
429
Fugiunt quam ex porta ludis cum emissust lepus.
faster than a hare from its
Dordalus
436
citius quam in cursu rotula circumvortitur
faster than a wheel
Dordalus
442
Tragici et comici numquam aeque sunt meditati.
Tragedies and comedies are equally
Sagaristo
465
Quoi homini di propitii sunt, aliquid obiciunt lucri.
gods favor by giving money
Dordalus
470
Bonus volo iam ex hoc die esse: quod neque fiet neque fuit.
Dordalus
479
want to be good: won't happen
Faciam ut mei memineris, dum vitam vivas.
remember forever
Toxilus
495
Tace, stultiloque; nescis quid te instet boni
quiet: fortune gives you much.
neque quam tibi Fortuna daculam lucrifera adlucere volt.
Toxilus
514
in luto haeream
Dordalus
536
Sed te de aliis quam alios de te suaviust
Dordalus
540
ex Arabia penitissuma
Toxilus
541
Si incolae bene sunt morati, pulchre munitum arbitror.
Sagaristo
554
magis contemplo magis placet
like
Dordalus
565
nullus leno te alter erit opulentior
Toxilus
566
I sis in malum cruciatum.
Dordalus
574
Tua mers est, tua indicatiost.
Dordalus
586
Satis recte mones.
Dordalus
603
a terra ad caelum
Sagaristo
604
Tibi ibidem das, ubi tu tuom amicum adiuvas.
self.
Dordalus
615
Si parentes facient officium suom.
Virgo
618
nomen atque omen
Toxilus
621
Optata ut evenant, operam addito.
Toxilus
629
'The work that we do makes our wishes come true.'
in anguload laevam
Virgo
631
fausta meretrix
Toxilus
632
Ne suarum se miseriarum in memoriam inducas.
misery Toxilus
643
Nil scit nisi verum loqui.
Toxilus
645
Nil mihi tam parvist, quin me id pigeat perdere.
Dordalus
690
geminam fratrem servire hic meum
slave
Sagaristo
695
Vaniloquidorus Virginesvendonides
Sagaristo
702
Nugiepiloquides Argentumexterebronides
(Tedigniloquides Nugides Pulponides)
Quodsemelarripides Numquamerides
Nam non emisti hanc, verum fecisti lucri.
to get stuck in mud
better to profit
from inner Arabia
more I look, more I
no pimp richer
Go a bad cross.
yours; you set price
good advice
from earth to sky
When help friend, help
if parents do their duty
name and omen
in the left corner
lucky wench
Don't make him recall his
only the truth
regret lose little
twin
crazy name
not buy, but gold mine
Toxilus
713
Nunc est illa occasio inimicum ulcisci.
Toxilus
725
Dictum sapienti sat est.
Saturio
729
Ut bene sit tibi.
Dordalus
735
Pol istuc quidem omen iam ego usurpabo domi,
Toxilus
736
nam iam inclinabo me cum liberta tua.
now take vengeance
word to wise is enough
That you may enjoy yourself.
.
I'll lie next to her
Nam improbus est homo qui beneficium scit accipere et reddere nescit.
Toxilus
762
bad if you can't return favor
nihil hoc magis dulcest
Toxilus
765
temperi
Toxilus
768
ab dis quia te licet liberam med amplecti
Toxilus
774
in cruciatum atque in compedis cogam
Dordalus
787
Perii perculit me prope.
Dordalus
810
Restim tu tibi cape crassam ac suspende te.
Paegnium
815
Circumfer mulsum, bibere da
Toxilus
821
Benefacta tua me hortantur, tuo ut imperio paream.
Lemniselenis 841
Your favors make me wish to do what you want.
Sciunt referre probe inimico gratiam.
Dordalus
853
Et post dabis sub furcis.
Toxilus
855
Abi intro--in crucem.
Sagaristo
856
Leno periit. Plaudite.
Toxilus
858
from Poenulus:
pro se quisque
Prologus
45
puer septuennis surripitur Carthagine
Prologus
66
nothing sweeter
in due season
gods let me touch you
torture him
destroyed me
Hang yourself!
Pass the wine to drink.
return enemy's favors
Hang him on a bar.
Go to the cross.
pimp perishes--applaud
each for himself
seven year old stolen
Is iilic adulescens habitat in illisce aedibus.
youth lives here
Prologus
78
Neque eam umquam tetigit
He
hasn't touched her.
Prologus
100
Sed pater illarum Poenus, postquam eas perdidit,
mari terraque usquequaque quaeritat.
Prologus
104
Ita docte atque astu filias quaerit suas.
Prologus
111
Et is omnis linguas scit, sed dissimulat sciens
se scire: Poenus plane est. Quid verbis opust?
Is heri huc in portum navi venit vesperi,
pater harunc; idem huic patruos adulescentulo est.
While pretending, he looks for them. He's kept looking for them, a typical Carthaginian.
He, father and relative, has just arrived in harbor.
Scitumst, per tempus si obviamst verbum vetus.
old proverb
Milphio
135
se amare velle atque obsequi animo suo
to love and be happy
Milphio
176
Ego in aedem Veneris eo.
going to the temple of Venus
Agorastocles 190
Oculos volo
Agorastocles 192
meos delectare munditiis meretriciis.
I want to feast my eyes on the
whore's costume.
Negoti sibi qui volet vim parare,
Adelphasium 210
navem et mulierem
Want trouble: get a ship or a
woman.
modus omnibus in rebus
mean in all matters
Adelphasium 238
nimia omnia nimium exhibent negoti
all trouble in excess
Adelphasium 239
pistorum amicas, reliquias alicarias,
string of insults refering to
common whores
miseras schoeno delibutas servolicolas sordidas,
Adelphasium 267
...servolorum sordidulorum scorta diabolaria
Adelphasium 270
Quoius ego nebulai cyatho septem noctes non emam.
Milphio
274
seven cloudy nights I'll not buy jugs of wine
ut ames eam quam numquam tetigeris
love without touching
Milphio
281
lapidem silicem subigere
betwitch a stone
Adelphasium 290
ad lacum limum petam
look for mire in pond
Milphio
293
Bono me esse ingenio ornatam quam auro multo mavolo.
Adelphasium 301
bonam ego quam beatum me esse nimio dici mavolo
Anterastilis 303
known for goodness rather than good luck
magis meretricem pudorem quam aurum gerere condecet
Anterastilis 305
A: At ego hanc. M: At ego esse et bibere.
drink.
313
lucrum amare nullum amatorem addecet
Agorastocles 328
Oleum et operam perdidi.
Ancilla
332
aliae quas spectare ego et me spectari
Adelphasium 337
Mea voluptas, mea delicia, mea vita, meum savium...
Milphio
366
my pleasure, my delight, my life, my sweet
sycophanta par
Adelphasium 376
tam crebro quam pira
Antamonides 484
liberos homines per urbem modico magis par est gradu
calmly. Advisores
522
cervom cursu vel gralatorem gradu
Agorastocles 530
pauxillum illuc nostrum id omne
Advisores
538
callum aprugnum callere
groundhog
Collybiscus 579
si nihil est quicum litigent, lites emunt
Milphio
587
ubi ames, potes, pergraecere
Advisores
602
Bonus est, nam similest malis.
look
Collybiscus 613
Istic est thensaurus stultis in lingua
Advisores
625
Viam qui nescit, qua deveniat ad mare,
Lycus
627
eum oportet amnem quaerere comitem sibi.
Malo bene facere tantumdemst periculum
dangerous as to do
quantum bono male facere.
character over jewelry
modesty better than jewels
I like her. I like to eat and
love of gain not lover
waste oil and toil
to look and be seen
like master, like slave
as thick as pears
Free men walk slowly and
faster than stag
little but ours
better grounded than a
buy dispute if none
love, drink, have fun
good one with bad
fool's funds in tongue
To find sea find a river.
To do bad man good as
good bad.
Advisores
634
Canes compellunt in plagas lepide lupum.
Dogs drive wolf.
Collybiscus 649
Potare, amare volt.
to drink, to wench.
Advisores
661
palumbem ad aream
dove to the floor
Advisores
676
quorsum asinus caedit calcibus
like a donkey's kick
Collybiscus 684
accipere tu non mavis quam ego dare
eager to give
Collybiscus 706
qui furem captas, egedere ocius
thief-catcher out quick
Advisores
709
lupo agnum eripere
tear lamb from wolf
Lycus
776
fur es mihi
You're a thief.
Agorastocles 785
levior pluma est gratia
thanks less than feather
Advisores
812
Quodvis genus ibi hominum videas, quasi Acheruntem veneris,
Syncerastus 831
equitem peditem, libertinum, furem an dugitvom velis,
verberatum, vinctum, addictum
find every evil type
male partum, male disperit
ill-gotten, ill-spent
Syncerastus 844
Haud amice facis qui cum onere offers moram.
delay the burdened
Syncerastus 852
Facio quod manufesti moechi heu ferme solent.
I do what adulterers do not.
Syncerastus 862
Refero vasa salva.
return with tools intact.
Syncerastus 863
sine pennis volare
to fly without feathers
Syncerastus 871
Quia doctum doces.
Teach the teacher.
Syncerastus 880
dum calet hoc agitur
Strike while iron's hot!
Syncerastus 914
yth alonim ualonuth sicorathi symacon xyth
Hanno
930
ythalonimualonuthsicorathisymaconxyth
Hanno
940
measque hic ut gnatas et mei fratris filium reperire
find children
Hanno
953
Ad eum hospitalem hanc tesseram mecum fero.
token to prove
Hanno
958
Aliqua Fortuna fuerit adiutrix tibi.
Fortune will help you.
Milphio
973
Incipere multost quam impetrare facilius.
hard to end well
Agorastocles 974
A: Facies quidem edepol Punicaist. M: Guggast homo.
Carthaginian a gug
977
A: An scis? M: Nulla me est hodie Poenus Poenior.
a real Carthaginian
991
tibi quam mihi
better you than I
Milphio
1002
bisulci lingua quasi proserpens bestia
two-tongued snake
Milphio
1034
Carthagini ego sum gnatus.
born at Carthage.
Agorastocles 1038
Ego sum ipsus quem tu quaeris.
I am the one you seek.
Agorastocles 1044
Antidamae gnatum me esse.
I am child of Antidama.
Agorastocles 1045
Nam haud repudio hospitium neque Carthaginem.
reject neither
Agorastocles 1055
Paterna oportet filio reddi bona.
estate to son
Milphio
1080
Intellego hercle. Nam mihi item gnatae duae
Hanno
1104 cum nutrice una sunt surruptae parvolae.
twin daughters and nurse stolen
Pol magis quam vellem.
More than I wish!
Hanno
1107
Erus meus hic quidem est, mearum alumnarum pater,
Giddenis
1124
Hanno Carthaginiensis.
father of foundlings, Hanno
praestrigiator hic quidem Poenus probust
conjurer
Milphio
1125
genere ut deceat nos esse a culpo castas
birth no criticize
Adelphasium 1186
Multa mulierum sunt vitia, sed hoc e multis maxumumst,
quom sibi nimis placent minusque addunt operam, uti placeant viris.
Adelphasium 1203
worst vice, not to please man
Etiam me meae latrant canes?
Adelphasium 1234
deglupta mena, sarrapis, sementium
Antamonides 1312
Nam hic noster pater est.
Anterilastis 1328
Sic est; hodie cenabis foras.
Aurum argentum collum, leno, debes.
My dogs bark at me?
insults
He's our father.
will dine elsewhere
owe us money
Antamonides 1400
L: Vin tibicinam meam habere? A: Nil moro tibicinem;
Antamonides 1415
nescias utrum ei maiores buccaene an mammae sient.
Do tou want to have a flute player? No: are her jowls or breasts bigger?
from Pseudolus:
Misere misr sum.
I am truly wretched.
Calidorus
13
Quaerunt litterae hae sibi liberos.
Letters
seek children.
Pseudolus
23
Habent quas gallinae manus?
Do hens have hands?
Pseudolus
29
Quasi solstitialis herba paulisper fui.
Sprout like summer grass.
Calidorus
38-9
Repente exortus sum, repentino occidi.
Fast grow, fast die.
Prope adest exitium mihi.
My doom is near.
Calidorus
60
papillarum horridularum oppressiunculae
squeezing breasts
Pseudolus
68
Pumiceos oculos habeo.
I have pumic eyes.
Pseudolus
75
Qui me faciam pensilem.
to make swinging rope
Caldorus
89
Quid fles, cucle? Vives.
Why weep, fool? You'ill live.
Pseudolus
96
imbrem in cribrum geras
pour
water into a sieve
Pseudolus
102
Spero alicunde hodie me bona opera aut hae mea
Pseudolus
104
tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium.
I hope to help you in some
way.
quantas soleam turbellas dare
what great storms I cause
Pseudolus
110
Si neminem alium potero, tuom tangam patrem.
get from dad
Pseudolus
120
pietatis causa--vel etiam matrem quoque.
or from mother
Caldorus
122
In hunc diem a me ut caveant ne credant mihi.
don't trust me
Pseudolus
129
rape elepe tene harpaga bibe et fuge
Seize, drink, flee.
Ballio
138
lupos apud oves linquere
to leave wolf with sheep
Ballio
140
Em sic datur, si quis erum spernit.
Hit 'em if ignore you.
Ballio
155
quam libertam...quam venalem
to her freedom or belly
Ballio
176
quibus ut serviant suos amor cogit
do to men whose urges force
Pseudolus
206
Ne amicam hic meam prostituat
he
prostitute my girl
Caldorus
231
Nugae istaec sunt: non iucundumst nisi amans facit stulte.
Caldorus
238
No point to being a lover unless you can be foolish.
It dies; ego mihi cesso.
Time flies; I'm dallying.
Ballio
241
rem acutam agis
You're whipping dead horse.
Ballio
260
Non potest pietati opsisti huic.
profit a piety can't be resisted
Ballio
268
Deos quidem, quos maxume aequom est metuere, eos minimi facit.
Pseudolus
269
He mocks the very gods, whom we should worship.
Amatur atque egetur acriter.
in love and broke
Caldorus
273
P: Non periclumst ne quid recte monstes. B: Non lenoniumst.
289
No danger of good advice from you. Pimps don't (give good advice).
Pietatem ergo istam amplexator noctu pro Phoenicio.
hug duty
Ballio
292
Det, det usque.
Give and keep giving.
Ballio
307
Ilico vixit amator, ubi lenoni supplicat.
done when ask pimp
Ballio
311
apud novercam querere
complain to stepmother
Ballio
314
alligem fugitivam canem agninis lactibus
tie dog with sheep guts
Ballio
319
Non habes venalem amicam tu meam Phoenicium?
You put my girl friend up for
sale? Caldorus
341
Nam iam pridem vendidi.
I've sold her.
Ballio
342
C: Quo modo? B: Sine ornamentis cum intestinis omnibus.
Ballio
343
C: How B: Without clothes, but all of her.
P: Impudice, B: Itast. C: Sceleste. B: Dicis vero.
360
(Ballio acknowledges his faults for seven lines.)
In pertusum ingerimus dicta dolium.
pouring words into broken
pot. Pseudolus
369
cassam nucem
empty nut
Ballio
371
Temperi ego faxo scies.
I'll let you know if
necessary.
Pseudolus
387
Pauci ex multis sunt amici, homini qui certe sient.
few real friends
Calipho
390
Iam illi fetet filius.
son stinks to him
Pseudolus
422
Vel tu ne faceres tale in adulescentia.
shouldn't have done
Callipho
437
Hic mihi corrumpit filium.
He's corrupted my son.
Simo
446
Bonus animus in mala re dimidiumst mali.
ill well met is half
Callipho
452
non Pseudolum, sed Socratem
not Pseudolus, but
Socrates
Simo
465
Delphis tibi responsum dicito
answer like Delphi
Psudolus
480
quas meo gnato des qui amicam liberet
to give son to free her
Simo
487
Tu mihi hercle argentum dabis.
give me the money
Pseudolus
508
Egon ut cavere nequeam cui praedicitur?
fail when warned
Simo
516
consutis dolis
patched tricks
Simo
540
facinus magnum timido cordi creder
great plan to weak heart
Pseudolus
578
Ballionem exballistabo lepide
I'll ballistify him.
Pseudolus
584
Magna me facinora decet efficere,
To do great deeds for a great
reputation.
quae post mihi clara et diu clueant.
(parody of epic code)
Pseudolus
590
Si intus esset, evocarem.
If he were home, I'd call him.
Pseudolus
640
Centum doctum hominum consilia sola haec devincit dea.
Pseudolus
678
One hundred learned men do not prevail over the goddess (Fortune).
Certa mittimus, dum incerta petimus.
Pseudolus
685
We reject the sure thing, while we seek the unsure.
Nunc ego hac epistula tris deludam: erum et lenonem et qui hanc dedit mi epistula.
I'll trick three with this letter: pimp, master, messenger.
Pseudolus
690
Nimium est mortalis graphicus.
He's a wonder.
Calidorus
700
Turbo non aeque citust.
faster than a top
Charinus
745
Anguillast, elabitur.
escapes like an eel
Charinus
747
multiloquom gloriosum insulsum inutilem
string of insults
Ballio
794
herbas pecudes non edunt, homines edunt
men eat what cattle don't
Cocus
823
nisi miluinis aut aquilinis ungulis
without eagle's claws
Cocus
852
Occidis me, cum istuc rogitas.
You kill me with
questions
Simo
931
Neque ego hoc homine quemquam vidi magis malum et maleficum.
None better
for evil.
Pseudolus
938
mera iam mendacia fundes
pour forth a flood of lies
Simo
943
Lepido victu, vino, unguentis et inter pocula pulpamentis;
Pseudolus
947
ibidem una aderit mulier lepida, tibi savia super savia quae det.
food, wine, a woman
Mala mercist.
Bad piece
Simo
954
transversus, non proversus quasi cancer
sideways like a crab
Pseudolus
955
Nam in foro vix decumus quisque est qui ipsus sese noverit.
Simo
973
Scarcely one in ten knows himself.
Salvos sum, iam philosophatur.
I'm safe; he's philosophizing.
Pseudolus
974
malum, legirupam, impurum, peiurum atque impium
another string of
insults
Simo
975
Ut vestituís, es perfossor parietum.
Look like a burglar.
Simo
980
Quod homo edepol fortis atque bellator probus.
as a soldier
Simo
992
Argentum des, abducas mulierum.
give money, take girl
Ballio
1015
mi obvertat cornua
turn his horns on me
Pseudolus
1021
Cuiam esse te vis maxime, ad eum ducere
take you to one you want
Simo
1042
Boni me viri pauperant.
Good men make me poor.
Ballio
1128
edunt, bibunt, scortantur
eat, drink, wench
Ballio
1135
B: Erus tuos--H: Ita dico.B: Miles-H: Ita loquor.
master-I say-soldier-I say
1152
Conveniebatne in vaginam tuam machaera militis?
good fit
Ballio
1181
I ad malam crucem.
Go to a bad cross.
Harpax
1182
Is quidem edepol Harpax ego sum.
I am that Harpax.
Harpax
1199
Purus putus gic sycophanta est.
He's a swindler.
Ballio
1200 Leno, plane perdisti mulierum.
Pimp.
youíve lost your girl.
Simo
1213
Rufus quidam, ventricosus, crassis suris, subniger,
Harpax
1218
magno capite, acutis oculis, ore rubicundo, admodum magnis pedibus.
red with veins, fat calves, half black, big head, squinty eyes, red mouth, big feet
De improbis viris auferri praemium et praedam decet.
steal from evil
Simo
1225
Superavit dolum Troianum atque Ulixem Pseudolus.
Simo
1244
Pseudolus has outdone the Trojan horse and Ulysses.
mammam mammicula...corpora conduplicantur
Pseudolus
1261
Vox viri pessumi me exciet foras.
Villain calls me.
Simo
1285
Vir malus viro optumo obviam it.
bad man to good man
Pseudolus
1293
Cum tuo filio libera accubat.
free girl with your son
Pseudolus
1311
S: Heu heu heu P: Desine S: Doleo
oh,oh,oh stop! I'm in pain.
1320
Numquid iratus es aut mihi aut filio
not angry at son or me
Pseudolus
1328
from Rudens:
Nomen Arcturo est mihi.
Arcturus
4
Cotidie ille scit quis hic quaerat malum.
Arcturus
16
Iovem se placare posse donis, hostiis.
Arcturus
23
faciliust si qui pius est a dis supplicans
Arcturus
26
Huic filiola virgo periit parvola.
Arcturus
39
scelestus...urbis proditor
Arcturus
50
potesse ibi eum fieri divitem
fortune.'Arcturus
55
Conscendit navem, avehit meretriculas.
Arcturus
63
Increpui hibernam et fluctus movi maritimos.
Arcturus
69
Nunc ambo in saxo, leno atque hospes, simul sedent eiecti.
thrown off.
Arcturus
72-3
My name is Arcturus.
He knows evildoers.
placate by gifts
pious prayer best
lost his daughter
criminal, traitor
'There's where you can make
boarded ship with whores
shipwreck
Both pimp and guest are
detexit ventus villam
Sceparnio
85
Filiam ego unam habui, eam unam perdidi.
Daemones
106
quom furatum mox venias, vestigas loca
Sceparnio
111
in paludem extricasque harundinem
reeds
Sceparnio
122
Ecquidem tu hic hominem crispum, incanum videris,
Plesidippus 125
malum, periurum, palpatorem
of insults)
plurimos,
wrecked my life.
nam ego propter eius modi viros vivo miser.
semper petunt
fire, jar, knife, spit.
aquam hinc aut ignem aut vascula aut cultrum aut veru
Daemones
133
Deludificavit me illic homo
Plesidippus 147
Confracta navis in mari est illis.
Daemones
152
Homunculi quanti estis.
Daemones
154
Mulierculas video sedentis in scapha solas duas.
in boat.
Sceparnio
152
Nimium hominum fortunae minus miserae memorantur.
experience. Palaestra
185
Nunc qui minus servio, quam si serva forem nata
Palaestra
218
I serve as less than a slave, if I were born a slave.
A: Dic ubi es? P: in malis plurimis
238
occupas praeloqui quae mea oratiost
Palaestra
248
decorum dis locum viderier
Palaestra
255
bonam atque obsequentem deam
Ptolemocratia 261
equo ligno per vias caerulas
skies Ptolemocratia 268
ut tuo recipias tecto servesque nos
Ptolemocratia 276
haec pauperes res sunt inopesque
Ptolemocratia 282
Omnibus modis qui pauperes sunt homines miseri vivont.
blew the roof off
had one daughter
spotting to rob
cut
Have you seen a man... (string
Many such useless have
They always ask for water,
He's mocked me.
their ship wrecked
What little men!
I see two women sitting alone
Telling less dreadful than
Where are you? in trouble
'Take words out of my mouth.'
a place suited for the gods
good deity
by wooden horse through
that you save us
my humble aid
Poor have a bad time.
Piscatores
290
Animum adversavi sedulo ne erum usquam praeterirem
Trachalio
306
I have turned my mind not to pass by my master.
Ut piscatorem aequomst, fame sitique.
Piscatores
312
As is right for a fisherman, die by hunger and thirst
ecquem
recalvom ac Silanum senem, statutum, ventriosum, .
tortis superciliis, contracta fronte, fraudulentum,
deorum odium atque hominum, malum, mali viti probique plenum
Trachalio
316
Did you see someone old, full of veins, crunched forehead, hated by gods and men?
Cum istius modi virtutibus operisque natus qui sit,
Piscatores
321
eum quidem ad carnificem est aequius quam ad Venerem commeare.
his type should go to hangman rather than to Venus
Data verba ero sunt, leno abit scelestus exulatum
pimp's skipped
Trachalio
325
Verum omnes sapientes decet conferre et fabulari.
right that all wise men gather
and tell
Ampelisca
338
Si deos decepit et homines, lenonum more fecit.
Ampelisca
345
If he deceives men and gods, he acts like a pimp.
leno clanculum nos hinc auferre voluit
pimp wanted to flee
Ampelisca
356
Si quae improbae sunt merces, iactat omnis.
discard
bad wares
Trachalio
373
Capillum promittam optimumst occipiamque
hariolari.
I shall take up a hair and soothsay. Trachalio
376
Adservaret dies noctesque.
watch at all times
Ampelisca
379
Fur facile qui observat videt; custos qui fur sit nescit.
Thief can outwatch
protector.
Trachalio
385
Et aurum et argentum fuit lenonis omne ibidem.
gold and silver are pimp's
riches Ampelisca
396
Nam multa praeter spem scio multis bona evenisse.
Trachalio
400
'Many a stroke of luck has come to many a hopeless man.'
At ego etiam, qui speraverint spem decepisse multos.
Ampelisca
401
'Many a hopeful man has hope beguiled.'
Ergo animus aequos optimum est aerumnae condimentum. 'Self-control best sweetens
trouble.'
Trachalio
402
Accepit ad sese haud secus quam si ex se simus natae.
as child
Ampelisca
410
Aha, nimium familiariter me attrectas.
Quit touching me.
Ampelisca
419
Vel papillae cuius modi, tum quae indoles in saviost
breasts
Sceparnio
423
Potin ut me abstineas manum?
Hands off!
Ampelisca
424
Non licet saltem sic placide bellam belle tangere
Can't I have a little squeeze?
Sceparnio
425
Sapienti ornatus quid velim indicium facit.
show what I want
Ampelisca
427
Meus quoque hic sapienti ornatus quid velim indicium facit.
I too show what I want.
Sceparnio
429
At ego basilicus sum. quem nisi oras, guttam non fers.
Beg me, if you want
something.
Sceparnio
431
Ne nequiquam me ames.
Love for something.
Sceparnio
438
meum erum lenonem...hospitem
pimp and friend
Ampelisca
451
Sed ubi ille meus est hospes, qui me perdidit?
Where is my guest,
who ruined me?
Labrax
491
Pessum dedisti me balndimentis tuis.
Your lies destroyed me.
Labrax
507
piscibus in alto praebent pabulum
food for the fish
Charmides
513
Quis vivit me mortalis miserior?
none worse off
Labrax
520
Ego multo tanto miserior quam tu.
I much worse off than you
Charmides
521
Et ad hoc misellum pallium.
just a wretched cloak
Labrax
550
Vel ego amare utramvis possum.
I'd love either.
Sceparnio
566
In barathrum mavelim.
I'd rather into the
abyss.
Charmides
570
In aliquo tibi gratiam referam loco.
I'll return the favor.
Charmides
575
Quasi vinis Graecis Neptunus nobis suffudit mare.
Charmides
588
Neptune poured water into us as if we were Greek wines.
Miris modis di ludos faciunt hominibus:
Daemones
595
me dormientis quidem sinunt quiescere.
The gods treat us in wondrous ways: they don't allow me to rest.
mulieres duae innocentes
two innocent women
Trachalio
641
Qui deos tam parvi pendit?
Who scorns gods?
Daemones
650
Fraudis scleris parricidi periuri plenissimus,
Trachalio
651
legirupa impudens impurus inverecundissimus,
uno verbo absolvam, lenost.
fraud, murderer, immoral,
unclean: in one word, a pimp
sepiis coqui
like a stuck pig
Trachalio
659
Neque est melius morte in malis.
no better than die
Palaestra
675
Praesidio Veneris malitiae lenonis contra incedam.
Trachalio
693
I shall place the protection of Venus against the evil of a pimp.
ut cum furcifero fabulerer
to gossip with a gallowsbird
Labrax
717
Mihi cum vestris legibus
nil quicquamst commerci.
Your laws mean nothing to
me.
Labrax
724
Trima quae periit mihi, iam tanta esset, si vivit, scio.
Daemones
744
She was three, when she vanished; if she lives, she is so great (as this one).
Nullum habemus ignem, ficis victitamus aridis.
We had no fire;we lived on
dried figs
Lorarius
764
.Ego quae tu loquere flocci non facio, senex.
Labrax
782
Meas quidem te invito et Venere et summo Iove
de ara capillo iam deripiam.
I don't care what you say; by Jupiter and Venus I'll
drag them from the altar.
D: Adferto domo duas clavas. L: Clavas?
Bring two clubs from the
house. Clubs?
798
Eheu, scelestus galeam in navi perdidi.
I wickedly lost my helmet on
the ship.
Labrax
801
Iam hoc Herculi est, Veneris fanum quod fuit.
Labrax
822
What was the shrine of Venus is now the temple of Hercules.
Signa ut homines satis recte monent.
as the signs warn men
Labrax
829
Meamne ille amicam leno vi.
pimp tried to abduct my girl
Plesidippus 839
quasi canem hominem insectarer lapidibus
You'd stone a man like a dog?
Trachalio
842
Quia pol provexi: avehere non quivi miser.
Labrax
863
Because I sailed forth, wretched I couldn't sail away.
Iam meas opplebit aures vaniloquentia.
Now he stuffs my ears with
nonsense.
Daemones
905
plurima praeda onustum
loaded with booty
Gripus
909
Nimis homo nihilist quis piger est
lazy man useless
Gripus
920
pauxillatim pollicitabor pro capite argentum
idle dreams
Gripus
929
ubi nobilitas mea erit clara
Gripus
933
bonis quod bene fit haud perit
Trachalio
939
Vidulum istum cuiust novi ego hominem iam pridem.
Trachalio
966
I've known the owner of the trunk for a long time.
hunc cepi in venatu meo
Gripus
970
Mare commune certost omnibus.
Gripus
975
fiet tibi punicum corium, postea atrum
Trachalio
1000
Verba facimus; it dies.
Trachalio
1001
Exurgebo quidquid umoris tibist.
Trachalio
1009
ut piscem soleo polypum
Gripus
1010
ad ignotum arbitrum me appellis
Gripus
1043
Si ille te comprimere solitust, hic noster nos non solet
Gripus
1075
If he usually forces you, my master won't allow it here.
Aurum auro expendetur, argentum argento exacquabitur.
Trachalio
1087
Gold will be paid for gold, silver for silver.
Hasce ambas ita esse oportet
Trachalio
1104
tacitast melior mulier semper quam loquens
Trachalio
1114
Vidi peter milvom.
Gripus
1124
P: Sunt crepundia. D: Ecca video,
1154
D: Quid nomen est paternum? P: Daemones.
1160
Filia mea, salve. Ego is sum qui te produxi pater.
Daemones
1173
My daughter, greetings. I am your father.
Pro di immortales, quis me est fortunatior,
Daemones
1191
qui ex improviso filiam inveni meam?
Satin si cui homini dei esse bene factum volunt,
aliquo illud pacto optingit optatum piis?
Ego hodie neque speravi neque illud credidi:
I'll be famous.
good turn for good useful
I found it hunting: it's mine.
sea common to all
red skin
We talk; time flies.
squeeze you
as with a polypus
to an unknown judge
both girls should be free
silent woman best
saw a bird after something
toys
yes
what is father's name
is improviso filiam inveni tamen;
et eam de genere summo adulescenti dabo
ingenuo.
Who luckier than I who have found my daughter? If gods wish to help, prayer assists.
I have found the unexpected. I have found my daughter and going to marry her to a fine
gentleman.
Dicito daturam meam illi filiam uxorem.
will marry her
Daemones
1213
Tanto illi melius optigit qui perdidit.
luckier for man that lost it
Daemones
1232
Isto tu pauper es, quom nimis sancte pius.
pious means poor
Gripus
1234
Ille qui consulte, docte atque astute cavet,
who acts carefully has honest
pleasure
diutine uti bene licet partum bene.
Daemones
1240
Semper cavere hoc sapientis aequissimumst,
Daemones
1246
ne conscii sint ipsi malefici suis.
wise master not partner in
crime with slave
Sed cum inde suam quisque ibant divorsi domum,
Gripus
1252
nullus erat illo pacto ut illi iusserant.
But when they left home, none
did as I ordered.
Si aurum si argentum est, omne id ut fiat cinis.
Gripus
1257
If I had silver or gold, it's all turned to ashes.
Censen hodie despondebit eam mihi, quaes
'I gather...'
Plesidippus 1269
Ita omnes mortales, si quid est mali lenoni, gaudent.
Labrax
1285
All mortals rejoice when a pimp suffers bad.
Quid fit? G: Verum extergetur. L: Ut vales? G: Quid tu? Num medicus, quaeso, es?
How are you? Spit polishes. And you? You a doctor?
1303
Tetigisti acu.
You've hit the nail on head.
Labrax
1306
Miserum istuc verbum et pessimum est, habuisse et nihil habere.
Labrax
1321
worst of all words: had; when you now have nothing
Eloquere quantum postules.
State your price.
Labrax
1329
Meus arbitratust, lingua quod iuret mea.
only tongue swore
Labrax
1355
Neque edepol tibi do, neque quicquam debeo.
owe nothing
Labrax
1371
Tu meam rem simulas agere, tibi munis viam.
Gripus
1399
You pretend to help her, but build your own road.
Pro illo dimidio ego Gripum emittam manu.
Daemones
1410
I'll free Gripus.
from Stichus:
Multa volo tecum loqui de re viri.
much to talk about
Soror
9-10
Nosque ab eis abducere volt.
He wants to take us away from them.
Soror
17
Persarum montibus qui esse aurei
Persian mountains of gold
Panegyris
24-5
Nam viri nostri domo ut abierunt, hic tertius annus.
Our men have been gone
three years.
Panegyris
29
An di doles, soror, quia illi suom officium
They don't do their duty; we do.
non colunt, quom tu tuom facis?
Soror
34-5
Quia pol meo animo omnis sapientis
Right to consider and do duty.
suom officium aequom est colere et facere.
Soror
39
Nos oportet quod ille faciat, cuius potestas plus potest. It is right to do what powerful
orders. Panegyris
69
perplexabiliter earum hodie perpavefaciam pectora I shall bamboozle their hearts.
Antipho
84
Bonas ut aequomst facere facitis, quom tamen apsentis viros
Antipho
99
proinde habetis quasi praesentes sint.
act same even if men here
Discipulus venio ad magistras.
as student to teachers
Antipho
105
Facile invenies et peiorem
easy to find worse
Soror
109
Ubi facillime spectatur mulier, quae ingenio est bono?
Antipho
119
When a woman is easily seen, what need of strategy?
Quoi male faciundi est potestas, quae ne id faciat temperat.
Panegyris
120
When she had the chance, she did nothing wrong.
Qui potest mulier vitare vitiis?
how woman avoid faults
Antipho
121
Placet ille meus mihi mendicus.
beggar dear to me
Soror
133
venatum ducere invitas canes
to lead unwilling hounds to hunt
Panegyris
139
I, parasitum Gelasimum huc arecessito.
Get the parasite Gelasimus.
Panegyris
150
Nam illa me in alvo menses gestavit decem,
at ego illam in alvo gesto plus annos decem.
Gelasimus
159
She carried me 10 months; I carried her 10 years.
elephantum gravidam perpetuos decem esse annos a pregnant elephant carried for ten
years Gelasimus
168
Nam illa artis omnis perdocet, ubi quem attigit.
Poverty teaches every trick.
Gelasimus
178
Sed generi nostro haec redditast benignitas:
Gelasimus
181
nulli negare soleo, siquis me essum vocat.
My family is charitable: I never
decline a meal.
Vocem te ad cenam, nisi egomet cenem foris.
I'd call you to dinner, if I
weren't dining out. Gelasimus
190
Sed curiosi sunt hic complures mali,
Gelasimus
198
alienas res qui curant studio maximo,
quibus ipsis nullast res, quam procurent, sua.
They are idlers with an interest in others' affairs since they have none of their own.
Paene sum fame emortuos.
almost dead from hunger
Gelasimus
216
Ridiculus aeque nullus est quando esurit.
No one is ridiculous when he is
hungry.
Crocotium
217
Mercurius, Iovis qui nuntius perhibetur, numquam aeque patri
suo nuntium lepidum attulit quam ego nunc meae erae nuntiabo.
Pinacium
274
never a better message than the one I now announce
Propera, Pinacium, pedes hortare.
Hurry, Pinacium.
Pinacium
280
Quidnam dicam Pinacium
lascivibundum tam lubentem currere?
why running so frisky
Gelasimus
287
Secundas fortunas decent superbiae.
wealth makes pride
Pinacium
300
Hodie non cenabis.
You will not dine today.
Pinacium
325
Tuos inclama; tui delinquont.
your people's fault
Gelasimus
328
Omnia membra lassitudo mihi tenet.
all worn out
Pinacium
326
Immo venisse eum simitu aiebat ille.
arrived at same time
Pinacium
391
Quom bene re gesta salvos convortor domum
Epignomus 402
Neptuno grates habeo et Tempestatibus;
simul Mercurio, qui me in mercimoniis
iuvit lucrisque quadruplicavit rem meam.
Thanks to Neptune I'm home; thanks
to Mercury I'm wealthy.
Cado tibi veteris vini propino.
I'll give a cask of wine.
Epignomus 425
Iam hercle ego per hortum ad amicam transibo meam
Stichus
437
mi hanc occupatum noctem.
I'll have my girl for the night.
hominis servolos potare, amare
we slaves drink and love
Stichus
446
Mustela murem abstulit
weasel grabs mouse
Gelasimus
460
Certum. Cenabo domi.
Settled. I'll dine at home.
Epignomus 482
Si res firma, item firmi amici sunt; sin res laxe labat,
Antipho
521
itidem amici conlabascunt; res amicos invenit.
wealthy have friends; poor
don't
Hodiene exoneramus navem
shall we unload the ship
Epignomus 531
Nis potius oneremus nosmet vicissatim voluptatibus.
no fun
Pamphilus
532
Ego tibi meam filiam, bene quicum cubitares, dedi;
Antipho
547
nunc mihi reddi ego aequom esse abs te quicum cubitem censeo. I want a girl.
P: Quid agit? E: Quod famelicus.
How is he? Hungry!
575
lupum in sermone
wolf in fable
Epignomus 577
ut egomet me hodie iugularem fame
cut throat with hunger
Gelasimus
581
Ubi convivae abierint, tum venias.
Epignomus 594
Vasa lautum, non ad cenam dico.
after guest you come--to wash dishes
quasi esuriens lupus
like a ravenous wolf
Gelasimus
605
te hodie lapide percussum velim.
Hope stone hits you.
Gelasimus
613
inter cuneos ferreos
between iron wedges
Gelasimus
619
ubi catellus cubet
where a puppy sleeps
Gelasimus
620
hic quidem pol summam in crucem
Go to cross for a dinner.
cena aut prandio perduci potest.
Epignomus 625
Nunc ego nolo ex Gelasimo mihi fieri te Catagelasimum.
Epignomus 630
Now I don't want my Gelasimus to become Catagelasimus.
nix tabescit dies
day melts away as snow
Stichus
648
Fero convivam Dionysum.
I bring you a guest Bacchus.
Stichus
661
Agite te foras; ferte pompam.
Bring out the parade.
Stichus
683
nucibus, fabulis, ficulis,
string of dainty foods
Sangarinus
690olea in tryblio, lupillo, comminuti crustulo
Suum quemque decet.
each his own
Stichus
693
Fontine an Libero
wine or water
Stichus
699
Nihil est. Tene aquam.
It's nothing. Hold the water.
Stichus
712
Nolo ego non prosum hoc ebibere. Nulli rei erimus postea.
718
I don't want; I'm not gaining to drink. No good later.
Suffla celeriter tibi buccas quasi proserpens bestia. Swell your cheeks like a snake.
722
Vin amicam huc evocemus? Ea saltabit.
Get dancing girl.
Stichus
733
Foras egredere, satis mihi pulchra es. At enim pulcherrima.
736
Go out, you are beautiful enough. Indeed very beautiful.
Bene cum lauta est, tersa ornata ficta est, infecta est.
Stephanium 742
Woman considers self a failure after washing.
Veneris mera est oratio.
Speech from Venus.
Sangarinus
745
Age, mulsa mea suavitudo, salta: saltabo ego simul. Let's dance.
Stichus
752
Quin ego ibidem pruriam.
I'll be all tingling.
Sangarinus
753
Sic furi datur.
So fares a thief.
Stichus
763
Redde cantionem veteri pro vino novam.
'Let's have a new tune for old wine.'
Sangarinus
765
Babae. Tate. Papae. Pax.
768
Nunc pariter ambo. Omnis voco cinaedos contra. Bring on
dancers; more like gays.
fungo imber
mushroom rain
Sangarinus
769
Into hinc abeamus nunciam: saltatum satis pro vinost.
Stichus
771
Vos, spectattores, plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum.
Let's go in. You, party.
from: Trinumus:
Amicum castigare ob meritam noxiam
Megaronides 23
immoene est facinus, verum in aetate utile
et conducibile.
Criticizing a friend is annoying but
useful.
quasi herba inrigua
like watered weeds
Megaronides 31
Teque ut quam primum possim videam emortuam. wish dead
Callicles
42
Hic ille est, senecta aetate qui factust puer,
Megaronides 43
qui admisit in se culpam castigabilem.
juvenile in old age
Omnibus amicis quod mihi est cupio esse idem.
wish friends mine
Callicles
54
Vin commutemus, tuam ego ducam et tu meam?
Do you wish to swap wives?
Megaronides 59
Nota mala res optumast.
known ill best
Callicles
63
Ut diu vivitur, bene vivitur.
Live long: learn to live well.
Megaronides 65
Suspicionem et culpam ut ab se segregent.
avoid suspicion and blame
Megaronides 77
Sed tu ex amicis mi es certis certissimus.
You're best friend.
Callicles
94
Neque de illo quicquam neque emeres neque venderes
Bought nothing, sold nothing.
Megaronides 134
Mihi quod credideris sumes ubi posiveris.
safe with me
Megaronides 145
thesaurum mihi in hisce aedibus.
treasure in house
Callicles
150
aesurivit lupus
wolf raging
Megaronides 167Argentum dedi thesauri causa, ut salvom amico traderem.
Callicles
179
I have given gold for a treasure so that I may hand it over safely to my friend.
Qui omnia se simulant scire neque quicquam sciunt.
Megaronides 205
Whoever pretends to know all knows nothing.
Multas res simitu in meo corde vorso.
all mixed up
Lysiteles
223
vestiplica, unctor, auri custos, flabelliferae, sandaligerulae,
Lysiteles
251
cantrices, cistellatrices, nuntii, renuntii, raptores panis et peni.
clothes-folders, perfumer, gold guardian, fan flippers, sandal bearers etc.
Boni sibi haec expetunt: rem, fidem, homorem,
gloriam et gratiam.
good seek these qualities
Lysiteles
273
Malus bonum malum esse volt.
bad wishes good to be bad
Philto
285
Si ipse animum pepulit, dum vivit victor victorum cluet.
Philto
309
If he controls his mind, he will win a great victory.
sarta tecta
good repair
Philto
317
Bene quod fecisti tibi fecisti, non mihi.
self-control for self
Lysiteles
318
Quis ipsus sibi satis placet, nec probus est nec frugi bonae.
Philto
321
If self-satified, not good nor deserving.
bene factis aliis pertegito, ne perpluant.
roofed with deeds
Philto
322
quod tuomst meumst
what's yours is mine
Lysiteles
329
De mendico male meretur qui ei dat quod edit aut bibbat.
Philto
339
Do a beggar bad service to give him food or drink.
Multa eveniunt homini quae volt, quae nevolt.
Lysiteles
361
Much happens to man which he does not want.
Sapiens...ipsus fingit fortunam sibi.
The wise man fashions his own
fortune.
Philto
363
Non aetate, verum ingenio apiscitur sapientia.
Lysiteles
367
Not by age but by talent wisdom is gained.
Sine dote uxorem?
a wife without dowry
Philto
375
Gravis tuom erit unum verbum ad eam rem quam centum mea.
Lysiteles
388
One word of yours worth more than one hundred of mine.
Comessum, expotum; exussum; elotum in balineis,
Stasimus
406
piscator pistor apstulit, lanii, coqui,
holitores, myropolae, aucupes: confit cito.
Non hercle minus divorse distrahitur cito,
quam si tu obicias formicis papaverem.
money wasted in food, drink, lotion, wool, cooks......as fast as poppyseeds to ants.
Non tibi illud apparere, si sumas, potest.
You can't have your cake and eat it.
Stasimus
411
Miseret te alorum, tui nec miseret nec pudet.
You pity others, but not yourself.
Stasimus
431
Bene volt...bene facit.
He wishes well, he does well.
Stasimus
439
Tuam volt sororem ducere uxorem.
wishes to marry your sister
Philto
444
Cum vostra nostra non est aequa factio.
I'm poorer.
Lesbonicus 452
Di divites sunt, deos decent opulentiae
Philto
490
et factiones, verum nos homumculi,
satillum animai qui quom rxtemplo emisimus,
aequo mendicus atque ille opulentissimus
censetur censu ad Acheruntem mortuos.
Gods rightly wealthy; once we die,
we're equal.
Sine dote posco tuam sororem filio.
marriage without dowry
Philto
499
Profecto dotem nil moror.
want no dowry
Philto
511
In quinto quoque sulco moriuntur boves.
cattle die in furrow
Stasimus
524
Tum vinum prius quam coctumst pendet putidum. rot on vine
Stasimus
526
opseri mors malos
to sow wild
oats
Philto
531
fulguritae sunt alternae arbores.
lightning strikes trees
Stasimus
539
Nam qui vivamus nihil est, si illum amiserit.
live on nothing else
Stasimus
561
Sine dote ille illam in tantas divitias dabit?
Will he have her without a dowry?
Callicles
605
O ere Charmides, quam apsenti hic tua res distrahitur tibi!
Stasimus
617
Master, how your estate is being wasted!
facillumum...amico iniuriam.
easiest...insult to friend
Lysiteles
630
In foro operam amicis da, ne in lecto amicae
Lysiteles
651
Serve friends in forum rather than service girlfriend in bed.
Scibam ut esse me deceret, facere non quibam miser.
know what I should be, but
can't
Lesbonicus 657
amorem tibi oectus opscurasse
love hides reason
Lysiteles
667
Is mores hominum moros et morosos effict.
Love makes a man a fool.
Lysiteles
669
datur ignis, tametsi ab inimico
fire from even enemy
Lesbonicus 679
Numquam erit alienis gravis qui suis se concinnat levem. bad at home, bad outside
Lesbonicus 684
Is est honos homini pudico, meminisse officium suom.
Lesbonicus 697
Ruined man gains honor by remembering duty.
Effugias ex urbe inanis.
You'll flee the city penniless.
Lysiteles
701
Nil ego in occulto agere soleo.
I don't act secretly.
Lysiteles
712
Huic ducendi inerea abscesserit lubido.
lose desire to marry
Megaronides 745
Ignota facie, quae hic non visitata sit;
Megaronides 767
mendacilocum aliquemfasidicum, confidentem.
need tricky stranger
Diem conficimus quod iam properatost opus.
waste time
Megaronides 807
Iam dudum ebriust.
drank it away
Megaronides 812
Salsi potenti et mulsipotenti Iovis fratri et Nerei Neptuno
Charmides
820
laetus lubens laudes ago et grates gratiasque habeo. I willingly thank Neptune.
hic quidem fungino generest
he belongs to mushroom race
Charmides
851
Quam magis specto minus placet.
more I look less I like
Charmides
861
quo mox furatum veniat speculatur loca
looking to rob
Charmides
864
Census cum sum, iuratori recte rationem dedi.
pay fair taxes
Sycophntus 872
quom hic nugatur, contra nugari lubet
cheat a cheat
Charmides
900
ego apsens sum quam praesens longior
I absent am taller than he present.
Charmides
903
inter labra atque dentes latuit
hide between lips and teeth
Sycophantus 924
Nimium mirimodis mirabiles.
wondrous (places)
Sycophantus 931
ubi apsinthium fit atque cunila gallinacea
make wormwood
Sycophantus 935
Nimium graphicum hunc nugatorem.
rascal
Charmides
936
aps terra ad caelum
from earth to sky
Charmides
947
arbitrare beluam
to think a useless beast
Sycophantus 952
sycophantae huic sycophantari
to swindle swindler
Charmides
958
Neque edepol tu is es neque hodie is umquam eris. You are not he nor will you be.
Sycophantus 971
Quid id ad me attinet?
What difference to me?
Sycophantus 978
Numquam edepol temere tinnit tintinnabulum
a bell rings for a reason
Charmides
1004
gurgioliost exercitor
throat trainer
Charmides
1116
surrupuit currenti cursori solum
stole runner's shoe
Stasimus
1023
Mores leges perduxerunt iam in potestatem suam. custom rules
Stasimus
1037
quippe eorum ex ingenio ingenium horum probant judge by others
Stasimus
1049
rebus curempublicis potius quam meo tergo
guard own back better
Stasimus
1057
quos reliqui hic filium atque filiam
those I left
Charmides
1075
Ego miserrumis periclis sum per maria maxuma.
Charmides
1087
I in greatest dangers risked all through the greatest seas.
fides fidelitasque amicum erga aequiperet tuam
faith toward a friend unequalled
Charmides
1128
nimis pergraphicus sycophnta
first-class fraud
Charmides
1139
tunica propior palliost.
'shirt closer than coat'
Lysiteles
1154
Meum corrumpi quia perpessuís filium.
because you corrupted my son
Charmides
1165
male promerita ut merita sunt si ulcisci
can't punish
Charmides
1173 Nam si pro peccatis centum ducat uxores, parumst.
Callicles
1186
one hundred wives are not enough for your sins
from Truculentus:
Tres unam pereunt adulescentes mulierem,
Argumentum 1
Utque illam ducat qui vitiarat cinvenit.
Argumentum 10
Non omnis aetas ad perdiscendum sat est
of
amanti, dum id perdiscat, quot pereat mods.
Diniarchus
21
Primumdum merces annua, is primus bolust,
Diniarchus
31
ob eam tres noctes dantur.
gives you three nights
three love one
ravisher marries
Whole life won't teach lover all ways
his destruction.
yearly fee
in piscinam rete
throw net in fishpond
Diniarchus
35
Sin crebras ducit, ipsus gaudet, res perit.
often is happy
Diniarchus
50
Atque haec celamus nos clam magna industria,
quom rem fidemque nosque nosmet perdimus,
ne qui parentes neu cognati sentiant.
hide loss lest parents find out
Diniarchus
57
Babyloniensem militem
a Babylonian soldier
Diniarchus
84
eum esse simulat militem puero patrem
pretend soldier father
Diniarchus
87
quini aut seni adveniunt ad scorta congerrones
to see girls
Astaphium
100
de praedonibus praedam capere
to take loot from looters
Astaphium
109
Fer contra manum et pariter gradere.
walk with us
Diniarchus
124
Nunc mulier facta est iam ex viro.
woman made
from man
Diniarchus
134
Rem perdidi apud vos.
I lost my money at your place.
Diniarchus
139
Illa haud ego habuit publicum.
she revealed
Diniarchus
142
Si arationes
Diniarchus
149
habituruís, qui arari solent, ad pueros ire meliust. If you want to plow, take a boy.
Utrosque pergnovi probe.
'I'm well acquainted with both.'
Diniarchus
152
Procaciores estis vos, sed illi periuiores.
You are bold, they are liars.
Diniarchus
154
Postemo illi sunt improbi, vos nequam et gloriosae. They are wicked, you are braggarts
Diniarchus
157
.qui alterum incusat probri, sumpse enitere oportet. If you damn another, youíd best be
perfect.
Astaphium
160
Dum vivit, hominem noveris: ubi mortuost, quiescat.
Astaphium
164
While he lives, you know him. When he dies, let him rest.
quae properavistis
girls hurry
Diniarchus
168
Amator similest oppidi hostilis.
lover like enemy town
Astaphium
169
quam primum expugnari potis, tam id optimum est amicae. Sooner stormed better for
girl. Astaphium
171
Certe hercle quam veterrimus, tam homini optimust amicus.
Diniarchus
173
I intro, haud alienus tu quidem es.
Go in; you're welcome.
Astaphium
176
In melle sunt linguae sitae vostrae atque orationes,
Diniarchus
178
facta atque corda in felle sunt sita atque acerbo aceto:
eo dicta lingua dulcia datis, corde amara facitis.
tongues of honey, hearts of gall:
sweet talk, bitter deeds
Estne intus nunc Phronesium?
Is Phronesium in?
Diniarchus
188
Peperisse audivi.
I heard she had a child
Diniarchus
194
quae numquam fuit praegnas, qui parere potuit?
Diniarchus
198
The one who was never pregnant was able to bear a child?
D: Ibo igitur intro? A: Tam audacter quam domum ad te. May I go in? Just as if your
house. Astaphium
205
Nam fundi et aedis obligatae sunt ob Amoris praedum.
Astaphium
214
His estate and house are pledged as payment for love.
Actutum fortunae solent mutari varia vitast.
Fortune changes instantly and life is
variable.Astaphium 219
Piaculumst miserere nos hominum rei male gerentum.
Astaphium
223
Meretricem sentis similem esse condecet.
don't pity mismanager; whore like
bramble
Dum habeat, dum amet.
While he has money, he may love.
Astaphium
234
est huic unus servos violentissimus
brute slave
Astaphium
250
Ita est agrestis.
He's a hick..
Astaphium
253
Aegrotare malim quam esse tua salute sanior.
not well for you
Truculentus 261
per ridiculum rustico suades stuprum
fresh with farmer
Truculentus 264
quasi sus catulos pedibus proteram
as sow crushes piglets
Truculentus 268
quia tibi suaso infecisti propudiosa pallulam
cloak in dye
Truculentus 271
ruri amplexari mavelim patulam bovem
rather cuddle cow
Truculentus 277
Nullan istic mulier habitat?
No woman living there?
Astaphium
284
ad foras nostras unguentis uncta es ausa accedere with scents
Truculentus 289
buccas rubrica, creta omne corpus intinxi tibi
painted
woman
Truculentus 294
vobis pessimae haec male fecerunt
what done badly
Astaphium
295
Scio ego plus quam tu arbitrare scire me.
I know more.
Truculentus 296
ut eum inlicitatis in malam fraudem ex probum
lead to sin
Truculentus 298
Nemo homo hic solet perire apud nos.
no loss at ours
Astaphium
300
maceria in horto in latere fit minor
wall getting smaller
Truculentus 303
Non enim ille meretriculis munerandis rem coegit. Not with whores he made his money.
Truculentus 309
sinpi victitet...tam esse tristem posse
not mustard make waspish
Astaphium
315
Vidi equom ex indomito domitum
tamed horses
Astaphium
319
Piscis ego credo...minus diu lavare quam haec lavat Phronesium.
Diniarchus
322
I believe a fish washes less than this Phronesium.
Tute tibi mille passuum peperisti moram.
made delay
Astaphium
334
quasi volturii triduo prius praedivinant.
vultures
predict
Diniarchus
337
quasi abhinc ducentos annos mortuos.
as if dead 200 years
Diniarchus
341
ianua est mordax mea
my door will bite you
Phronesium 352
hoc est melle dulci dulcius
sweeter than sweet honey
Diniarchus
371
Utinam a principio rei item parsisses meae
sparing of my purse
Diniarchus
375
Verum adsimulvi me esse praegnatem.
fake pregnancy
Phronesium 390
Propter militem
Phronesium 395
Babyloniensem, qui quasi uxorem sibi
me habebat anno, dum hic fuit.
because of the Babylonian soldier
who lived with her as wife
Haec ut opera circumit, per familias,
Phronesium 407
puerum vestigat; clanculum ad me detulit,
datum sibi esse dixit.
Found a baby boy on a job and took
him in.
ego tecum usque ero assiduo
I'll be with you always.
Phronesium 421
Immo hercle vero accubuo mavelim.
permanent bedding
Diniarchus
423
Lucrum hercle videor facere mi.
feel rich when you ask
Diniarchus
426
Germanae quod sorori non crdit soror.
Diniarchus
438
Ostendit sese iam mihi medullitus.
wouldn't tell twin sister innermost
thoughts
Multo illi potius bene erit quae bene volt mihi
better for her
Diniarchus
447
Puero isti date mammam.
Give baby boy the breast.
Phronesium 449
Mater dicta quod sum, eo magis studeo vitae.
As mother want life
Phronesium 457
nullam rem oportet dolose adgrediri
to play a
crooked game
Phronesium 461
Mulieri nimio male facere levius onus est quam bene.
never tired of an evil deed
Phronesium 470
manibus...haud in sermonibus
with hands not speech
Stratophanes 483
Pluris est oculatus testis unus quam auriti decem
one eyewitness better than ten
listeners
Stratophanes 489
Qui audiunt qui dicunt, qui vident plane sciunt.
They say what they hear, they know
what they see.
scurrae laudant, manipularis mussant
mob praise, soldier rebuke
me malefico vinceres
you defeat my wrong
Phronesium 501
Ubi natust maxhaeram et clupeum poscebat
ask for arms as baby
Astaphium
506
morbo misera sum
wretched at heart
Phronesium 520
Iam mi auro contra constat filius.
son cost weight in gold
Stratophanes 538
Vehementer nunc mi est irata.
She's very angry at me.
Stratophanes 545
Domist qui facit improba facta amator
wicked lover at home
Cyamus
555
de fluvio qui aquam derivat sibi
to divert water from a stream
Cyamus
563
De praeda praedam capio.
I take loot from loot.
Cyamus
567
Meretricem ego item esse reor, mare ut est:
whore like the sea: eats all you give.
Cyamus
568
quod des devorat nec datis umquam abundat.
Tune ais me impudentem esse, ipsa quae sis stabulum flagiti?
You an evil man call
me bold.
Cyamus
587
ut huc veniat ad me obsecrare
to come and see me
Phronesium 592
tristis, oculis malis
sad, bad-eyed
Cyamus
593
Nequam est.
He's worthless.
Phronesium 594
dentibus frndit, icit femur
grind teeth and whack thigh
Cyamus
601
Loquere! Unde es? Cuius es?
Tell where and whose.
Sratophanes 606
holerum atque escarum et poscarum, moehum, malacum, cincinnatum.
umbraticum, tympanotribum amas
love with style
Stratophanes 610
Ut ego his suffringam talos totis aedibus.
smash house base
Stratophanes 638
Num quippiam tam immutat mores mulierum?
women change
Stratophanes 639
crudum virum
crude man
Stratophanes 644
Quaerit patrem.
looking for his father.
Strabax
650
Nam oves illius hau longe absunt a lupis.
sheep close to wolves
Strabax
657
Nunc hoc deferam
Strabax
661
argentum ad hanc, quam mage amo quam matrem meam. Gold I'll give to the one I love
more than my mother.
rure erilem filium Strabacen non rediisse
son hasn't returned
Truculentus 669
Vel amare possum vel iam scortum ducere.
can love a whore
Truculentus 678
Sequere intro.
Go in.
Astaphium
687
quia nil habeo...agam precario
have nothing...it's dangerous
Diniarchus
710
ut gaudeat cum perdis
I make him happy while you destroy
him. Astaphium
714
Animo bono male rem gerit.
goes bad happily
Astaphium
728
qui facta infecta facere verbis postules
You demand that the word
undo the deed. Astaphium
730
Litteras didicisti.
You've
learned your letters.
Astaphium
735
Quia pol mavelim
rather enemy envied me
Astaphium
744
mihi inimicos alii bene esse, quam med inimicis meis.
Ego edepol iam tua probra aperibo omnia.
expose your wrongs
Diniarchus
763
Nugae sunt. Si stimulos pugnis caedis, manibus plus dolet.
Diniarchus
768
trifles: beat stick with hands, hands hurt
Mea nunc facinora aperiuntur, clam quae speravi fore.
Diniarchus
877
all revealed, which I hoped to hide
Plus quam dudum loquere.
You speak more than before.
Callicles
803
Puer quidem beatust: matres duas habet et avias duas;
Callicles
808
iam metuo patres quot fuerint.
two mothers, two
grandmothers: how many fathers?
Vir illam non mulier praegnatem fecit.
man impregnated her
Ancilla
811
Plus potest qui plus valet.
more power
Ancilla
812
Nunc non tacebo, quando adest.
will tell since he's here
Ancilla
817
Lapideus sum, commovere me miser non audeo.
I am a stone, I dare not move.
Diniarchus
818
Neque vivos neque mortuos sum.
neither dead nor alive
Diniarchus
823
Diniarchus, quoi illam prius desponderas.
Diniarchus her espoused
Ancilla
825
mihi ignoscas quod animi impos vini vitio fecerim. Forgive me, because I was crazy from
wine. Diniarchus
828
Nam vinum si fabulari possit, se defenderet.
If wine could talk, it would defend.
Callicles
830
ut tuam gnatam des mi uxorem
Let me marry your daughter.
Diniarchus
841
At ego ab hac puerum reposcam.
I'll demand back the boy.
Diniarchus
850
Ne ista stimulum longum habet.
She has a long sting.
Diniarchus
853
Scio, abituruís. Sed tamen
Phronesium 867
cogitato, mus pusillus quam sit sapiens bestia.
You will leave, but consider the
clever baby.
Sine me habere.
Let me have him.
Phronesium 875
Ubi amici ibidem sunt opes.
where friends, there wealth
Phronesium 885
Quae cum multum abstulimus, hau multum eius apparet quod datum est. Take much,
make little.
Manus vetat prius quam penes sese habeat quicquam credere.
Phronesium 901
Hand trusts only what is in hand.
lact ut habeat, veteris vini largiter...potet
wine for milk
Phronesium 903
Neque ruri neque his operis quicquam facio.
job nowhere
Strabax
915
Apstine hoc, mulier, manum.
Hands off.
Stratophanes 926
Auro hau ferro deterrere potes
gold, not iron, scares me
Phronesium 929
Omnes homines ad suom quaestum callent et fastidiunt.
Phronesium 932
'All men are insensitive or squeamish as profits dictate.'
Quamquam hic squalet, quamquam hic horret, scitus et bellus est mihi.
Phronesium 934
Although rough, he's kind to me.
Unguenta, noctem, avium.
Perfume, night, kisses.
Phronesium 938
Par pari respondet.
equal treatment
Stratophanes 939
Cave faxis volnus tibi iam cui sunt dentes ferrei.
iron bite
Phronesium 942
Meliust te nimis certare mecum quam minaciis.
cash fight
Strabax
948
Stultus atque insanus damnis certant.
fool versus madman
Astaphium
950
Tu peregrinus, hic ego habito.
You're a stranger; I live here.
Strabax
955
Meum quidem te lectum certe occupare non sinam. not unbed me
Strabax
963
from Vidularia:
Eiusdem Bacchae fecerunt nostram navem Pentheum.
Nicodemus 17
The Bacchae have made our ship a Pentheus.
inopiam, luctum, maerorem, paupertatem, algum, famen. lack, grief, sadness, poverty,
cold, hunger
Laboriosa, adulescens, vita est rustica.
The farmer's life is tough.
Dinia
31
Mollitia urbana atque umbra corpus candidumst.
pampered city life
Dinia
35
Si tibi pudico homine est opus...eum me licet conducere.
Nicodemus 40
If there is need of a shameless man, I'm here at your service.
At ego vidulum intro condam in arcam atque occludam probe.
Gorgines
59
I'll hide this bag in the chest.
Qur, malum, patronum quaeram, postquam litem perdidi? Why chase lost case?
Cacistus
62
Ne tu edepol hodie miserias multas tuas
Dinia
69
mihi narravisti.
What woes you have told me!
Malim moriri meos quam mednicarier:
better dead than beggar
boni miserantur illum, hunc inrident mali.
Nam audivi feminam ego leonem semel parire
woman bears lion
Ubi quamque pedem viderat, subfurabatur omnis.
rob a louse
Fragments:
Opus facere nimio quam dormire mavolo.
prefer to work than sleep
quis est mortalis aut fuit tanta fortuna affectus
I'm the luckiest.
ut illum di perdant, primus qui horas repperit
damn watchmaker
ita sunt praedones: prorsum parcunt nemini.
robbers spare no one
Si non strenue fatetur ubi sit aurum,
membra exsecemus serra.
confess or we cut you up
libertas, salve
freedom, greetings
Nil moror mihi fucum in alveo, apibus qui peredit cibum. no drones
Scratea, scrupipedae, strittivillae sordidae
producte prodigium esse amatorem addecet
lavishness fits a lover
Glaber erat tanquam rien.
smooth as a bean
nullam rem citiorem apud homines quam famam
rumor fastest
Stultus es adversum aetatem.
silly for his age
quasi fiver salicem
like a beaver after willow
bark
Exi tu, Dave, age sparge, mundum esse hoc vestibulum volo.
Venus ventura est nostra, nolo hoc pulveret.
want it clean for Venus
Quid murmurillas tecum et te descrucias?
why mutter to self
faciles oculos habet
easy eyes
Si quid facturus es,
If youíre going to do
something,
appende in umeris pallium
bundle cloak and leave
quickly.
et perge ad easm quantum valet
tuorum pedeum pernicitas.
aeneis coculis mi excocta est omnis misericordia.
pity choked by bronze pots
Quam eo tanta pauperavi per dolum pecunia.
lost money through trickery
panem et polentam, vinum, murrinam.
saliam in puteum praecipes
to throw into a well
hannit odiosus omni totae familiae
laughingstock of the family
Basic information about Terence:
Publius Terentius Afer 190-159 BC, probably born in Africa, plays: Andria 166 BC,
Hecyra: 165 BC (fails), Heauton
Timorumenos 163 BC, Eunuchus 161 BC, Phormio
161 BC, Adelphi 160 BC, Hecyra 160 BC (fails!),
plays translations from Apollodorus or Menander, realistic, sober compared to
Platus, quotable sayings
Terence Quotes
from Andria:
Nam in prologis scribundis operam abutitur;
Prologus 5
non qui argumentum narret, sed qui malevoli
veteris poetae maledictis resondeat,
not to tell story but write prologues
to answer malevolent old men
fide et taciturnitate
Simo 34
a parvolo ut semper tibi
faith and silence
that from boyhood I have treated you
mildly
apud me iusta et clemens fuerit servitus scis.
Simo 35
Sed hoc mihi molestumst; nam istaec commemoratio
Sosia 44-5
quasi exprobatiost immemori benefici.
memory a reproach
dum aetas metus magister prohibebant
age and fear stop
Sosia 54
tamen omnia haec mediocriter.
he used moderation
Simo 59
ut ne quid nimis
moderation in all
Simo 61
Sapienter vitam instituit. Namque hoc tempore
Sosia 67-8
obsequium amicos, veritas odium parit.
wise start: flattery makes
friends;truth hatred.
Vereor ne quid Andria asportet mali!
evils from Andros
Sosia 74
ingeniumst omnium
most talented of all
hominum ab labore proclive ad lubidinem
mind runs down
Simo 77-8
Hi tres tum simul amabant.
three lovers at one time
Simo 87-8
Hic nuptiis dictust dies.
wedding day is today
Simo 102
Placuit id tum mihi.
he pleased me
Simo 109
sororem aiunt Chrysidis...attat hoc illud sit.
She has sister.
Simo 124
Hinc illae lacrimae,haec illast misericordia.
From this his tears, his pity.
Simo 126
Mea Glyceriumî inquit ëquid agis? quor te is perditum?
Simo 134
tum illa, ut consuetum facile amorem cerneres,
reiecit se in eum flens quam familariter!
What are you doing? Why are you destroying yourself? Clearly you are old lovers.
Nam si illum obiurges vitae qui auxilium tulit,
Sosia 142
Quid facias illi dederit qui damnum aut malum?
If you treat a friend wrongly, what
about an enemy?
Sine nunc meo me vivere interea modo.
Let me live my life for now.
Simo 152
Si propter amorem uxorem nolet ducere.
refuse marriage for love
Simo 155
Mala mens, malus animus.
Bad mind, bad spirit.
Simo 164
Nunc tuomst officium has bene ut adsimules nuptias
pretend marriage
Simo 168
Non dubiumst quin uxorem nolit filius.
son won't marry
Simo 172
Carnufex quae loquitur?
gallows-bird says what
Simo 183
Meum gnatum rumor est amare.
My son has a love affair.
Simo 185
Nam quod antefac fecit nil ad me attinet.
past doesn't matter
Simo 187
Omnes qui amant graviter sibi dari uxorem ferunt. not want to marry
Simo` 191
Davus sum, non Oedipus.
I am Davus,
not Oedipus.
Davus 194
Verberibus caesum te in pistrinum, Dave, dedam usque ad necem.
Simo 199
I'll torture you if you goof up.
Ita aperte ipsam rem modo locutuís.
You've made it clear.
Davus 202
Nil locist segnitiae neque socoriae.
neither sloth nor stupidity
Davus 206
Pamphilmne adiutem an auscultem seni
help which one
Davus 209
Haec Andria gravida e Pamphilost.
She's pregnant by him.
Davus 215
Mi quidem hercle non fit veri silile; atque ipsis commentum placet.
Davus 225
unlikely story, but they like it
quia compotrix eius est.
They drink from the same pot.
Mysis 232
Uxorem decrerat dare sese mi hodie.
decreed a wife for me today.
Pam. 238
hominem esse invenustum aut infelicem
unloved and unlucky
Pam. 245
Aliquid monstri alunt.
They nourish a monster.
Pam. 250
Si ego rescissem id prius, quid facerem?
What could I do?
Pam. 258
Dum in dubiost animus, paulo momemto huc vel illuc inpellitur.
Pam. 267
A straw can push one over the edge.
tum autem hoc timet ne deras se.
fears desertion
Mysis 269
quae mihi suom animum atque onmem vitam credidit
trusts me
Pam. 272
adeo ingratum aut inhumanum aut ferum
so
unfeeling
Pam. 278
Per tuam fidem perque huius solitudinem.
Pam. 290
te obrestor ne abs te hanc segreges neu deseras.
By your pledge do not desert her
man
animus in spe atque in timore attentus fuit
torn between hope and fear
Char. 303
Facile omnes quom valemus recta consilia aegrotis damus. easy to give advice to a sick
Char. 309
id ëaliquidí nil est
that something is nothing
Byrr. 314
Si nil impetres,
If refuse, suspicion you are
lover.
ut te arbitretur sibi paratum moechum, si illam duxerit.
thinks your ready for
adultery, if marry
Byrr. 315
Hodie uxorem ducis?
You marry today?
Char. 321
Sponsam hic tuam amat.
He loves the bride.
Byrr. 324
Nuptias effugere ego istas malo quam tu apiscier. I want out.
Pam. 332
Ego id agam, mihi qui ne detur.
I'll try to stop the marriage.
Pam. 335
Nil est: nondum haec rescivit mala.
Worse to come.
Pam. 340
P: Dave, perii.D: Quin tu hoc audi.P: Interii.
I've had it.
346
Nuptiae mi-my wedding
Pam. 348
Uxorem tibi non dat iam Chremes.
He won't give his daughter to you.
Davus 352
Si huic non dat, te illam uxorem ducere
not him, maybe not you
Davus 372
Quidvis patiar.
I'll endure anything.
Pam. 381
Dic tu ducturum.
Say you will marry her.
Davus 384
Ne nega.
Don't say no.
Davus 385
Ut ab illa excludar, huc concludar.
why shut out there, shut in here?
Pam. 386
Puerum ne reciscat mi esse ex illa cautiost
not tell him about child
Pam. 400
Hic nunc non dubutat quin te ducturum neges
.sure you won't marry
Davus 405
Hodie uxorem ducas volo.
I want you to marry today.
Simo 438
Omnis sibi malle melius esse quam alteri.
own interest first
Byrr. 427
Nunc uxore opus est.
It's time he married.
Davus 447
ait nimium parce facere sumptum
refuse to spend
Davus 450
Nam quod peprisset iussit tolli.
will acknowledge child
Mysis 464
Nunc huius periclo fit, ego in portu navigo.
his risk, my ship in port
Simo 480
Qui? Quia te noram.
How? I knew him.
Simo 502
Amantium irae amoris integratiost.
Love renewed by quarrel.
Chr. 555
Uxorem demus.
Let us give him a wife.
Simo 560
Tandem cognosti qui siem?
Recognize who I am?
Davus 586
Non fuerant nuptiae futurae.
had not been a wedding
Simo 587
in pistrinum
to hard labor
Davus 600
Utinam mi esset aliquid hic quo nunc me praecipitem darem! wish I had something to kill
self with
Davus 606
si devito hoc malum
if I get out of this
Davus 611
Hocine credibile aut memorabile,
Char. 625
tanta vecordia innata quoiquam ut siet
ut malis gaudeant atque ex incommodis
alterius sua ut comparent commoda?
anyone so low to gloat over others to
his gain
Proxumus sum egomet mihi.
I am nearest neighbor to myself.
Cgar. 635
Solvisti fidem.
You've broken your promise.
Char. 643
Nisi mi deos fuisse iratus qui auscultaverim.
should not have listened
Pam. 664
Deceptus sum, at non defatigatus.
deceived, not weary
Davus 669
Immo etiam; nam satis credo, si advigilaveris,
ex unis geminas mihi conficies nuptias.
two not one marriage
Pam. 673
pro servitio...capitis periculum audire
for slavery...to risk death
Davus 675
Sicine me atque illam opera tua miseros sollicitari.
both plagued by you
Pam. 689
Quibus quidem quam facile potuerat quiesci, si hic quiesset!
Char. 691
How easy to conceal this if he had been quiet!
numquam eam me deserturum
that I will never desert her
Pam. 694
Consilium quaero.
I need advice.
Davus 702
Nilne esse proprium quoiquam.
nothing really ours
Mysis 716
Facile hic plus malist quam illic boni.
present bad over past good
Mysis 720
Nova nunc religio in te istaec incessit.
new scruple afflicts you
Mysis 730
Puer herclest.
A boy is here.
Chr. 742
Adcon videmur vobis esse idonei,
You make fun of us.
in quibus sic inludatis?
Davus 756
Recte ego semper fugi has nuptias.
I fled marriage.
Chr. 697
Fallacia alia aliam trudit.
One trick begets another.
Davus 780
Paulum interesse censes, ex animo omnia,
naturally or planned
ut fert natura, facias an de industria?
Davus 795
Ut quimus quando ut volumus non licet.
do as we can
Mysis 805
Haud auspicato huc me attuli.
unlucky star brought me here
Crito 807
Tum ipsam despoliare non lubet.
I don't want to strip the girl.
Crito 816
antiquom obtines.
ancient honesty
Mysis 817
Satis iam satis, Sino, spectata erga te amicitiast mea;
Chr. 820
satis pericli incepi adire: orandi iam finem face.
Dum studeo obsequi tibi, paene inlusi vitam filiae. I took risk for our friendship. I
nearly lost my daughter.
modum benignitatis
Kindness has a limit.
Chr. 826
Nam non fert: feras.
not right; bear it
Chr. 832
Ego commodiorem hominem adventum tempus non vidi. It all fits.
Davus 844
Omnis res est iam in vado.
All is safe.
Davus 845
confidens catus
all self-assured
Davus 856
Si quicquam invenies me mentitum, occidito.
Kill me if I lied.
Davus 863
Ain tandem civis Glyceriumst?
you say she's a citizen
Simo 875
hanc habere studeat cum summo probro
to keep mistress a disgrace
Simo 881
Pro peccato magno paulum supplici satis est patri. small pain for great wrong
Chr. 903
Ac meretricios amores nuptiis conglutinas.
to fix an affair with marriage
Simo 913
sycophanta
swindler
Simo 919
opinor fuisse Phania
I believe that he was Phania.
Crito 930
Certe meast.
Surely she's mine.
Chr. 934
S: Qui di credis? Chr: Phania illic frater meus fuit. why he was my brother
935
Nodum in scirpo quaeris.
a knot in a bulrush.
Pam. 941
Egon huius memoriam patiar meae voluptati obstare? memory bar joy
Pam. 943
De uxore nil mutat Chremes?
He let'sher
marry me.
Pam. 949
Vinctus est.
He's in chains.
Simo 955
Ego deorum vitam eapropter sempiternam esse arbitro
Pam. 959
quod voluptates eorum propriae sunt; nam mi immortalitas
partast, si nulla aegritudo huic guadio intercesserit.
Permanent pleasure makes eternal life; if no sorrow hinders our joy.
P: Nescis quid mi obtigerit. D: Certe, sed quid mi obtigerit scio.
967
P: You do not know what has befallen me. D: Yes, but I do know what has befallen me.
Nec mora ullast quin iam uxorem ducam.
I can marry her.
Pam. 972
Me in tuis secundis respice.
think of me in your happiness
Char. 975
Nunc quom copia ac fortuna utrique ut obsequerer dedit, detur.
let marry
Chr. 10A
from Heaton Timorumenos:
Antiphilia Clitophonis reperitur soror.
discovery of sister
Peri. 11
duplex quae ex argumento facta est simplici
Prol. 6
Quor insano serviat?
Prol. 32
quod mihi videre praeter aetatem tuam facere
Chr. 59
Nullum remittis tempus neque te respicis.
Chr. 70
Chremes, tantumne ab re tuast oti tibi
aliena ut cures ea quae nil ad te attinet?
Mene. 75-6
Homo sum: humani nil a me alienum puto.
Chr. 77
Mihi sic est usus.
Mene. 80
An quoiquamst usus homini se ut cruciet?
Chr. 81
Filium unicum adulescentulum
double plot
Why serve a madman?
working too hard
never let up
Mind your own business.
I care for any human.
I must do this.
must you torture self
I have a one and only son; have? I
had!
habeo? Ah, quid dixi? Habere me? Immo habui.
Mene. 94-5
amicam ut habeas prope iam in uxoris loco
have mistress as wife
Mene. 105
Simul rem et gloriam armis belli repperi.
I found wealth and glory.
Mene. 112
In Asiam ad regem militatum abiit.
He went to Asia to serve the king.
Mene. 117
Ambo accusandi: etsi illud inceptum tamen
Both at fault, yet he showed courage.
animist pudentis signum et non instrenui.
Chr. 119
Eum ego hinc eieci miserum iniustitia mea.
I unjustly drove him away.
Mene. 134
Decrevi me tantisper minus iniuriae,
Mene. 147
Chremes, meo gnato facere dum fiam miser.
make self wretched to lessen wrong to
my son
Ingenio te esse in liberos leni puto.
Chr. 151
Nec tibi illest credere ausus quae est aequom patri.
Chr. 156
Peccatum a me maxumest.
Mene. 158
Huic filium scis esse?
Clit. 182
Quia enim incertust etiam quid se faciat.
He couldn't trust you.
Mostly my fault.
You know that he has a son.
He's not sure what to do.
Clit. 188
Eam misere amat.
He madly loves her.
Clit. 190
parentis, patriam incolumen, amicos, genus, cognatos, ditias
Chr. 194
parents, country, friends, backgrouns, relatives, riches
Fortasse aliquantum iniquior erat praeter eius lubidinem;
Chr. 201
pateretur. Nam quem ferret si parentem non feret suom? too tough; he should have
accepted it
Scortari crebro nolunt, nolunt crebro convivarier. wish not excess
Chr. 206
consilia consequi consimilis
to adopt similar plans
Chr. 209
Quam iniqui sunt patres in omnis adulescentis iudices!
Clit. 213
Qui aequom esse censent nos a pueris ilico nasci senes
neque illarum adfinis esse rerum quas fert adulescentia.
Lubidine ex sua moderantur nunc quae est, non quae olim fuit.
fathers unfair; expect youth to follow fathers' current desires.
Is mi, ubi adbibit plus paulo, sua quae narrat facinora.
tells his deeds
Clit. 220
Periclum ex aliis facito tibi quod ex usus siet.
learn
from others
Clit. 221
Da mihi...adfer mihi. (My mistress says):
give me, bring to me.
Clit. 223
Habet bene et pudice eductam, ignaram artis meretriciae. clean love
Clit. 226
Sed nescio quid profecto mi animus praesagit mali. sense misfortune
Clinia 236
Pergin istuc prius diiudicare quam scis quid veri siet?
decide first
Clit. 237
Dum moliuntur, dum conantur, annus est.
year to get ready
Clit. 240
Aurum, vestem, et vesperascit et non noverunt viam.
Syrus 248
gold, clothing, and it gets dark and they don't know the road
Di boni, quid turba est! Aedes nostrae vix capient. what a crowd!
Syrus 254
Ubinamst fides?
Where is trust?
Clinia 256
Monuisse frustra neque eum potuisse umquam ab hac me aspellere.
Clinia 261
He warned me, but couldn't convince me to give up the girl.
Nemost miserior me.
No one more miserable than I.
Clinia`263
Quae est dicta mater esse ei antehac, non fuit.
not really mother
Syrus 270
Anus foribus obdit pessulum, ad lanam redit.
locks up and spins
Syrus 278
Nam ea res dedit tum existumandi copiam
Syrus 282
cottidianae vitae consuetudinem,
quae quoiusque ingenium ut ist declarat maxume. unaware we observed her; best way
to judge character
Tum ornatam ita uti quae ornatur sibi
dressed only for self
Syrus 287
demunerarier ancillas
to bribe the maids
Clit. 300
Ubi dicimus redisse te et rogare uti
Syrus 304
veniret ad te, mulier telam desinit
continuo et lacrumis opplet os totum sibi,
ut facile scias desiderio id fieri tuo.
When we told her that you had returned and asked her to come to you, she dropped all and
cried, proof she wants you.
Quo ego illam? Ad nos scilicet.
Where to? Our house.
Syrus 312
Non fit sine periclo facinus magnum nec memorabile.
no great deed without danger
Syrus 314
In mea vita tibi tu laudem is quaesitum.
my life for your reward?
Clit. 315
Quas malum ambages mihi narrare occipit?
get to the point
Clit. 319
Vis amare, vis potiri, vis quod des illi effici.
want love and money
Syrus 323
harum duarum condicionum nunc utram malis vide choose
Syrus 326
C: Siquidem hoc fit.S: Siquidem? Experiundi scies.
Try it; find if try.
331
Nil satis firmi video quam ob rem accipere hunc mi expediat metum.
No evidence I
should live in fear.
Clit. 337
Ibo obviam huic, dicam ut revortatur domum.
meet her, tell go back
Syrus 340
Verum age modo: hodie sero ac nequiquam voles. wish may be too late
Syrus 344
Datur, fruare dum licet, nam nescias...
enjoy while you can
Clinia 345
Iam hoc quoque negabis tibi placere.
won't like this either
Syrus 350
Tu es iudex: ne quid accusandus sis vide.
You judge; don't put me in harm.
Clit. 352
In tempore ad eam veni, quod rerum omniumst primum.
timing half
Syrus 364
Ego te autem novi quam esse soleas inpotens:
Syrus 371
inversa verba, eversas cervicis tuas,
gemitus, screatus, tussis, risus abstine.
You'll give it away by groans, coughs,
laughter.
C: Ubi sunt? Quor retines? S: Iam nunc haec non est tua.
Why stop me? She's
not yours.
376
mihi quale ingenium haberes fuit indicio oratio
Speech equals character
Bacch. 384
Quippe forma inpulsi nostra nos amatores colunt.
Bacch. 389
Haec ubi imminutast, illi suom animum alio conferunt.
love our beauty, then desert
us
Hoc beneficio utrique ab utrisque vero devincimini,
Bacch. 394
ut numquam ulla amori vostro incidere possit calamitas.
linked by union they reject us
Nescio alias: me quidem semper scio fecisse sedulo
Anti. 396
ut ex illius commodo meum compararem commodum.
model self after him
Praeter quam tui carendum quod erat.
except living without you
Anti. 400
Salvom venisse gaudeo.
I rejoice that you have come safely.
Anti. 407
Luciscit hoc iam. Cesso pultare ostium
Chr. 410
vicini, primum ex me ut sciat sibi filium
redisse. Etsi adulescentem hoc nolle intellego.
Dawn; I'd better knock on the door to tell him his son has returned, even though he doesn't
want that.
diem adimere aegritudinem hominibus
Time removes distress.
Mene. 422
Valet atque vivit.
He is well and lives.
Chr. 430
Eamus; duc me ad eum, obsecro.
Let's go; take me to him.
Mene. 432
Non volt te scire se redisse etiam et tuom
Chr. 433
conspectum fugitat; propter peccatum hoc timet,
ne tua duritia antiqua illa etiam adaucta sit.
He fears to let you know; he fears
your harshness.
aut largitate nimia aut parsimonia
either too generous or too frugal
Chr. 441
In eandem fraudem ex hac re atque ex illa incides. same bad result
Pytissando modo mihi quid vini absumpsit
wasted much wine in tasting
Chr. 457
Quid te futurum censes, quem adsidue excedent? excess harms
Chr. 462
quidvis potius quam quod cogitas
anything except what you plan
Chr. 469
quantam fenestram ad nequitiem
window for wrong
Chr. 481
Nam deterriores omnes sumus licentia.
looseness degenerates
Chr. 483
Quod volt cupio ipsum iam videre.
I want what he wants.
Mene. 497
Ita quaeso.
Please do.
Mene. 502
Ita comparatam esse hominum naturam omnium
Mene. 503
aliena ut melius videant et diiudicent
quam sua! An eo fit quia in re nostra gaudio
sumus praepediti nimio aut aegritudine?
Do other's business better than own. Joy and sorrow affects our judgment in our own
affairs.
Intendenda in senemst fallacia.
Syrus 513
Recte equidem. Sed te miror, Chremes,
Syrus 518
tam mane, qui heri tantum biberis.
trap for old man
I'm fine. How are you up after such
drinks?
aquilae senectus
old age of an eagle
Syrus 520
Mulier commoda, faceta, haec meretrix.
suitable, clever whore
Syrus 521
forma luculenta
great shape
Chr. 523
Sed habet patrem quendam avidum misere atque aridum
Mene. 526
vicinum hunc; nostin? At quasi is non ditiis
abundet, gnatus eius profugit inopia.
Horrid wealthy father drove away
son.
Quaeso laudas qui eros fallunt?
Do you praise those who deceive?
Syrus 537
Stolidus est.
He's a blockhead.
Syrus 545
Non est mentiri meum.
I don't lie.
Syrus 549
Quom usus venerit, videbimus quid opus sit.
When time comes, find out.
Chr. 557
Hominem amicum recipere ad te atque eius amicam subigitare.
Chr. 567
wrong to invite friend and seduce his friend
Novi ego amantis.
I know the ways of lovers.
Chr. 570
Multa fert lubido; ea facere prohibet tua praesentia. lust urges, restraint
Chr. 573
Apud alium prohibet dignitas, apud alium ipsi facti pudet. stop lust
Chr. 576
hominis frugi et temperantis
a man of
restraint
Syrus 580
C: Quo ego hinc abeam? S: Quo lubet.
Where am I to go? anywhere
586
Pessuma haec est meretrix.
She is an abandoned whore.
Syrus 599
Non emo.
I don't buy.
Chr. 611
Hic profectost anulus quem ego suspicor.
This is the ring I suspected.
Sos. 614
Dixi equidem, ubi me ostendisti, ilico eum esse.
I said this is the ring.
Nurse 616
Nescio quid tristis est.
She's a bit sad.
Syrus 620
Ne ista hercle magno iam conatu magnas nugas dixerit.
wife mess up
Chr. 621
Nescio quid peccati portat haec purgatio.
explanation
shows wrong
Syrus 626
Tantam esse in animi inscitiam!
What a fool she is!
Chr. 631
Quidvis satis esr dum vivat modo.
nothing bad if she alive
Chr. 641
Ut stultae et misere omnes sumus
Sos. 649
Religiosae, quom expondendam do illi, de digito anulum detraho. from pity I left ring
with abandoned child
Nisi ex ipsa quaeras unde hunc habuerit.
Ask the girl where she got it.
Sos. 659
Nostrast si itast.
If so, she's ours.
Syrus 660
Non licet hominem esse saepe ita ut volt, si res non sinit.
Chr. 666
Often we can't do what we want, because the situation does not allow it.
Haud multum a me aberit infortunium.
'misfortune knock at door'
Syrus 668
ne esse amicam hanc gnati resciscat senex.
keep father from knowing
Syrus 670
Nil tam difficlest quin quaerendo investigari possiet.
Syrus 675
Nothing is so difficult that a detective can't find the amswer.
Qui usque uba adfuerim.
I've helped.
Syrus 684
Quin nolo mentaire.
I don't want you to lie.
Syrus 701
Illam te amare et velle uxorem.
You love her and want to marry her.
Syrus 703
Satin sanus es aut sobrius?
sane or drunk?
Clinia 704
Tu fors quid me fiat parvi pendis, dum illi consulas. care only for him
Clinia 715
Unus est dies, dum argentum eripio.
steal money in one day
Syrus 717
quid si nunc caelum ruat
What if the sky should fall?
Syrus 719
Quin est paratum argentum.
The silver is waiting for you.
Syrus 737
Dignam me putas quam inludas?
Do I deserve mockery?
Bacc. 742
Ne quaeras; ecferant quae secum huc attulerunt.
take out all
Syrus 745
paulum lucri quantum ei damni
little gain, large loss
Syrus 747
dictum factum
said and done
Syrus 760
At si scias quam scite in mentem venerit.
how cleverly thought out
Syrus 764
C: Nam prorsum mihil intellego. S: Vah, tardus es. in dark, you slow
776
Argentum dabitur ei ad nuptias
father will pay for wedding
Syrus 778
At ego illi neque do neque despondeo.
not allow marriage
Chr. 779
Non meast simulatio:
Chr. 783
ita tu istaec tua misceto, ne me admisceas.
Egon quoi daturus non sum, ut ei despondeam?
Make your cake without my help.
Num mihi datumst? Num iussi?
Syrus 793
ius summum saepe summast malitia.
Syrus 797
Omnes te in lauta esse et bene aucta re putant
Syrus 798
Nullast tam facilis res quin difficilis siet.
Clit. 805
Amicam adduxti quam non licitumst tangere.
Clit. 819
argentum ad eam deferes quod ei pollicituís.
Syrus 822
Nam nil est illic quod moremur diutius.
Syrus 834
what to do with me
highest law, highest evil
.
regarded as wealthy
difficult when opposed
mistress, no touch
take her the money
nothing to delay us
Quam multa iuiusta ac prava fiunt moribus!
Chr. 839
Hanc uxorem sibi dari volt Clinia.
Mene. 847
Frustra sum igitur gavisus miser.
Mene. 857
Tanto ocius te ut poscat et tu, id quod cupis,
Chr. 867
quam ocissume ut des.
demand, give on the nail
nisi idem dictumst centiens
Chr. 881
Voltus quoque hominum fingit scelus.
Chr. 887
veterator
Chr. 890
Mitto iam osculari atque amplexari.
Mene. 901
Ubi abiere intro, operuere ostium.
Mene. 907
An dubium id tibist?
Chr. 911
Derides merito.
Chr. 915
Ni essem lapis!
Chr. 917
Non tu te cohibes?
Mene. 919
prae iracundia
Chr. 921
nonne id flagitiumst, te aliis consilium dare,
Mene. 923
foris sapere, tibi non posse te auxiliarier?
self
Fac ut audeat tibi credere omnia
Mene. 925
mi illae vero ad rastros res redit
Chr. 931
Nescis quam doleam.
Chr. 934
luxuria et lascivia diffluit
Chr. 945
Ac iam uxorem ut accersat paret.
Chr. 948
Volgo faciunt.
Clit. 957
quod tibi bene ex animo
custom causes wrongdoing
Clinia wants a marriage.
fool with idle delight
sooner
unless told a hundred times
makes up faces
sneaky fox
forget kisses and embraces
I'm in and they shut the door.
do you doubt
You rightly mock me.
unless I were a stone
no self-control
anger beside me
bad to advise others, when can't help
Make him trust you.
bankruptcy
You don't know much pain I have.
overflows from self-indulgence
Let him get his wife.
commonly happens
to wish well from heart
Mene. 959
quae essent prima habere neque consulere in longitudinem present pleasure, not long
term
Chr. 963
stultitiae praesidium
shield against folly
Chr. 967
Emori cupio.
I want to die.
Clit. 971
quod peccavi ego, id obesse huic
My wrong harms my master.
Syrus 974
unde peterem mihi cibum
where to to get food
Syrus 978
Non esse horum te arbitror.
I think you are not theirs.
Syrus 985
An tu ob peccatum hoc esse illum iratum putas?
angry for your act?
Syrus 990
Suspicionem istanc ex illis quaere.
Ask about your suspicions.
Syrus 994
Pergin mulier esse? Nullane ego rem umquam in vita mea
Chr. 1006
volui quin tu in ea re mi fueris advorsatrix?
Still the woman; all I want is you as
my opponent.
Iniquos es qui me tacere de re tanta postules.
unfair to ask quiet
Sos. 1011
Subditum se suspicatur.
He suspects a changeling.
Sos. 1014
Confitere.
Admit it.
Chr. 1015
Istuc inimicis siet.
That would be as an enemy.
Sos. 1016
Egon confitear meum non esse filium, qui sit meus? not wish on enemy; shouldn't I
acknowledge son
consilimilis moribus
like in habits
Chr. 1019
Parentis meos ut conmonstres mihi.
Tell me who my parents are.
Clit. 1027
gerro iners fraus helluo ganeo
you are (string of insults)
Chr. 1033
ut Minervam ex Iove
as Minerva from Jove
Chr. 1036
patri obsequare et serves quod labore invenerit
obey father
Chr. 1040
quam nunc totus displiceo mihi, quam oudet
how sick of self
Clit. 1043
Chremes nimis graviter cruciat adulescentulum.
too harsh
Mene. 1045
Ad me recipio.
I take it to me.
Sos. 1056
Haec dum incipias, gravia sunt,
rough at beginning, later easy
Mene. 1058 dumque ignores, ubi cognoris, facilia.
Rufamne illam virginem,
caesiam, sparso ore, adunco naso?
Clit. 1061
Syro ignoscas volo.
Clit. 1066
string of insults
Please pardon Syrus.
from Eunuchus:
Ephebus frater Phaedriae puellulam
Peri. 7-10
cum deperiret dono missam Thaidi
ornatu eunuchi induitur...
intro ut iit, vitiat virginem.
Phaedria's brother falls in love with the girl, dresses as a eunuch, and rapes the girl.
Defunctus iam sum.
I'm done with this.
Prol. 15
Nullum est iam dictum quod non dictum sit prius. Nothing said for the first time.
Prol. 41
Quid igitur faciam? Non eam nunc quidem
Phae. 46-9 quom accersor ultro? An potius ita me comparem,
non perpeti meretricum contumelias?
Exclusit; revocat. Redeam? Non, si me obsecret.
What shall I do? Go, when invited? Should I put up with whore's insults? Shut out,
called back. I go back. No way.
te anare et ferre non posse
in love and can't bear it
Par. 54
Quae res in se neque consilium neque modum
Par. 57
habet ullum, eam consilio regere non potes.
In amore haec omnia insunt vitia: iniuriae,
suspiciones, inimicitiae, indutiae,
bellum, pax rursum: incerta haec si tu postules
ratione certa facere, nihilo plus agas
quam si des operam ut cum ratione insanias.
Et quod nunc tute tecum iratus cogitas
ëegon illam, quae illum, quae me, quae non...í sine modo,
mori me malim: sentiet qui vir siem.í:
haec verba ea una mehercle falsa lacrimula
quam oculos terendo misere vix vi expresserit,
restinguet, et te ultro accusabit, et dabis
ultro ei supplicium.
If thing has neither plan nor measure you can't control it. Vices in love: insults,
suspicions, animosity, reconcilement,
war, then peace: wonít work to seek certain. If
angrily you think: ërather die than return to her. She will know what a
conquers you. Once accused she will punish you.
Indignum facinus! Nunc ego
Phae. 70-3
et illam scelestam esse et me miserum sentio:
et taedet et amore ardeo, et prudens sciens,
vivos vidensque pereo, nec quid agam scio.
man I am. One tear
Awful crime! I sense that I am wicked and wretched: weary and burning, knowing right, I
go to destruction, not
knowing what to do.
Ut te redimas captum quam queas minumo.
ransom self cheaply
Par. 74-5
nostri fundi calamitas
disaster for crops
Par. 79
Tremo horreoque, postquam aspexi hanc.
one look at her
Phae. 84
Accede ad ignem hunc, iam calesces plus satis.
to fire for warmth
Par. 85
Utinam esset mihi
Would that we shared love equally.
pars aequa amoris tecum ac pariter fieret.
Phae. 91-2
non quo quemquam plus amem aut plus diligam
not love another more
Thais 96
Prae amore exclusti hunc foras.
shut door from love
Par. 98
Quae vera audivi taceo
trust me with truth
Par. 103
Plenus rimarum sum, haec atque illac perluo.
full of cracks I leak
Par. 105
Mihi mater Samia fuit.
mother was Samia
Thais 107
Neque tu uno cras contenta neque solus dedit.
one man not enough
Par. 122
hanc forma honesta virginem
girl with great beauty
Thais 132
Dola sum: habeo hic neminem
Alone I have neither friend
nor kin.
neque amicum neque cognatum.
Thais 147
Cupio aliquos parere amicos beneficio meo.
hope to get friends
Thais 149
pessuma,
vile, I should answer your deeds?
egon quicquam cum istis factis tibi respondeam?
Phae. 152
Parvola hinc es abrepta.
little sister kidnapped
Phae. 155
Ego excludor; ille recipitur.
I shut out, he taken
Phae. 159
Porro eunuchum dixti velle te.
You wanted a eunuch.
Phae. 167
Contemptus abs te tamen haec habui in memoria
despised I did for you
Phae. 170
potius quam te inimicum habeam
than have you as enemy
Phae. 176
Labascit victus uno verbo.
wavering, one word will beat him
Par. 178
Non fiet: hoc modo sine te exorem.
grant me not more
Thais 185
Rus ibo.
I will go to country.
Phae. 187
Cum milite isto praesens absens ut sies;
Think only of
me.
Phae. 192
dies noctisque me ames, me desideres,
me somnies, me exspectes, de me cogites,
me speres, me te oblectes, mecum tota sis:
meus fac sis postremo animus quando ego sum tuos.
Forsitan mi hic parvam habeat fidem
Thais 197
atque ex aliarum ingeniis nunc me iudicet.
doesn't trust
me, judges by others
Ego pol, quae mihi sum conscia, hoc certo scio,
conscience tells me no falsehood
neque me finxisse falsi quicquam.
Ego rus ibo atque ibi manebo.
I'll go stay in country.
Phae. 216
Censen posse me offirmare et
Phae. 217
perpeti ne redeam interea?
Can I stand firm and stay away?
Vigilabis lassus.
Tired stay awake.
Par. 221
Tandem non ego illam carcam vel totum triduom? resist for three days?
Phae. 223
Stat sententia.
I am determined.
Phae. 224
Adeon homines immutarier ex amore ut non cognoscas eundem esse.
Par. 225
Are men so much changed by love that you do not recognize the same man?
Hoc nemo fuit
minus ineptus, magis severus quisquam nec magis contines.
Par. 226
Once he was the least besotten, most firm, most restrained.
Ducit secum una virginem dono huic.
Papae, what a beauty!
Par. 229
facie honesta.
honest in appearance
cum meo decrepito hoc eunucho
with decrepit
eunuch
Par. 231
Homini homo quid praestat! Stulto intellegens
great difference
Gnath. 232
quid interest!
Omnia habeo neque quicquam habeo.
have all and none
Gnath. 243
At ego infelix neque ridiculus esse neque plagas pati possum.
I won't be a butt of
luck or insult. Gnath. 244
hoc novomst aucupium
new way of birdcatching
Gnath. 247
qui esse primos se omnium rerum volunt
think they are first but aren't
Gnath. 248
nec sunt
Negat quis, nego; ait: aio
always agree
Gnath. 252
omnia adsentari
I agree with all.
Gnath. 253
Hic homines prorsum ex stultis insanos facit.
worsens insanity
Par. 254
G: Quid agitur? P: Statur.
What's going on? Going on my feet.
271
G: Num quidnam hic quod nolis vides? P: Te.
not want to see
you!
272
Uro hominem.
I burn the fellow.
Gnath. 274
omnium rerum vicissitudo
turning of all things
Par. 276
Ne sursum deorsum cursites neve usque ad lucem vigiles. all at ease
Gnath. 278
Fac ut asmittar ad illam.
Admit me to her.
Gnath. 281
Non temerest.
something wrong
Par. 291
Ubi ubi est diu celari non potest.
can't hide long
Chae. 296
Aliquid inveni modo quod ames.
Find me something to love.
Chae. 308
P: Ubi vidisti? C: In via.
Where see her? In the street.
322
bonae felicitates omnes avorsae sient
from good to bad
Chae. 325
incommode hercle
most inconvenient
Par. 329
Vidi, novi, scio quo abducta sit.
saw, know where she was taken
Par. 350
C: Quodnam quaeso hercle? P: Eunuchum.
What is it? A
eunuch.
356
inhonestum hominem...senem mulierem
ugly monstrosity
Chae. 357
Estne ut fertur forma?
as good as they say?
Chae. 361
Quid si nunc tute fortunatus fias?
if I make you happy
Par. 369
Capias vestem illius.
take his clothes.
Par. 370
Cibum una capias, adsis, tangas.
You would be with her.
Par. 373
Dixisti pulchre; numquam vidi melius consilium dare.
great plan
Chae. 376
P: Quid agis? Iocabar equidem. C: Garris.
I was joking.
You chatter.
378
Vide ne nimium calidum hoc sit modo.
watch to see if too risky
Par. 380
At enim istaec in me cudetur faba.
I'm the one who will pay for it.
Par. 381
Flagitium facimus.
'We're hatching a wicked bird.'
Par. 382
Cogo atque impero;
Chae. 389
numquam defugiam auctoritatem
I give orders; I take responsibility.
Non tam ipso quidem
Gnath. 392
dono quam abs te datum esse.
labore alieno magno partam gloriam
Gnath. 399
Invidere omnes mihi,
Thraso 410
mordere clanculum; ego non flocci pendere.
not so much gift as giver
by effort get great glory
All envy and snipe at me; I care not
one bit.
shot
Eon es ferox, quia habes imperium in beluas?
Thraso 415
Saepe et fertur in primis.
Gnath. 429
Te ut male urat.
Gnath. 438
par pro pari
Gnath. 445
Video et me taedet.
Par. 464
Tacent; satis laudant.
Par. 476
vel sobrius
Thraso 479
Ubi tempus tibi erit, sat habet si tum recipitur.
Par. 485
fierce by ruling animals
often; good
It burns you.
tit for tat
I see him and am bored of him.
silent praise
drunk (or not)
only when convenient
Adparet servum hunc esse domini pauperis miserique.
Thraso 486
Obviously he is the slave of a poor master.
e flamma petere te cibum
seek food from flame
Par. 491
Haud convenit
Par. 494
una ire cum amica imperatorem in via.
unseemly for commander to be with whore
Quid rides?
What are you laughing at?
Thraso 497
Curate istam diligenter virginem.
Look after the girl.
Thais 505
ni mirum dabit haec Thais mihi magnum malum. means bad for me
Chr. 508
Ait rem divinam fecisse et rem seriam
praying and had serious
matter to discuss
Chr. 513
velle agere mecum.
Sperat se a me avellere.
hopes to get it from me
Chr. 520
illa forte quae lim periit parvola soror
stolen younger sister
Chr. 524
Verum ea si vivit, annos natast sedecim.
if alive, sixteen years old
Chr. 526
Aut dicat quod volt aut molesta ne siet.
Explain or cease bothering.
Chr. 529
Rus eo.
I am going to the country.
Chr. 533
Amabo ut illuc transeas ubi illast.
Come to see her.
Pyth. 537
Quid illud malist?
What mischief?
Anti. 547
qui me sequatur quoquo eam, rogitando obtundat follow and bother
Chae. 554
O festus dies!
O happy holiday!
Chae. 560
Ego te obsecro hercle ut audias.
your favor to listen
Chae. 562
quom ipsus me noris quam elegans formarum spectator siem?
Chae. 566
In hac commotus sum.
She's got me.
Chae. 567
Erat quidam eunuchus quem mercatus fuerat frater Thaidi a eunuch
Chae. 569
Tacitus citius audies.
If silent, you'll hear quicker.
Chae. 571
Commendat virginem.
girl entrusted to me
Chae. 578
In interiore parte ut maneam solus cum sola. Adnuo
Chae. 579
terram intuens modeste.
to go apart; I look down
Ego ad cenam hinc eo.
I'm going to dinner.
Thais 581
Adhortor proprerent. Dum adparatur, virgo in conclavi sedet
Chae. 584
suspectans tabulam quandam pictam. Ibi inerat pictura haec, Iovem
quo pacto Danaae misisse aiunt quondam in gemium imbrem aureum.
Egomet quoque id spectare coepi, et quia consimilem luserat
iam olim ille ludum, inpendio magis animus gaudebat mihi,
deum sese in hominem convortisse atque in alienas tegulas
venisse clanculum: per pluviam fucum factum mulieri.
At quem deum! qui templa caeli summa sonitu concutit.
Ego homuncio hoc non faceren? facerem ego illud vero itidem ac lubens.
Dum haec mecum reputo, accersitur lavatum interea virgo:
iit, lavit, rediit, deinde eam in lecto illae conlocarunt.
Sto exspectans si quid me imperent.
I urge haste. I see picture of Jove and Danae. I looked and thought to imitate Jove.
While I thought, she was taken to a bath and placd on the bed. I awaited orders.
Accipio tristis.
take fan sullenly
Chae. 596
os tuom inpudens
that silly face
Anti. 597
Interea somnus virginem opprimit. Ego limis specto
sic per flabellum clanculum; simul alia circumspecto,
satin explorata sint. Video esse. Pessulum ostio obdo.
Chae. 601
She falls asleep. I scout the place and lock the door.
A: Quid tum? C: Quid ëquid tumí fatue?
What then? Come on.
604
An ego occasionem
Chae. 604
mi ostentam, tantam, tan brevem, tam optatam, tam insperatam
amitterem? Tum pol ego is essem vero qui simulabar.
I should lose the chance? Then I would be enunch.
Perlongest, sed tanto ocius properemus, muta vestem.
Hurry, change.
Anti. 609
Eamus. Et de istac simul, quo pacto porro possum
Chae. 613
potiri, consilium volo capere una tecum.
Let's go. I ask you how I can keep
the girl.
Miles vero sibi putare adductum ante oculos aemulum.
imagined rival
Dor. 633
Certe extrema linea
Phae. 640
amare haud nil est.
Hocine tam audax facinus facere esse ausum.
Pyth. 644
Py: Perii. Ph: Temulentaís.
655
quod istuc nam monstrum fuit
Dor. 656
Insanis: qui istuc facere eunuchus potuit?
Phae. 657
Res ipsa indicat.
Pyth. 658
Virgo ipsa lacrumat.
At pol ego amatores mulierum esse eos maxumos;
Pyth. 665
sed nil potesse.
Illud vide, os ut sibi distorsit carnufex!
Phae. 670
Qui ad vos deductus hodiest.
Phae. 677
Ne comparandus quidem hic ad illumst: ille erat
Pyth. 681
honesta facie et liberali.
like looking at stage from gallery
dare such a deed
I've had it. You're drunk.
what a prodigy
What can eunuch do?
matter proves itself,
girl is crying
great lovers, no power
what evil gestures
guy taken to your house
no comparison; he looks honest
Hic est victus vetus veternosus senex,
old guy looks awful
Pyth. 688
colore mustelino.
Venit Chaerea.
Chaerea came.
Dorus 696
Meam ipsi induit; post una ambo abierunt foras.
changed and left
Dorus 702
Siquidem tu me hic etiam, nebulo, ludificabere
if you can mock me
Phae. 717
Id modo dic abisse Dorum.
Say only Dorus left.
Dor. 724
Attat data hercle verba mihi sunt; vicit vini quod bibi.
At dum adcubabam, quam videbar mihi pulchre esse sobrius!
Posuam surrexi, neque pes neque mens satis suom officium facit.
Chr. 727
Drink overwhelmed me; foot and mind failed.
Sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus.
Love without food and drink chills.
Chr. 733
Credo illum iam adfuturum esse ut illam a me eripiat.
comes to steal
Thais 739
tibi sororem studeo reddere
to restore your sister
Thais 745
Educta ita uti teque illaque dignumst.
Thais 748
Hanc tibi do dono.
Thais 749
Abi tu, cistellam domo ecfer cum monumentis.
Thais 753
Ego formidulosus?
Chr. 757
quod cavere possi
Chr. 761
Dic sororem esse illam tuam.
Thais 766
Huic ipsist opus patrono, quem defensorem paro.
Thais 770
Primum aedis expugnabo.
Thraso 772
Ego ero hic post principio.
Thraso 781
Idem hoc iam Pyrrhus factitavit.
Thraso 783
Nebulo magnus est.
Thais 785
Omnia prius experiri quam armis sapientem decet.
Thraso 789
hunc tantum hominem facias inimicum tibi
Gnath. 802
Principio eam esse dico liberam.
Chr. 805
Tun me prohibeas
meam ne tangam?
Thraso 809
Novi ingenium mulierum:
what you want.
nolunt ubi velis, ubi nolis cupiunt ultro.
Gnath. 813
Scio, nescio, abiit, audivi, ego non adfui.
Thais 818
Illum eunuchum negant fuisse.
Pyth. 822
Nisi amasse credo Pamphilam.
Pyth. 826
Quid facerem? Ita ut tu iusti, soli creditast.
Pyth. 831
Lupo ovem commisisti.
Thais 832
worthy of you
I give her to you as a gift.
Bring the proofs.
I scared?
when can avoid danger
Say that she is your sister.
needs defender
First I'll storm the house.
I'll post self at back.
Pyrrhus did the same.
He's a great coward.
other ways first
make great man enemy
First I say that she is free.
You stop me from touching mine?
I know women's ways; do opposite
I know, I don't know...
They deny he was the eunuch.
unless he loved her
I did what you told me.
You entrusted the sheep to the wolf.
Habemus hominem ipsum.
We've got him.
Pyth. 835
os inpudens
bronze face
Pyth. 838
in angiportum quoddam desertum
into a deserted alley
Chae. 845
Unam hanc noxiam
forgive one wrong; if another, kill me
amitte: si aliam admisero umquam, coccidito.
Chae. 852
Paulum quiddam.
a minor wrong
Chae. 856
Etiam ultro derisum advenit.
He mocks us.
Pyth. 860
Non te dignum, Chaerea,
You've done wrong unworthy of you.
Thais 864
fecisti.
malo principio magna familiaritas
bad beginning great friendship
Chae. 874
contumeliae non me fecisse causa, sed amoris
for love not insult
Chae. 877
Et pol propterea magis nunc ignosco tibi.
I am
inclined to pardon you. I know the power of love.
Non adeo inhumano ingenio sum, Chaerea,
Thais 879
neque ita inperita ut quid amor valeat nesciam.
Nunc ego te in hac re mi oro ut adiutrix sies,
Chae. 885
ego me tuae commendo ey committo fide,
te mihi patronam capio, Thais, te obsecro;
emoriar, si non hanc uxorem duxero.
I beg you to be my patron; I must
marry her or die.
Nutricem accersitum iit, quae illam aluit parvolam Get the nurse who nursed the little
one.
Thais 892
Dabit hic pugnam aliquam denuo.
He'll start more trouble.
Pyth. 899
Neque pol servandum tibi
I don't trust you.
quicquam dare ausim neque servare.
Pyth. 903
Move te oro ocius, mea nutrix.
Move quickly, nurse.
Pyth. 912
Post exibo atque hunc perterrebo sacrilegum.
leave and scare
Pyth. 922
Reviso quidnam Chaerea hic rerum gerat.
Back to see what he plans.
Par. 923
cum amatore cenam quom liguriunt
when lick up a dinner with lover
Par. 936
Ego pol te pro istis factis et dictis.
punish you for your deeds
Pyth. 941
Numnam ego perii?
couldn't have gone wrong
Par. 947
adduxti pro eunucho adulescentulum
for youth instead of eunuch
Pyth. 949
Nunc minatur porro sese id quod moechis solet.
punish as adulterer
Pyth. 957
Quis homo pro moecho umquam vidit in domo meretricia
Par. 960
prendi quemquam?
adulterer in whorehouse
Edico vobis nostrum esse illum erilem filium.
He's
master's son.
Par. 962
Vide, Parmeno,
quid agas, ne neque illi prosis et tu pereas.
Watch what you are doing; could
harm you.
Pyth. 964
Dicam hercle.
I'll tell him.
Par. 968
Neque agri neque urbis odium me umquam percipit. hate neither place
Laches 972
Lingua haeret metu.
fear ties tongue
Par. 977
Culpa non factumst mea.
not my fault
Par. 980
Emit quendam Phaedria
Par. 982
eunuchum quem dono huic daret.
master bought eunuch as gift for her
Tum quandam fidicinam amat hinc Chaerea.
son loves music-girl
Par. 985
Aliud ex alio malum!
one plague after another
Laches 987
Ego te, furcifer, si vivo
I'll ... if I live.
Laches 989
pro eunuchon?
in place of a eunuch?
Laches 992
Sic est. Hunc pro moecho postea
Par. 992
conprendere intus et constrinxere.
Yes, caught as an eunuch he's tied up.
aliud mali damnive quod non dixeris reliquom
any other disaster
Laches 995
Nam iam diu aliquam causam quaerebat senex
Par. 1000
quam ob rem insigne aliquid faceret eis.
Old man has been out to get the
women.
senex intro ad nos venit errans
old wander in error
Pyth. 1003
Numquam pol hominem stultiorem vidi.
never saw a dumber man
rival
Pyth. 1009
Itan lepidum tibi visumst, scelus, nos inridere?
laugh to mock us
Par. 1018
Uterque in te exempla edent.
both use you as example
Pyth. 1022
quasi sorex
like a rat
Par. 1024
ut Thaidi me dedam
surrender self to Thais
Thraso 1026
Hercules servivit Omphalae
Hercules slave to Omphale
Thraso 1027
Quid hoc autemst mali?
What mischief?
Thraso 1029
Ecquis me hodie vivit fortunatior?
anyone more fortunate
Chaer. 1031
Scis Pamphilam meam inventam civem?
Pamphila a citizen
Chaer. 1037
Scis sponsam mihi?
know she's engaged to me
Gaudeo esse amorem omnem in tranquillo.
His love is calm.
Chaer. 1039
Miles pelletur foras.
Soldier kicked out.
Par. 1042
an fortunam conlaudem quae gubernatrix fuit
fortune as pilot
Chaer. 1046
Nil est Thaide hac, tua dignius quod ametur
Thais worthy of love
Chaer. 1051
quanto minus spei est tanto magis amo.
less hope, more love
Thraso 1053
Quodvis donum praemium a me optato: id optatum auferes.
Thraso 1057
Ask whatever you want; you will receive it.
Alium quaerebam, iter hac habui.
I was looking for another; this way.
Phae. 1065
Verum idem si vobis prodest, vos non facere inscitiast.
Let's agree.
Gnath. 1071 Militem ego rivalem recipiundum censeo.
add soldier as
Gnath. 1072
Cum illa ut lubenter vivis.
You live happily with her.
Gnath. 1073
Fatuos est, insulsus, tardus, stertit noctis et dies.
Gnath. 1079
He is smug, insulting, slow, snores night and day
Nemo melius prorsus neque prolixius
no one better nor extravagant
Gnath. 1082
Satis diu hoc iam saxum vorso.
I've turned this stone too often.
Gnath. 1085
Huic comenendum vobis et deridendum.
to eat and ridicule
Gnath. 1087
Numquam etiam fui usquam quin me amarent omnes plurimum. Everywhere I am
loved.
Thraso 1092
Vos valete et plaudite.
Be well and applaud.
Cant. 1095
from Phormio:
Chremes clam habebat Lemni uxorem et filiam,
Peri. 3-5
Athenis clam coniugem et amantem unice
fidicinam gnatum.
Hic respondere voluit, non lacessere:
Prol. 19
benedictis si certasset, audisset bene.
Nam erilem filium eius duxisse audio
money
Davus 39
uxorem; ei credo munus hoc conraditur.
Quam inique comparatumst, ei qui minus habent
ut semper aliquid addant ditoribus!
Si quis quid reddit, magna habenda est gratia.
thank him.
Davus 55
Quoius tu fidem in pecunia perspexeris,
verere verba ei credere. Ubi quid mihi lucrist
te fallere?
Davus 60-2
montis auri pollicens
Geta 68
Sic est ingenium.
Geta 70
Abeuntes ambo hic tum senes me filiis
relinquont quasi magistrum.
Geta 72-3
O Geta, provinciam
cepisti duram.
Davus 73-4
Seni fidelis dum sum, scapulas perdidi.
Geta 76
advorsum stimulum calces
Davus 78
obsequi quae vellent
Geta 79
Scisti uti foro.
Davus 79
wife and daughter on Lemnos,
first wife and son besot with flutist
in Athens
wish to answer, not harm: kindness
deserved kindness
master's son is marrying,
acquired, rich get richer
If he returns what owed, you
trust with money but not words
how profit to cheat you
promise mountains of gold
(money) is his talent.
left me as tutor
a hard task
hit for faithfulness
kick against prick
follow their whims
you made money
quandam nactus est puellulam
fell madly in love
citharistriam, hanc amare coepit perdite
Geta 81-2
oculos pascere
to feed his eyes
Geta 85
Modo quandam vidi virginem hic viciniae
girl
weeping over mother's death
miseram suam matrem lamentari mortuam
Geta 95-6
Imus, venimus,
We went, we saw, she was a beauty
videmus. Virgo pulchra, et quo magis diceres,
with no adornment...
nil aderat adiumenti ad pulchritudinem:
capillus passus, nudus pes, ipsa horrida,
Geta 103
lacrumae, vestitus turpis...
Amare coepit.
Davus 111
Obsecrat sibi ut eius faciat copiam.
Geta 112
Noster quid ageret nescire: et illam ducere
cupiebat et metuebat absentem patrem.
Geta 117
Ille indotatam virginem atque ignobilem
daret illi? Numquam faceret.
Geta 120
Est parasitus quidam Phormio.
Geta 122
Pater aderit; mihi paratae lites: quid mea?
He began to love her.
begs admission
to marry or to fear
not marry poor girl
There is the pest.
Father will return; a fight; she's ours.
Illa quidem nostra erit.
Geta 133
iocularem audaciam
sporting venture
Davus 133
Quod fors feret feremus aequo animo.
endure bravely
Geta 138
In me omnis spes mihist.
only hope in self
Davus 139
Nunc amitte quaeso hunc; ceterum
Let me go this one time.
posthac si quicquam, nil precor.
Geta 141
nil nisi spem meram
nothing but bare hope
Geta 146
Adeon rem redisse ut qui mi consultum optume velit esse,
Anti. 154
Phaedria, patrem ut extimescam, ubi in mentem eius adventi veniat!
fear father will
return
qui tam audacis facinoris mihi consciuís?
partner in crime
Anti. 156
at non cottidiana cura haec angeret animum
daily pain over her
Anti. 160
Aliis quia defit quod amant aegrest; tibi quia superest dolet;
Phae. 162
amore abundas.
others regret lack; you abundance
Nostri nosmet paenitet.
all grieve self
Phae. 172
At tu mihi contra nunc videre fortunatus, Phaedria, You are fortunate to be free in love.
quoi de integro est potestas etiam consulendi quid velis:retinere amorem an mittere.
Anti. 173
Quae neque uti devitem scio neque quo modo me inde extraham I can neither avoid
nor escape. Geta 181
Erus adest.
Master is here.
Geta 184
Loquarne? Incendam. Taceam? Instigem.
tell or not
Geta 186
Is nunc me retinet.
He keeps me here.
Geta 188
conicerem protinam in pedes
gone in flight
Geta 190
fugam aut furtum
flight or theft
Anti. 191
Nescio quod magnum hoc untio exspecto malum. await bad news
Anti. 193
Huius patrem vidisse me, patruom tuom.
I saw your uncle.
Geta 199
Fortis fortuna adiuvat.
Fortune favors brave.
Geta 203
Non sum apud me.
not me
Anti. 204
commeruisse culpam
that you are guilty
Geta 206
Non possum immutarier.
can't change myself
Anti. 206
Hoc nil est.
He won't fight.
Geta 208
Ne te iratus suis saevidictis dictis protelet.
overwhelm with words
Geta 214
Mane inquam.
Stop, I say!
Geta 217
Egomet me novi et peccatum meum.
know self and fault
Anti. 217
Nunc prior adito tu, ego in insidiis hic ero
you first, I'll be in reserve
subcenturiatus, si quid deficias.
Geta 229
Itane tandem uxorem duxit Antipho iniussu meo? my son married in defiance of me
Nec meum imperium, ac mitto imperium, non simultatem meam Geta as advisor
revereri saltem! Non pulchre! O facinus audax, O Geta monitor!
Demi. 231
Invitus feci. Lex coegit.
law forced me
Demi. 236
secundae res sunt maxume
things going well
Demi. 241
Incredibile quantum erum ante eo sapientia.
my wisdom over my master's
Geta 247
in pistrino, capulandum, habendae compedes
hard labor
Geta 249
Bonas me absente hic confecistis nuptias.
marriage in my absence
Demi. 258
artificem probum
splendid acting
Geta 259
Egon illi non suscenseam?
I not be angry at him?
Demi. 260
Unum quom noris omnis noris.
Know one, know all.
Demi. 265
Hic in noxiat, ille ad defendendam causam adest:
Demi. 266
quom illest, hic praestost: tradunt operas mutuas. defend each other
Functus adulescentulist.
acted like a youth
Phae. 281
officium liberalis.
Salvom te advenisse gaudeo.
I rejoice that you have arrived safely.
Geta 286
Bone custos, salve, columen vero familiae,
Demi. 287
quoi commendavi filium hinc abiens meum.
Guardian to whom I entrusted my son
Servom hominem causam orare leges non sinunt
Geta 292
neque testimoni dictiost.
law does not permit slave to testify
Inprudens timuit adulescens; sino
fearful youth; you are a slave
Demi. 294
tu servos.
quaereret alium virum
Demi. 297
Non ratio virum argentum deerat.
Demi. 299
Nil est dictu facilius.
Geta 300
Egon illam cum illo ut patiar nuptam unum diem.
Demi. 304
look for another to marry her
penniless bride
Nothing easier to say.
even one day
Istum patronum mulieris.
a woman's champion
Demi. 307
Eum require atque huc adduc.
Find him and lead him here.
Demi. 309
Recta via quidem illic.
by straight path
Phae. 310
Itane patris sis conspectum veritum hinc abiisse? fled scared
Phor. 315
Phaniam relictam solam?
Phania
abandoned?
Phor. 317
Et iratum senem?
and old man enraged?
Phor. 317
Ad te summa solum rerum redit.
whole burden on you (me)
Phor. 318
In te spes est.
Our hope is in you.
Geta 319
Tu impulisti.
You made us do it.
Geta 320
Cedo senem; iam instructa sunt mi in corde consilia omnia. my plan ready
Phor. 321
uti maneat Phanium
Phanium remain his wife
Phor. 322
O vir fortis atque amicuís.
O brave friend.
Geta 324
in nervom
in the stocks
Geta 325
Iam pedum viast via.
road set: I've bamboozled many
Quod me censes homines iam deverberasse usque ad necem?
Phor. 326
rete accipitri tennitur neque milvo
net not set for hawk or kite
Phor. 331
Mihi sciunt nil esse.
I have nothing.
Phor. 334
Non pote satis pro merito ab illo tibi referri gratia. can't repay you
Geta 337
Nemo satis pro merito gratiam regi refert.
can't repay patron
Phor. 338
Prima coitiost acerruma.
first hottest
Geta 346
Audistis factam iniuriam quam haec est mihi?
no greater wrong
Demi. 349
Iratus est.
He's angry.
Geta 350
Negat Phanium esse hanc sibi cognatam Demipho? deny kinship
Phor. 352
Neque eius patrem se scire qui fuerit?
denies know father
Phor. 354
Quia egens relictast misera, ignoratur parens,
from greed he denies her
neglegitur ipsa: vide avaritia quid facit.
Phor. 357
Si erum insimulabis malitiae, male audies.
defends his master
Geta 359
Nam iam adulescenti nihil est quod suscenseam,
no blame, not know
si illum minus norat.
Phor. 361
Ai quem virum! Quem ego viderim in vita optumum!
splendid man
Phor. 367
Videas te atque illum narras!
may you become that
Geta 368
In malum crucem!
Go to hell!
Phor. 368
Pergin ero absenti male loqui, impurissume?
more insults?
Geta 372
Ain tamen, carcer?
more, jailbird
Geta 373
bonorum extortor, legum contortor
thief, twister
Geta 374
D: Tace. G: Absenti tibi
375
te indignas seque dignas contumelias
numquam cessavit dicere hodie.
Silence! He's been insulting you
with words he deserves.
Quem amicum tuom ais fuisse istum, explana mihi, which person?
Demi. 380
et qui cognatum me sibi seese diceret.
Proinde expiscare quasi non nosses.
fishing hunt
Phor. 382
Ego me nego.
I deny (know him).
Demi. 383
Sobrinum tuom non noras?
don't know own cousin?
Phor. 384
D: Dic nomen. P: Nomen? D: Maxume. Quid nunc taces?
tell name/why quiet
385
Perii hercle, nomen perdidi.
had it; forgot name
Phor. 386
temptatum advenis.
come with your trick
Phor. 388
Neque ego illum noram neque mi cognatus fuit
don't know cousin with that name
quisquam istoc nomine.
Demi. 391
ab avo atque atavo
from rgandfather to his
greatgrandfather
Phor. 395
Filium narras mihi?
my son? can't find words worthy of
his acts
Quoius de stultitia dici ut dignumst non potest.
Demi. 401
mercedem dare lex iubet ei atque amittere
pay off a whore
Phor. 414
actum ne agas
settled once, settled forever
Phor. 419
Aut quidem cum uxore hac ipsum prohibebo domo. not in my house
Demi. 425
Metuit hic nos, tametsi sedulo dissimulat.
scared of us
Phor. 428
Tuis dignum factis feceris,
ut amici inter nos simus.
Phor. 430
Ego illam eiciam.
I shall kick her out.
Demi. 437
Quanta me cura et sollicitudine adficit
how much son entangles me
with
gnatus, qui me et se hisce inpedivit nuptiis!
marriage
Demi. 441
Quid ago? Dic, hegio.
What should I do? Tell me,
Hegio.
Demi. 447
Ego quae in rem tuam sint ea velim facias.
Do
what is your interest.
Cra. 449
Quot homines tot sententiae: suos quoique mos.
Hegio 454
As many men, so many opinions. Each has his own.
Res magnast.
a serious matter
Crito 458
Incertior sum multo quam dudum.
more confused than before
Demi. 459
Frater est exspectandus mihi.
I'll await my brother.
Demi. 460
Alios tuam rem credidisti magis quam tete animum advorsuros?
Anti. 467
Did you think others would take care of your affairs better than you?
miserae spes opesque sunt in te uno omnes sitae
All rests on you.
strenuom hominem
active man
Geta 446
Confutavit verbis admodum iratum senem.
father was in a rage
Geta 447
per unam aut vivam aut moriar
live or die by one
Anti. 453
audire eadem miliens
hear same thing a thousand times
Dorio 487
Metuo lenonem ne quid...
fear pimp may...
Anti. 491
Cantilenam eandem canis.
sing same old song.
Dorio 495
Tu mihi cognatus, tu parens, tu amicus, tu...
You are my relative, friend
Phae. 496
Adeon ingenio esse incogitantem atque inpudentem sine modo,
Dorio 499
ut phaleratis ducas dictis me et meam ductes gratiis! cold hearted
Veris vincor.
Truth conquers.
Phae. 501
Quam uterquest similis sui.
Each like self.
Geta 501
Quoi quod amas domist,
Phae. 504
neque umquam cum huius modi usus venit ut conflictares malo.
Your love is at home; you don't have my problem.
Auribus teneo lupum.
I hold a wolf by the ears.
Anti. 506
Pamphilam meam vendidit.
He has sold my Pamphila.
Phae. 510
Quam indignum facinus, ancillam aere emptam meo!
crime to sell
Dorio 511
D: Neque ego neque tu. G: Di tibi omnes id quod es dignus
duint!
519
Neither I nor you. May the gods give you what you deserve.
pollicentem, nil ferentem, flentem
promising, not paying, weeping
Dorio 521
D: Non, verum haec ei antecessit. A: Non pudet vanitas. D: Minime, dum ob rem.
525
Paid first. Shiftiness shame you. Not if it pays.
Sic sum: si placeo, utere.
I am what I am. If I please, use me.
Dorio 527
Sic hunc decipi.
To be cheated thus.
Anti. 528
Ego isti nilo sum aliter ac fui.
always the same
Dorio 530
Ut potior sit qui prior ad dandumst.
first paid, first served
Dorio 533
Quid faciam? Unde ego nunc tam subito huic
Phae. 534
argentum inveniam miser, quoi minus nihilost?
What can I do? I have no money.
Invenias argentum.
You should find the money.
Anti. 541
dictum sapienti sat est
word to wise is enough
Anti. 542
in malo crucem
to seek the fire in bad
Geta 545
Alius ab oculis meis illam in ignotum abducet locum?
steal her
Phae. 548
Certumst persequi aut perire.
Follow or die!
Phae. 552
Salvos est, Verum enim metuo malum.
He's safe, but I fear trouble.
Geta 555
Una tecum bona mala tolerabimus.
We'lll endure good or evil.
Anti. 556
Percarest.
She's expensive.
Geta 558
Sed opus est mihi Phormionem ad hanc rem adiutorem dari. need Phormio
Geta 560
Solus est homo amico amicus.
only real friend
Anti. 562
Et illam miseram consolare.
Go comfort your wife.
Geta 564
Adduxtin tecum filiam?
Have you brought your daughter?
Demi. 568
Senectus ipsast morbus.
Old age is a disease.
Chr. 575
Te mihi fidelem esse aeque atque egomet sum mihi scibam. loyal to me
Chr. 581
Vereor ne uxor aliqua hoc reciscat mea.
Wife may find out.
Chr. 585
Nam ego meorum solus sum meus.
I am alone at home.
Chr. 587
Ego hominem callidiorem vidi neminem
no one sharper than Phormio
quam Phormionem.
Geta 591
Phaedriae esse ostenderet nilo minus
as much friend of Phaedria as
Antipho
amicum sese quam Antiphoni
Geta 597
Attat Phaedriae pater venit.
Phaedria's father is coming.
Geta 600
An quia quos fallam pro uno duo sunt mi dati?
trick two
Geta 602
duplici spe
two hopes
Geta 603
Sed patruom video cum patre astantem.
uncle with father
Anti. 608
Multa advenienti nova hic
many surpises here
Geta 611
Is qui istance-one by whom the girl-Demi. 618
ut praecipitem hanc daret
to kick the girl out
Geta 625
Sudabis satis,
Geta 628
si cum illo inceptas homine.
sweat plenty if
compete with my master
Non capitis ei res agitur sed pecuniae.
not of death but of money
Geta 631
Immo non potuit melius pervenirer
best way to reach goal
Chr. 640
eo quo nos volumus.
Parvi re tulit
Geta 646
non suscepisse: inventast quae dotem petat.
little good to
have daughter: if demand dowry
stultitia an mailitia
stupidity or evil
Anti. 659
ager oppositus pignori
land mortaged for ten minae
decem ob minas est.
Geta 661
aediculae item sunt ob decem alias
small house for ten more
Geta 663
Nil do. Inpuratus me ille ut etiam inrideat?
won't pay; him to mock me
Demi. 669
Mea causa eicitur; me hoc est aequom amittere.
for me I should
lose
Chr. 673
Hanc ducat.
Let him marry this one.
Chr. 678
Emunxi argento senes.
I've taken the money from the
old men.
Geta 682
ad restim
to the halter
Anti. 686
Phormio
Anti. 692
dotem si accipiet, uxor ducendast domum.
If Phormio gets the dowry, he must
marry the wife.
Quin male narrando possit depravarier.
make worse by telling
Geta 697
id quod bonist excerpis, dicis quod malist
cut good, tell bad
Geta 698
res postilla monstra evenerunt mihi
so many bad things happened
Geta 705
Ego curabo ne quid verborum duit.
I'll take care he doesn't cheat.
Demi. 713
Ut cautus est, ubi nil opust.
cautious when no need
Geta 715
Nam si altera illaec magis instabit, forsitan nos reiciat.
switch sides
Chr. 717
Dicat eam dare nos Phormioni nuptum.
may say marrying Phormio
Chr. 720
Non satis est tuom te officium fecisse, id si non fama adprobat.
Fame must approve
duty.
Chr. 724
Mulier mulieri magis convenit.
best a woman deal with a woman
Chr. 726
Quid agam? Quem mi amicum inveniam misera? do what/where friend
So.
728
Quod ut facerem egestas me inpulit, quom scirem infirmas nuptias
So.
733
hasce esse, ut id consularem, interea vita ut in tuto foret.
poverty to poor marriage
Meae nutricem gnatae video.
I see my daughter's nurse.
Chr. 735
Ipsa east; conloquar.
It is she; I'll speak to her.
Chr. 739
Ne me istoc nomine appellassis posthac.
Don't call me by that name
Chr. 743
Conclusam hic habeo uxorem saevam.
There I have bad wife.
Chr. 745
Istoc pol nos te hic invenire miserae numquam potuimus.
So.
747
That (a false name) was why we couldn't find you.
Ubi illae sunt?
Where are they?
Chr. 749
nuptum virginem locavi huic adulescenti
married her to youth
So.
752
Quid? Duasne uxores habet?
What? He has two wives.
Chr. 754
Composito factumst quo modo hanc amans habere posset
So.
756
sine dote.
All a trick to marry without dowry
Quam saepe forte temere
Chr. 757
eveniunt quae non audeas optare! Offendi adveniens
quocum volebam et ut volebam filiam locatam.
Chance works out best; I've married
her to mine.
Num quid opus facto sit vide.
Consider what to do.
So.
762
Nemo e me scibit.
I'll tell no one.
So.
765
Ita fugias ne praeter casam.
don't overshoot
Demi. 768
dum aliud aliquid falgiti conficiat
some other nonsense
Demi. 770
praemiumst qui recta prava faciunt
reward for either act
Demi. 771
Ut stultissume quidem illi rem gesserimus.
fools' errand
Demi. 772
Ut homost an mutet animum.
human to change mind
Geta 773
Verum, si forte, dico.
I only say he may.
Geta 774
Argentum inventumst Phaedriae.
We've found the gold.
Geta 778
In eodem luto haesitas.
stuck in old mud
Geta 780
ut sua voluntate id quod est faciundum faciat
do right
Demi. 785
factum volo
I wish to help.
Nau. 787
Vir viro quid praestat!
How men differ
Nau. 790
Virum me natum vellem.
If only I were a man
Nau. 792
Mulier ne te adulescens defetiget.
young woman may tire you
Demi. 794
Paene plus quam sat erat.
almost said too much
Chr. 797
quia uterque utriquest cordi
love each other
Chr. 800
Quid? Deliras.
What? Youíre crazy.
Demi. 801
Patris nomen aliud dictumst: hoc tu errasti
wrong name, your error
Chr. 804
Si tu nil narras?
If you talk nonsense
Demi. 806
Una omnis nos aut scire aut nescire hoc volo.
know truth
Demi. 809
Vin me credere?
You wish me to believe?
Demi. 811
Gnatam inveni nuptam cum tuo filio.
daughter
married your son
Chr. 817
Laetus sum, ut meae res sese habent, fratri obtigisse quod volt,
Anti. 820
Quam scitumst eius modi in animo parare cupiditates,
quas, quom res advorsae sient, paulo mederi possis!
Hic simul argentum repperit, cura sese expedivit;
ego nullo possum remedio me evolvere ex his turbis
quin, si hoc celetur, in metu, sin patefit, in probo sim.
Neque me domum nunc reciperem ni mi esset spes ostenta
huiusce habendae.
Rejoice for cousin; cherish what can be remedied. He with money escapes; I'm stuck.
But I'll go home to find my wife.
Argentum accepi, tradidi lenoni, abduxi mulierem,
Phor. 829
curavi propria ut Phaedria poteretur; nam emissast manu.
Nunc una mihi res etiam restat quae est conficiunda, otium
ab senibus ad potandum ut habeam.
I got the girl for him.. Now I need a drinking party from the old men.
Ut fugitet patrem.
avoiding his father
Phor. 835
me conficere credant argentum suom
think I'm taking their money
Phor. 839
Hominem propero invenire ut haec quae contingerint sciat. Hurry, tell him.
Geta 845
Ad lenonem hinc ire pergam.
Hurry to slave-dealer.
Geta 847
revocari cursum quom institeris
recalled after start
Geta 849
Vapula!
Be whipped!
Geta 850
ab dis solus dilgere
sole favorite of the gods
Geta 854
Quin tu hinc pollicitationes aufer et quod fers cedo. just tell me
Phor. 857
Interea mittit erus me ad uxorem tuam.
I'm sent to your wife.
Geta 860
Patruos tuos est pater inventus Phanio uxori tuae. uncle Phanio's father
Geta 872
Cum eius consuevit olim matre in Lemno clanculum.
affair
Geta 873
Somnium! Utine haec ignoraret suom patrem
can't identify own father
Phor. 874
Ait uterque tibi potestatem eius adhibendae dari.
can
keep your wife
Geta 880
Quin ergo rape me!
Take me!
Anti. 882
Tantam fortunam de inproviso esse his datam!
unforeseen stroke of luck
Summa eluendi occasiost mihi nunc senes
help Phaedria get the money
et Phaedriae curam adimere argentarium,
and not beg friends
ne quoiquam suorum aequalium supplex siet.
Phor. 884
Quo me adsimularum yre ad mercatum non eo.
won't go to shop
Phor. 893
Paratum me esse: ubi voltis, uxorem date.
ready; hand over wife
Phor. 907
Nam qui erit rumor, inquit, id si feceris?
what will be said if you do
Demi. 911
Quia ne alteram quidem illam potero ducre.
can't marry other girl
Phor. 918
Quom ego vostri honoris causa repudium alterae
broken engagement for equal dowry
remiserim, quae dotis tantundem dabat.
Phor. 928
Tune hanc duceres,
Would you marry her, if asked?
si tibi daretur?
Demi. 932
Quin tu mi argentum cedo.
Give me back money.
Demi. 935
Ex qua filiam
has a daughter brought up secretly
suscepit et eam clam educat.
Phor. 942
Ut ludos facit.
He makes us fools.
Demi. 945
Argentum quod habes condonamus te.
forgive money you have
Chr. 947
Nolo volo; volo nolo rursum; cape, cedo.
no. yes. take it
Phor. 950
Nisi me dixisse nemini certo scio.
I didn't tell anyone.
Demi. 953
Inieci scrupulum.
'Grit in their shoes.'
Phor. 954
Hicine ut a nobis hoc tantum argenti auferat
He mock us and take the money?
tam aperte inridens?
Demi. 955
Vides tuom peccatum esse elatum foras
Your wife knows about the affair
neque iam id celare posse te uxorem tuam.
Demi. 958
Hi gladiatorio animo ad me adfectant viam.
awful attack on me
Phor. 964
At vereor ut placari possit.
Fear can't appease her.
Chr. 965
Hisce ego illam dictis ita tibi incensam dabo,
Phor. 973
ut ne restinguas, lacrumis si exstillaveris.
My words will enrage her; all your tears won't help.
Tantane adfectum quemquam esse hominem audacia!
Demi. 977
Non hoc publicitus scelus hinc adsportarier
in solas terras!
Such boldness! Take him to an
unknown land!
Os opprime impurum.
Gag his filthy mouth!
Chr. 986
Nisi sequitur, pugnos in ventrem ingere.
Punch him, if necessary.
Demi. 988
Vel oculum exsculpe.
Knock an eye out.
Phor. 989
Abi, tange; si non totus friget, me enica.
Hang me, if he's not cold.
Phor. 994
Quid ego obsecro
huic credam, qui nil dixit?
Nau. 996
Delirat miser timore.
Fright stops him.
Phor. 997
Non pol temerest quod tu tam times.
good reason for fright
Nau. 998
Uxorem duxit.
He married a wife.
Phor. 1005
Suscepit iam unam, dum tu dormis.
had a daughter
Phor. 1007
An quicquam hodiest factum indignius?
anything worse?
Nau. 1009
Haecine erant itiones crebrae et mansiones diutinae Lemni? trips
Nau. 1012 Sed ea quin sit ignoscenda?
surely should
pardon?
Demi. 1015
Verba fiunt mortuo.
words for the dead
Phor. 1015
Vinolentus fere abhinc annos quindecim mulierculam
eam compressit, unde haec natast; neque postilla umquam attigit.
Demi. 1017
one night stand fifteen years ago
Quid ego aequo animo? Cupio misera in hac re iam defungier.
if over
Nau. 1021
Faxo tali sit mactatus infortunio atque hic est.
make him victim
Phor. 1028
Dum vivat, usque ad aurem obganniat.
lifelong revenge
Phor. 1030
Fieri infectum non potest.
What's done cannot be undone.
1034
Eas dedi tuo gnato; is pro sua amica lenoni dedit.
Phor. 1039 I gave it to your son; he gave the money to a pimp for his girl.
Adeone indignum hoc tibi videtur, filius
one mistress or two wives
homo adulescens si habet unam amicam, tu uxores duas?
Nau. 1041
Eius iudicio permitto omnia.
I defer to his judgment.
Nau. 1045
Immo vero pulchre discedo et probe
better than I hoped
et praeter spem.
Chr. 1047
Vostrae familiae hercle amicus et tuo summus Phaedriae. family friend
Phor. 1049
quod voles faciam et dicam
say and do what you want
Nau. 1050
Me ad cenam voca.
Invite me to dinner.
Phor. 1053
from Hecyra:
Uxorem ducit Pamphilus Philumenam,
Peri. 1-2
wronged unknowingly, then married
cui quondam ignorans virgini vitium obtulit.
Ita populus studio stupidus in funambulo
Prol. 4-5
animum occuparat.
people watched rope walker
Partim sum earum exactus, partim vix steti.
Prol. 15
Eam calamitatem vostra intellegentia
plays hissed
Your intelligence and my effort will
lull
sedabit, si erit audiutrix nostrae industriae.
Prol 31-2
Quom interea rumor venit
stampede
datum iri gladiatores, populos convolat.
Prol. 39
Quam paucos reperias meretricibus
fidelis evenire amatores.
Philo. 58-9
Numquam illa viva ducturum uxorem domum!
Em, duxit.
Philo. 62-3
Ergo propterea te sedulo
et moneo et hortor ne te quoiusquam misereat,
quin spolies mutiles laceres, quemque nacta sis.
Syra 63-5
Quor non aut istaec mihi
aetas et formast aut tibi haec sententia!
Syra 74-5
Alias ut uti possim causa hac integra.
Par. 80
Edepol te desiderium Athenarum arbitror.
Par. 88
Habet, sed firmae haec vereor ut sint nuptiae.
Par. 101
Sed tacita ut mecum gaudeam.
Philo. 107
Quasi tu non multo malis narrare hoc mihi
quam ego quae percontor scire.
Philo 110
Hanc Bacchidem
amabat ut quom maxume tum Pamphilus.
Par. 114
Ibi demum ita aegre tulit, ut ipsam Bacchidem,
si adesset, credo ibi eius commisceresceret.
Par. 128
storm.
rumor of gladiators triggered
few lovers faithful to a whore
that he would never take a wife
he has
Have no pity and loot all.
wish I had your beauty or attitude
use excuse another time
you desire Athens
shaky marriage
to rejoice silently
tell greater than hear
Pamphilus loved Bacchis.
so upset Bacchis would have pitied
Perii miser.
Par. 133
Ut ad pauca redeam, uxorem deducit domum.
I've had it.
To get to the point, he took a
wife.
Nocte illa prima virginem non attigit,
For three nights did not touch her.
quae consecutast nox eam, nihilo magis.
Par. 135
Quid ais? Cum virgine una adulescens cubuerit
abstained three nights; don't believe
plus potus, sese illa abstinere ut potuerit?
Non veri simile dicis nec verum arbitror.
Philo. 138
Ille invitus illam duxerat.
married her
Par. 142
Sed quam decrerim me non esse diutius
live no longer with her
habere, eam ludibrio haberi.
Par. 148
Maligna multo et magis procax facta ilico est.
she got worse
Par. 159
Pudens modesta, icommoda atque iniurias
She endured his bad behavior.
viri omnis ferre et tegere contumelias.
Par. 165
Paulatim elapsust Bacchidi.
gave up Bacchis
Par. 169
Relinquit cum matre hic uxorem.
left wife with her mother
Par. 174
Quod hoc genus est, quae haec coniuratiost!
conspirators; all want same
Utin omnes mulieres eadem aeque studeant.
Lach. 198
Viris esse advorsas aeque studiumst.
all oppose husbands
Lach. 202
In eodem omnes mihi videntur ludo doctae ad mailitam.
evil school
Lach. 203
Meque abs te inmerito esse accusatam post modo rescisces. falsely accuse
So.
208
quae me et te et familiam dedecoras. filio luctum paras.
disgrace me
Lach. 210
ex amicis inimici
enemies from friends
Laches 211
me omnino lapidem, non hominem putas.
stone, not man
Lach. 214
Rus habitatum abii.
went to live on farm
Lach. 224
non mea opera neque pol culpa evenit
not my work or fault
So.
228
Sola hic fuisti.
you alone here
Lach. 229
Gaudeo gnati causa.
rejoice for son
Lach. 233
Satis scio peccando detrimenti fieri nil potest.
can't get worse
Lach. 234
Tuos esse ego illi mores morbum magis quam ullam aliam rem arbitror. more your acts
Lach. 239
ut tibi concedam neque tuae lubidini advorsabor. yield to you
Phi. 245
Adii te heri de filia.
called regarding daughter
Lach. 251
ut tu illam salvam magis velis quam ego
I care as much as you.
Lach. 259
non posse apud vos Pamphilo se absente perdurare can't stay
Phi. 269
Ne nos sumus inique aeque omnes invisae viris
So.
274
propter paucas, quae omnes faciunt dignae ut vide
Nemini ego plura ex amore acerba credo amur malo.
...quod me accusat nunc vir, sum extra noxiam.
all husbands hate wives for acts of
few; not my fault
Habui illam ac si ex me nata esset.
treated her as my child
So.
279
homini umquam oblata
Pam. 281
quam mi.
suffered bitterly from love
you
citius qui te expedias his aerumnis reperias
this way for escape
Par. 288
Levia sunt quae tu pergravia esse in animum induxti tuom. trifles
Par. 292
Quid consolare me? An quisquam usquam gentiumst aeque miser?
worse
Pam. 293
tot meas iniurias quae numquam in ullo patefecit loco
trusty wife
Pan. 303
Quia enim qui eos gubernat animus eum infirmum gerunt.
Par. 311
Itidem illae mulieres sunt ferme ut pueri levi sententia.
fickle mind like child
Nescio quod magnum malum
hiding a great wrong
profecto, Parmeno, me celas.
Pam. 319
Era in crimen veniet, ego vero in magnum malum. mistress and I pay
Par. 335
Nunc ad eam visam.
Now I'll visit her.
So.
339
Nam qui amat quoi odio ipsust, eum bis facere stulte duco folly to love one who dislikes
Par. 343
Gaudeo venisse salvom.
I rejoice you are safe.
So.
353
non sciunt ipsi viam domum qua veniant?
know way home
Par. 360
Partim quae perspexi hisce oculus, partim percepi auribus
Pam. 363
(a disaster) seen by eyes and heard by ears
me venisse
that I had come
Pam. 372
Omnibus nobis ut res dant sese ita magni atque humiles sumus,
Pam. 380
proud or humble from circumstances
Parturire eam nec gravidam esse ex te solus consciuís.
she pregnant
Pam. 392
Pollicitus sum et servare in eo certumst quod dixi fidem. gave word
Pam. 402
O fortuna, ut numquam perpetuo es bona!
fickle fortune
Pam. 405
Nam olim soli credidi,
ea me abstinuisse in principio, quom datast.
I trusted him.
Pam. 410
Ain tu tibi hoc incommodum evenisse iter?
bad voyage
Par. 415
O fortunate, nescis quid mali
lucky not to sail
praterieris, qui numquam es ingressus mare.
Sosia 418
Dies triginta aut plus eo in navi fui,
Sosia 421
quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser. thirty days looking for death; bad
storm
Ita usque advorsa tempestate usi sumus.
Olim quidem te causae inpellebant leves.
Par. 426
Vovisse hunc dicam, si salvos domum
redisset umquam, ut me ambulando rumperet?
Par. 434
magnus, rubicundus, crispus, crassus, caesius,
cadaverosa facie
Pam. 440
Pam: Curre. Par: Non queo.
443
Quid dicam hisce incertus sum.
Pam. 450
Venisse aiunt: redeat.
return.
Lach. 452
Causam quam dicam patri
her back
quam ob rem non redducam?
small reasons
destroy me with constant errands
(description: string of insults)
Be quick! Can't!
What should I say?
They say he has returned. Let her
what reason tell father for not taking
Pam. 452
Vixit, dum vixit, bene.
While he lived, he lived well.
Pam. 461
Tum tu igitur nil attulisti plus una hac sententia?
just the sentiment
Lach. 462
Nam illum vivom et salvom vellem.
wish he were alive
Lach. 464
Noli fodere. Iussi.
don't insult; I ordered
Phi. 467
At istos invidos di perdant, qui haec lubenter nuntiant. damn busybody
Lach. 469
Segreganda aut mater a me est, Philippe, aut Philumena. mom first
Nunc me pietas matris potius commodum suadet sequi.
Pam. 480
Amoque et aludo et vehementer desidero.
I love her.
Pam. 488
Dixin, Phidippe, hanc rem aegre laturum esse eum? He takes it bad; I told you to send
Quam ob rem te orabam filiam ut remitteres.
daughter back.
Lach. 497
Non credidi edepol adeo inhumanum fore,
so unreasonable; I should beg him?
Ita nunc is sibi me supplicaturum putat?
either wife or dowry
Si est ut veliy redducere uxorem, licet;
sin aliost animo, remuneret dotem huc, est.
Phi. 499
Quia accessit vobis paululum pecuniae,
a little money makes you proud
sublati sunt animi.
Phi. 506
Etiam mecum litigas?
You quarrel with me
Lach. 507
Deliberet renuntietque hodie mihi
Let him tell
me; if not, she may marry another. Phi. 508
velitne an non; ut alii, si huic non est, siet.
Quando nec gantus neque hic mi quicquam obtemperant, Neither listens; I'll take the
quae dico parvi pendunt. Porto hoc iurgium
dispute to my wife.
ad uxorem, quoius haec fiunt consilio omnia.
Lach. 512
Perii, quid agam? Quo me vortam? Quid meo viro respondebo
Myr. 516
misera?
What should I do? How shall I
answer my husband?
non sic ludibrio tuis factis habitus essem. would never have
mocked me
Phi. 526
Peperit filia. Hem, taces? Ex quo?
giving birth/silent?/by whom
Phi. 527
Ex quo nisi ex illo censes quoi datast nuptum obsecro?
by husband
Myr. 528
Credo; neque adeo arbitrari patris est aliter.
Father must believe so.
Phi. 529
Misera sum.
I am unhappy.
Myr. 536
Negabas nuptam posse filiam tuam te pati
said you couldn't accept daughter
married
cum eo qui meretricem amaret, qui pernoctaret foris.
to man with whore
Phi. 538
Quamvis causam hunc suspicari quam ipsam veram mavolo.
Better he
suspect wrong reason Myr. 540
Verum id vitium numquam decrevi esse ego adulescentiae. youthful fault
Phi. 542
ut filiam ab eo abduceres
to take daughter from him
Phi. 545
exeuntem aut intro euntem ad amicam
coming or going to girl
Phi. 551
Roga velitne an non uxorem.
Ask him to take her.
Myr. 558
esse ausam facere haec te iniussu meo
act without my orders
Phi. 562
Nullam pol credo mulierem me miseriorem vivere. most wretched
Myr. 566
quom hoc quod leviust tam animo iracundo tulit
little angers much
Myr. 568
si puerum ut tollam cogit, quoius nos qui sit nescimus pater
Myr. 571
Ipse eripuit vi, in digito quem habuit, virginti abiens anulum. took ring
Myr. 574
Nam mi intus tuos pater narravit modo, quo pacto me habueris
praepositam amori tuo.
father told how you put me first
Myr. 582
quin tua Philumena ad te redeat
why she should not return to you
Myr. 588
mea pertinacia esse dicat factum, haud tua modestia my stubborness
Pam. 591
me esse invitam inmerito
that I'm
wrongly disliked
Pam. 597
Redduc illam.
Give her back.
So.
605
haec res non minus me malle habet quam te
I'm as distressed as you.
So.
606
Istuc sapere est, qui ubi quomque opus sit animum possit flectere.
Lach. 608
wisdom to offer mind in neessary direction
Abi rus ergo hinc.
Go thus to the country.
Lach. 610
Quid vis facere nisi redducere?
want to take her back
Lach. 615
quando haec aberit
as long as she is away
Lach. 619
senex atque anus
both playing old
Lach. 621
mutatio fit
'the tableís turned'
Pam. 633
Accipias puerum.
You must take the child.
Phi. 638
Natus est nobis nepos.
We have a grandson.
Phi. 639
Non tibi illud factum minus placet quam mihi
I am
upset.
Phi. 647
Redduc uxorem ac noli advorsari
mihi.
Take back your wife.
Lach. 654
Quam ob rem redducam?
Why should I take her back?
Pam. 660
quae careat culpa? an qui non delincunt viri?
man sins, woman blame
Lach. 663
uxor quid faciat in manu non est mea
can't control her
Phi. 667
huic suom reddas scilcet
must give child to father
Lach. 669
oravi tecum uxorem ut duceres.
urged you to marry
Lach. 686
facis iniuriam
you act wickedly
Lach. 692
Plane hic divinat; nam id est.
can predict
Phi. 696
Redduce uxorem aut quam ob rem non opus sit cedo.
lead wife back
Lach. 698
Puerum accipias; nam is quidem
Take blameless child.
Lach. 699
in culpa non est.
Omnimodis ego miser sum.
I am wretched in all ways.
Pam. 701
Fugis? Hem, nec quicquam certi respondes mihi? flee without amswer
Lach. 706
Nam omnino abhorrere animum huic video a nuptiis.
he's
against
Phi. 714
Quid agas? Meretricem hanc
primum adeundam censeo. go to woman
Phi. 716
Videndumst ne minus propter iram hinc inpetrem quam possiem
Lach. 729
aut ne quid faciam plus, quod minus me post fecisse satius sit.
get all I can
Nam mores facile tutor.
my conduct beyond reproach
Bacc. 734
Quo magis omnis res cautius ne temere faciam adcuro.
act cautiously
Lach. 738
qui post factum iniuriam se expurget
apologize after injury
Bacc. 742
Meum receptas filium ad te Pamphilum.
my son visits you
Lach. 743
Hic nunc uxorem habet.
now married
Lach. 745
Puerum ob eam rem clam voluit natus qui est exstinguere. wish to kill
Bacc. 749
segregatum a me Pamphilum
kept him at a distance
Bacc. 752
amicus qualis sim aut quid possiem
experience me as friend rather than
enemy
potius quam inimicus
Lach. 766
Pamphilo me facere ut redeat uxor
get his wife to return
Bacc. 774
Nostras mulieres suspectas fuisse falso
know we suspected wives wrongly
nobis in reapse invenimus.
Lach. 777
Nupta meretrici hostis est
wife is enemy to whore
Bacc. 789
Itaque ineptus hodie dum illi sedeo, ut quisque venerat
like a fool
Par. 802
Hospitem ecquem Pamphilum hic habes? Omnes negabant.
Par. 804
Do you have a friend Pamphilus? All said no.
Dic me orare ut veniat.
Tell him I want him to come.
Bacc. 809
cognosse anulum illum Myrrhinam
that she's recognized the ring
Bacc. 811
Gnatum ei restituo, paene qui harum ipsiusque opera periit restored son
Bacc. 818
Philumenam compressam esse ab eo et filium inde hunc natum.
Bacc. 832
That he had sex with Philumena and his son has been born.
Multa ex quo fuerint commoda, eius incommoda aequomst ferre.
Bcc. 840
If you gain many advantages, accept occasional failure.
Egon qui ab orco mortuom me reducem in lucem feceris
sinam sine munere a me abire? Ah, nimium me ingratum putas. reward for saving me
Pam. 852
Factis ut credam facis.
acts make word believable
Pam. 858
morem antiquom atqu ingnium
out of date habit
Bacc. 861
Non placet fieri hoc item ut in comoediis.
not as in comedies
Pam. 866
Scio neque hoc inprudens feci.
I know and act not blindly.
Par. 877
Tenere quicquam Parmeno praetereat quod facto usus sit? slip needed
Par. 878
Equidem plus hodie boni
Par. 879
feci inprudens quam sciens ante hunc diem umquam.
than previously
unwittingly done more
From Adelphoe:
Duos cum haberet Demea adulescentulos,
Peri. 1-12
dat Micioni fratri adoptandum Aeschinum,
sed Ctesiphonem retinet. Hunc citharistriae
lepore captum sub duro ac tristi patre
frater celabat Aeschinus. Famam rei,
amorem in sese transferebat; denique
fidicinam lenoni eripit. Vitiaverat
idem Aschinus civem Atticam pauperculam
fidemque dederat hanc sibi uxorem fore.
Demea iurgare, graviter ferre. Mox tamen
ut veritas patefactast, ducit Aschinus
vitiatam, potitur Ctesipho citharistriam.
Demea had two sons and gave Aeschinus to his nrother Micio for adoption, but kept
Ctesiphon who fell in love with a
music-girl. Aeschinus pretended the affair was his. a poor
Athenian lady and promised to marry her. Demea
objected loudly, but relented.
Aeschinus married her and Ctesipho took possession of the music girl.
quod isti dicunt malivoli homines nobilis
ill-willed claim nobles help
me write
hunc adiutare adsidueque una scribere
Prol. 15-6
Atque ex me hic natus non est, sed ex fratre. Is adeo
dissimili studiost iam inde ab adulescentia.
brother and I different;I live
easy, unmarried life.
Ego hanc clementem vitam urbanam atque otium
Micio 40-8 secutus sum et, quod fortunam isti putant,
uxorem numquam habui. Ille contra haec omnia:
ruri agere vitam, semper parce ac duriter
se habere, uxorem ducit; nati filii
duo: inde ego hunc maiorem adoptavi mihi.
Eduxi a parvolo, habui, amavi pro meo.
He lives unsparing life on a farm. He's married, has two children; I adopted elder and
have loved him as if my own.
Do, praetermitto, non necesse habeo omnia
I give him money, pardon
him.
Micio 51-2
pro meo iure agere.
Pudore et liberalitate liberos
Micio 57-9
restrain son by shame not fear
retinere satius esse credo quam metu.
Haec fratri mecum non conveniunt neque placent.
vi quod fit quam illud quod amicitia
not fear
Mico 67
sua sponte quam alieno metu
Micio 75
Rogas me, ubi nobis Aeschinus
Aeschinus? Demea 82-3
siet, quid tristis ego sim?
My brother disagrees.
respect based on friendship
by own will not fear
Ask me why sad when I raise
Fores ecfregit atque in aedis inruit
loved
Dem. 88
alienas; ipsum dominum atque omnem familiam
mulcavit usque ad mortem; eripuit mulierem
quam amabat.
broke doors, stole woman he
Tu illum corrumpi sinis.
Dem. 97
Homine imperito numquam quicquam iniustiust,
qui nisi quod ipse fecit nil rectum putat.
Micio 98-9
Non est flagitium adulescentulum
whore and drink
Micio 101
scortari neque potare.
You let him grow bad.
thinks only his acts right
not wrong for youth to get
Id laudi ducis quod tum fecisti inopia?
you claim credit when poor
Micio 105
Non est flagitium facere haec adulescentulum?
no crime!
Dem. 112
Tuom filium dedisti adoptandum mihi;
I
adopted him; I pay for his excesses.
Micio 114
Is meus est factus; si quid peccat,
mihi peccat. Ego illi maxumam partem fero.
Obsonat, potat, olet unguenta: de meo.
Pater esse disce ab illis, qui vere sciunt.
Dem. 125
Natura tu illi pater es, consiliis ego.
Micio 126
totiens de eadem re
Micio 128
Tu alterum,
Micio 130
ego item alterum.
learn to be a father
profundat perdat pereat
Let him waste and die!
I am father by design.
same old story
You look after one, I the other.
Dem. 134
quom placo, advorsor sedulo et deterreo
to calm I must scare him
Micio 144
Sperabam iam defervisse adulescentiam.
hoped his blood had cooled
Micio 152
Subvenite inopi.
Help the distressed.
Sann. 156
Ne te ignarum fuisse dicas meorum morum:
know my character: am pimp.
leno ego sum.
Sann. 160
at ita ut usquam fuit fide quisquam optuma.
as honest a fellow
Sann. 161
dabitur te esse indignum
shouldn't have happened
Sann. 166
Non innueram.
I hadn't nodded.
Aes. 174
Regnumne hic tu possides?
You are a king?
Sann. 175
Qui tibi magis licet meam habere, pro qua ego argentum dedi?
I paid.
Sann. 179
Loris liber?
stripes to a free man?
Sann. 182
liberatem aiunt esse aequom omnibus
all freedmen equal
Sann. 183
Leno iniqua me non volt loqui.
pimp wants fair offer
Aes. 187
Leno sum: pernicies communis adulescentium,
I didn't start the dispute.
periurua, pestis. Tamen tibi a me nulla oratst iuniuria.
Sann. 188
Neque vendundam censeo,
Don't sell free woman.
quae liberast.
Aes. 193
Sed ego hoc hariolor.
I babble like a fool.
Sann. 202
De argento somnium.
dream for the money
Sann. 204
Numquam vidi iniquius
unfair match
certationem comparatam.
Sann. 211
Adulescenti morem gestum opportuit.
let him
off for
being young
Syrus 214
Ego spem pretio non emo.
not pay for hope
Sann. 219
Numquam rem facies. Abi, insecare nescis homines.
not make money
Syrus 220
animus tibi pendet
split
opinion
Syrus 226
Inieci scupulum homini.
'grit in his shoes'
Syrus 228
ut in ipso articulo
hit me in the joint
Sann. 229
Refrixit res.
chilled my money
Sann. 233
Labascit.
He's not sure.
Syrus 239
servesne an perdas totum, dividuom face
half rather than risk
Syrus 241
Omnis dentis labefecit mihi,
smashes my teeth and face
praetera colaphis tuber est totum caput.
Sann. 244
Scio te antehac non esse usum amicitia mea.
tokens of friendship
Sann. 250
Laetus est
He's happy about the girl.
de amica.
Syrus 252
Abs quivis homine, quom est opus, beneficium accipere gaudeas;
verum enim vero id demum iuvat, si quem aequomst facere is bene facit. favor from
best man
Cte. 254
festivom caput
fine man
Cte. 261
nil pote supra
nothing greater
Cte. 264
Ubist ille sacrilegus?
Where is the brigand?
Aes. 265
In tutost omnis res.
all safe
Aes. 267
adsentandi magis quam habeam gratum
'flattery instead of gratitude'
Cte. 270
stultitast non pudor
folly not shame
Aes. 274
Peccavi.
I did wrong.
Cle. 276
Iam mitis est.
calmed down
Syrus 276
Maneo otiosus hic.
I'll stay here at leisure.
Sann. 279
Tace modo ac sequere hac.
Be silent and follow.
Syrus 281
Aliqua ad patrem hoc permanet atque ego tum perpetuo perierim. But father may find
out.
Cte. 284
Tu cum illa te intus oblecta interim
Syrus 285
et lectulos iube sterni nobis et parari cetera.
Enjoy yourself with her and
then we banquet..
Hilare hunc sumamus diem.
Let's have a wild day.
Cte. 287
Miseram me, neminem habeo, solae sumus.
We are alone.
So.
291
Solus mearum miseriarumst remedium.
our sole support
So.
294
talem, tali ingenio atque animo
what a lover
Can. 297
mihi que eraeque filiaeque eilest
trouble for all
Geta 301
neque fides neque ius iurandum neque misericordia
nothing stopped him
Geta 306
Non intellego satis quae loquitur.
can't follow what he says
So.
308
Vix sum compos animi ita ardeo iracundia.
I'm in a rage.
Geta 310
Tum autem Syrum inpulsorem.
Syrus the cause
Geta 315
Periimus.
We've had it.
Geta 324
Amare occepit aliam.
He's fallen in love with
another.
Geta 327
Me miseram! Quid iam credis?
Wretched me, what can I
believe?
So.
330
Patiamurne an narremus quoipiam?
Should we tell?
Geta 336
An hoc proferendum tibi videtur usquam?
Should we tell?
Can. 337
Quapropter quoquo pacto tacitost opus.
We can't tell.
Geta 342
Proferam.
Tell.
So.
343
Peiore res loco non potis est esse quam in quo nunc sitast.
So.
344
Primum indotast; tum praeterea, quae scunda ei dos erat,
periit. Pro virgine dari nuptum non potest.
can't be worse: no dowry, no
virgin
Disperii! Ctesiphnem audivi filium
both involved in the incident
Dem. 355
una fuisse in raptione cum Aeschino.
in ganeum
in a whorehouse
Dem. 359
hic de grege illost
He's one of the herd.
Dem. 362
Nil quicquam vidi laetius.
He was happy.
Syrus 366
Hominis stultitiam!
Dem. 367
Conlaudavit filium.
Syrus 367
Vostram nequeo mirari satis rationem.
Dem. 374
Absurda.
Syrus 376
Utrum studione id sibi habet an laudi putat
Dem. 382-3
fore, si perdiderit gnatum?
ruin son
Istuc es sapere, non quod ante pedes modost
Syrus 387-9
videre sed etiam illa quae futura sunt
prospicere.
but to see what will happen
Credo, ut est dementia.
Syrus 389
Inepta lenitas
patris et facilitas prava.
Syrus 390
Fratris me quidem
pudet pigetque.
Gem. 391
Tu, quantus quantuís, nil nisi sapientia es,
ille somnium.
Syrus 394
prius olfecissem
Dem. 397
Modo ut nunc est, quaeso.
Dem. 399
Abigam hunc rus.
Syrus 401
Egomet produxi.
Syrus 402
Adortust iurgio fratrem apud forum
Syrus 404
de psalteria ista.
at his brother about the music girl
Lacrumo gaudio.
Dem. 409
non tu hoc argentum perdis, sed vitam tuam
Syrus 410
similis maiorum suom
Dem. 411
praeceptorum plenust
fool of a man
praised his son
wonder at your plans
ridiculous
on purpose or for credit to
wise not to be wnat is here,
enough madness for it
father's wicked mildness
I am ashamed of my brother.
You are wise, he a fool.
shouldn't I have smelled it
that he may be the same
I'll take him to the farm.
I went with him.
yelled
'weep for joy'
lose not money but life
heredity shows
full of proverbs
Dem. 412
Domi habuit unde disceret.
learned at home
Syrus 413
Inspicere tamquam in speculum in vitas omnium
Dem. 415
iubeo atque ex aliis sumere exemplum sibi:
hoc facito. hoc fugito. hoc vitio datur.
Look in mirror and learn from others: do this, avoid this, credit to you.
Nam id nobis tam falgitiumst quam illa
We must do what you want.
non facere vobis quae modo dixti.
Syrus 422
in speculum in patinas
look in dishes as in mirror
Syrus 428
Ut homost, ita morem geras.
humor him as is
Syrus 431
Mentem vobis meliorem dari.
find a better mind
Dem. 432
ubi si quid bene praecipias, nemo obtemperet
good advice rejected
Syrus 434
Illum curo unum, illi ad me attinet.
my sole care
Dem. 436
antiqua virtute ac fide
of old virtue and trust
Dem. 442
Ubi etiam huius generis reliquias
Dem. 444
restare video, ah, vivere etiam nunc lubet.
When I see those of old, I
enjoy life.
Ex illan familia
bad deed from good
family
Hegio 448
tam inliberale facinus esse ortum!
De psalteria hac audivit.
He's heard about the girl.
Dem. 451
Ille tibi moriens nos commendavit senex.
Only you can save us.
Geta 457
Si deseris tu, perimus.
Neque boni
act unlike a good gentleman
Hegio 463
neque liberalis functus officium viri.
Filiam eius virginem vitiavit.
his virgin daughter wronged
Hegio 466
Persuasit nox amor vinum adulescentia.
Hegio 470
Humanumst.
Night, love, wine, youth
urged. Itís human.
Virgo ex eo
The girl is pregnant; now last
month.
compressu gravida factast; mensis decumus est.
Hegio 474
non malus neque iners
Hegio 480
Immo hercle extor.
Geta 483
queaso ut vobis decet
Hegio 491
Summa vi defendam hanc atque illum mortuom.
Hegio 493
Quapropter nitar, faciam, experiar, denique
neither bad nor lazy
Torture him.
act properly
I'll defend them.
I'll defend them and not dsert
them.
animam relinquam potius quam illas deseram.
Hegio 497
Quam vos facillume agitis, quam estis maxume
Hegio 501
potentes dites fortunati nobiles,
tam maxume vos aequo animo aequa noscere
oportet, si vos voltis perhiberi probos.
The more easily you can win,
the fairer you must be.
Verum nimia illaec licentia
Dem. 508
profecto evadet in aliquod magnum malum.
Excess
license will cause great evil.
Si est is facturus ut sit officium suom,
faciat.
If he intends to do
right, let him do it.
Dem. 514
ut triduo hoc perpetuo prorsum e lecto nequeat
surgere.
in bed three days
Cte. 520
perpetuom in laetitia
in perpetual delight
Cte. 522
Ego hodie toto non vidi die.
haven't seen you all day
Cte. 527
quam vellem etiam noctu amicis operam mos esset dari
Syrus 532
wished I could tend to friend's business at night
Quom fervit maxume, ego illius sensum pulchre calleo.
Calm him.
Syrus 534
Laudarier te audit lubenter.
He's
happy to hear you praised.
Syrus 535
S: Virtutes narro. C: Meas? S: Tuas: homini ilico lacrumae cadunt
536
quasi puero gaudio.
I praise your virtues. Mine? Tears fall like from a child. Lupus in fabula.
wolf in the story
Syrus 537
C: Pater est. S: Is ipsust.
Father is here. He is.
538
Fratrem nusquam invenio gentium.
can't find brother anywhere
Dem. 540
ferendis miseriis
enduring miseries
Dem. 545
primus sentio...primus recisco...primus obnuntio
first to realize, first to report,
first to tell
Dem. 546
Primum ait se scire, is solus nescit omnia.
says he knows; doesn't
Syrus 548
Nam me iam in cellam aliquam cum illa concludam.
lock in with her
Cte. 552
Scire equidem volo quod mihi sint domini.
how many masters
Syrus 555
Non puduisse verberare hominem senem
not ashamed to hit old man
Syrus 563
Virum te iudico.
I judge you a man.
Dem. 565
Ne ille continebit posthac, si sapiet, manus.
will keep hands to himself
Syrus 566
Perquam, quia miseram mulierem et me servolum,
Syrus 566
qui referire non audebam, vicit. Hui, perfortiter.
beat a wretched woman and
slave
Diminuetur tibi quidem iam cerebrum.
I'll break your head.
Dem. 571
angiportum non pervium
blind alley
Dem. 578
Est pistrilla et exadvorsum fabrica.
bakery and workshop
Syrus 584
ubi potetis vos
where you drink
Dem. 586
Ctesipho autem in amorest totus.
overwhelmed by love
Syrus 589
Carpam et cyathos sorbilans paulatim hunc producam diem.
get drunk
Syrus 591
Meum officium facio: quod peccatum a nobis ortumst
corrigo.
Micio 593
I am doing my duty. Since I was at fault, I am making amends.
Numquam te aliter atque es esse animum induxi meum.
your attitude OK
Hegio 597
eius esse illam psaltriam
music girl is his
Hegio 600
tuom officium fueris functus
Do your duty.
Hegio 603
Propter suam inpotentiam se semper credunt ludier.
think you mock them
Hegio 607
de inproviso mali
from
an unplanned evil
Aes. 610
credit mihi me psaltriam hance emisse
thinks
I've bought her for me.
Aes. 617
Dicm fratris esse hanc?
say she is my brother's
Aes. 625
Egomet rapui ipse; egomet solvi argentum.
I took her, I paid for her.
Aes. 628
Ad illas ibo ut purgem me.
I'll go to them to clear self.
Aes. 632
hoc numquam mi ipse voluit dicere
Micio 640
Erubuit; salva res est.
Micio 643
Amicus quidam me a foro abduxit.
Micio 645
Is venit ut secum avehat.
Micio 653
virginem ut secum avehat?
Aes. 654
An illam hinc abducet, pater?
Aes. 661
qui infelix haud scio an illam misere nunc amet,
Aes. 667
quom hanc sibi videbit praesens praesenti eripi,
abduci ab oculis? Facinus indignum, pater!
taken: evil crime, father
Qua ratione istuc? Quis despondit? Quis dedit?
Micio 670
Quoi quando nupsit? Auctor his rebus quis est?
Quor duxit alienam?
marriage?
Advorsumne illum causam dicerem
Micio 676
quoi veneram advocatus?
eyes
Nam te amo. Quo magis quae agis curae sunt mihi.
Micio 680
Nam ingenium novi tuom
Micio 683
liberale, sed vereor ne indiligens nimium sies.
Duces uxorem hanc.
Micio 696
Num ludis nunc tu me?
Aes. 697
Quia tam misere hoc esse cupio verum, eo vereor magis.
Aes. 698
magis te quam oculos nunc amo meos
Aes. 701
Periit, abiit, navem ascendit.
Micio 703
Quo vir melior multo es quam ego.
Aes. 705
Hoc est patrem esse aut hoc est filium esse?
Aes. 707
never wished to tell me
He blushed; it's OK.
friend took me to forum
He's come to take her.
to take the girl
Is he to take her away?
who yet loves her, to see her
Whose bride did he marry?
Whose plan? Whose
plead against my own client?
I love and care for you.
gentleman, but rash
You shall marry her.
not mocking me?
fearful
love you more than my
lost, gone, on ship
You are better than I.
right behavior for either?
sciens cavebo
Aes, 711
Defessus sum ambulanso.
Dem. 713
Ibo, illis dicam nullam esse in nobis moram.
Micio 719
Fero alia flagitia ad te ingentia
Dem. 721
boni illius adulescentis.
forewarned is forearmed
I'm tired from walking.
ready to receive them
news of more bad deeds by
sons
Hoc peccatum in virginemst civem.
wrong against citizen
Dem. 725
Puer natust.
son is born
Dem. 728
Quin iam virginem
Micio 734
despondi; res compositast; fiunt nuptiae.
betrothed the lady, matter settled, marriage arranged
Non, si queam
Micio 737
mutare. Nunc quom non queo, animo aequo fero.
Ita vitast hominum quasi quom ludas tesseris;
si illud quod maxume opus est iactu non cadit,
illud quod cecidit forte, id arte ut corrigas.
Since I can't change it, I'll bear it. Life is like dice: make the best throw.
Neque illam sane studio vendere.
I'm not keen on selling her.
Micio 745
Domi erit.
She will stay at my house.
Micio 746
Meretrix et mater familias una in domo?
whore and wife in one house
Dem. 747
Facturum credo ut habeas quicum canities.
so you can sing with her
Dem. 750
Et nva nupta eadem haec discet.
new bride learn same
Dem. 751
Iam vero mitte
Micio 754
tuam istanc iracundiam atque ita uti decet
Quit
grouching and agree to the wedding. Dem. 758
hilarum ac lubentem fac te gnati in nuptiis.
Hancine vitam! Hoscin mores! Hanc dementiam!
Uxor sine dote veniet; intus psaltriast;
domus sumptuosa; adulescens luxu perditus;
senex delirans.
What a life, what habits, what madness; wife w/o dowry and girl; mad house, young man
ruined, old man crazy.
Te curasti molliter
Syrus 763
lauteque munus administrasti tuom.
You've
cared for self cleverly.
Tu verba fundis hic, sapientia
Syrus 769
dis quidem esses
Syrus 770
In ipsa turba atque in peccato maxumo,
quod vix sedatum satis est, potasti, scelus,
Dem. 773
quasi re bene gesta.
you've been drinking, as if you did a great deed.
Est alius quidam, parasitaster paululus:
Syrus 779
nostin?
another fellow, junior-grade sponge; do you know him?
An tibi iam mavis cerebrum dispergam hic?
Dem. 782
commissatorem haud sane commodum
Syrus 783
O caelum, o terra, o maria Neptuni!
Dem. 790
Resvit omnem rem; id nunc clamat; ilicet;
Micio 791
paratae litesl succurrendumst.
communis corruptela nostrum liberum
Dem. 793
Ne tu curares meum
Dem. 797
neve ego tuom
we agree not to look after each other's son?
Quor nunc apud te potat?
Dem. 799
Quando ego tuom non curo, ne cura meum.
Dem. 802
communia esse amicorum inter se omnia
Micio 804
si id te mordet, sumptum filii
Micio 807
Mea utantur sine.
Micio 815
Mi et tibi et illis dempseris molestiam.
Micio 819
consuetudinem amborum
Dem. 820
Hoc licet inpune facere huic, illi non licet.
Micio 824
Video eos sapere, intellegere, in loco
Micio 827
vereri, inter se amare.
the boy is sensible, intelligent, respectful.
Ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius:
Pour forth proverbs, wisdom
You would have been rich.
In the middle of this mess
rather I pounded your brains
unwelcome guest
O sky, o land, o seas!
He's found out; I must help.
corruptor of both sons
Didn't
Why does he drink at yours?
don't care for each other's
friends have all in common
if expense bites you
Let them enjoy my wealth.
saved us all bother
habits of both
OK for one, not other
I see
Micio 832
solum unum hoc vitium adfert senectus hominibus:
wiser
as older, except we rate money higher
adtentiores sumus ad rem omnes quam sat est:
quod illos sat aetas acuet.
Ne nimium modo
Dem. 835
bonae tuae istae nos rationes
et tuos iste animus aequos subvortat.
Make sure your clever mind
does not ruin us.
Scilicet ita tempus fero.
I must
accept.
Dem. 839
Et istam psaltriam
Dem. 842
una illuc mecum hinc abstraham.
I'll
have to take the music girl.
Eo pacto prorsum illi adligaris filium.
She'll keep your son
home.
Micio 844
Ego istuc videro
I'll make her cook.
Dem. 845
atque ibi favillae plena, fumi ac pollinis
coquendo sit faxo et molendo.
Nunc mihi videre sapere.
Now you are wise.
Micio 850
res aetas usus semper aliquid adportet novi
clever yet new throws us
Dem. 856
facilitate...clementia
mildness and mercy
Dem. 861
clemens, placidus, nulli laedere os, adridere omnibus
nice terms
Dem. 864
ego ille agrestis, saevos, tristis, parcus, truculentus
nasty terms
Dem. 866
Illum amant, me fugitant.
They love him, flee me.
Dem. 872
Ego quoque a meis a me amari
want to be loved by sons
Dem. 879
hominem maxumi
Dem. 891
preti te esse hodie iudicavi
I've
decided that you are a person of great value.
Occidunt me equidem, dum nimis sanctas nuptias
Aes. 899
student facere.
bore me with wedding plans
animo et natura pater
father by biology and plans
Dem. 902
hymenaeum turbas lampades tibicinas
drop festivities
Dem. 907
Fratri aedes fient perviae.
brother's house a turnstile
Dem. 912
quam maxume unam facere nos hanc familiam
let's be one
Dem. 926
Primum huius uxorist mater.
bride has a mother
Dem. 929
parere iam diu haec per annos non potest
too old to care for herself
Dem. 931
D: hanc ducere autem? M: me ducere autem? D: te. M: me? marry her?
933
Ego novos maritus anno demum quinto et sexagensumo
Old I should marry old lady.
Micio 938
fiam atque anum decrepitam ducam?
Si vos tanto opere istuc voltis, fiat.
Micio 945
Adfinis nobis pauper.
Dem. 948
nimium ad rem in senecta attenti sumus
Dem. 954
Suo sibi gladio hunc iugulo.
Dem. 958
Iudico Syrum fieri esse aequom liberum.
Dem. 960
scortum adducere, adparare de die convivium
Dem. 965
uxorem meam liberam
Syrus 973
a me argentum quantist sumito
Dem. 977
dederis unde utatur
Dem. 981
Quae istaec subitast largitas?
Micio 985
sed ex adsentando, indulgendo, largiendo
Dem. 988
Plus scis quid opus factost.
Aes. 996
If you wish, OK.
poor relative
care too much for money
cut his throat with his sword
Syrus should be freed.
whore and dinner
my wife be free
pay her value
pay him to live with
why the free spending
from your generosity
You know what we need.
Basic information about Catullus:
Gaius Valerius Catullus: born at Verona 84-54 BC, affair with Clodia (Lesbia), doctus,
Alexandrine, poems
1-60 short varied meter, 61-64 longest, 64 an epic on Peleus and Thetis, 65-116
elegaics
from Catullus:
Cui dono lepidum novum libellum
I
1-3
arido modo pumice expolitum?
Corneli, tibi.
To whom shall I give my new book polished with pumice? Cornelius (Nepos), to you.
Passer, deliciae meae puellae,
II
1, 9-10
tecum ludere sicut ipsa possem
et tristis animi levare curas!
Sparrow, delight of my girl, I wish I could play with you and sooth my cares!
Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque
III
1, 3
passer mortuus est meae puellae.
Weep, O Venuses and Cupids, my gir'ís sparrow is dead.
Phaselus ille quem videtis, hospites,
IV
1-2
ait fuisse navium celerrimus.
swiftest.
The boat you see brags it was once
Vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus.
V
1, 4-7
Soles occidere et redire possunt
nobis, cum semel occidit brevis lux,
nox est perpetua una dormienda.
Da mi basia mille, deinde centum.
Let us live and love, my Clodia. Suns can rise and fall, but once our brief light ends, we
must sleep a perpetual night.
Give me a hundred kisses, then a thousand.
Miser Catulle, desinas ineptire,
VIII 1-5, 12
et quod vides perisse perditum ducas.
Fulsere quondam candidi tibi soles,
cum ventitabas quo puella ducebat
amata nobis quantum amabitur nulla.
nam Catullus obdurat.
Wretched Catullus, cease to act the fool and care for what is lost. Once the sun shone
brightly, when you used to visit
a girl loved as no other...Catullus stand firm.
Cenabis bene, mi Fabulle, apud me
XIII 1-4
paucis, si tibi di favent, diebus,
si tecum attuleris bonam atque magnam
cenam.
You will dine well at my house in a few days, my Fabullus, if you bring a great dinner.
Nam castum esse decet pium poetam
XVI 5-6
ipsum, versiculos nihil necessest.
poem, not poet,
must be clean
Sed non videmus manticae quod in tergost.
XXII 21
don't see bag on back
velut minuta magno
XXV 12-3
deprensa navis in mari vesaniente vento.
great as if small
Hic merus est Thyonianus.
XXVII 7
Here a Bacchus lover
iam me prodere, iam non dubitas fallere
XXX 3
peregrino
betray and deceive
labore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum
XXXI 8-9
weary from foreign labor we return to our hearth
Dianae sumus in fide
like a small boat in the raging sea
We pure boys and girls are faithful to
Diana.
puellae et pueri integri
XXXIV 1-2
Pudica et proba, redde codicillos!
XLII 24
Chaste maid, return my poems.
O saeclum insapiens et indacetum!
XLIII 8
O tasteless age!
Disertissime Romuli nepotum...
XLIX 1, 4-7
gratias tibi maximas Catullus
agit pessimus omnium poeta,
tanto pessimus omnium poeta
quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.
Most eloquent of the sons of Romulus, Catullus gives thanks to you (Cicero), he as much
the worst of all poets as you are the best lawyer. (two interpretations)
Ille mi par esse deo videtur,
LI
1-5
ille, si fas est, superare divos,
qui sedens adversus identidem te
spectat et audit
dulce ridentem.
He seems equal to a god even to surpass the divinites, who sitting opposite hears you
repeatedly laughing sweetly.
otium, Catulle, tibi molestumst:
LI
B
otio exultas nimiumque gestis.
Otium et reges prius et beatas
perdidit urbes.
Idleness wearies you, Catullus. You exult too much. Idleness destroyed kings and
blessed cities.
salaputium disertum
LIII 5
Nunc in quadriviis et angiportis
eloquent manikin
glubit magnanimi Remi nepotes.
LVIII 5
bursts the great sons of Remus
O Hymen Hymenaee
LXI 40
Namque Iunia Manlio
16
Nulla quit sine te domus
66-7
liberos dare.
Quis huic deo
comparier ausit?
LXI 64-5
Iam veniet virgo.
(same)
Ut flos in saeptis secretus nascitur hortis...
garden...many want
multi illum pueri, multae optavere puellae.
LXII 39, 42
Super alta vectus Attis celeri rate maria
and
Phrygium ut nemus citato cupide pede tetigit
adiitque opaca silvis redimita loca deae,
stimulatus ibi furenti rabie, vagus animi,
deevolsit illi acuto sibi pondera silice.
LXIII 1-5
patriam allocuta maestast ita voce miseriter:
Now she serves lusts in alleys.
Junia shall marry Manlius.
Without you no house can give sons.
What god dares compare self to you?
Now the bride will come.
As a hiddem flower in a
Attis driven by boat entered her forest
in madness unmanned himself.
addressed his land: o fatherland, my
mother
Patria o mei creatrix, patria o mea genetrix
LXIII 49-50
Procul a mea tuus sit furor omnis, era, domo:
me and afflict others.
Alios age incitatos, alios age rabidos.
may such madness be far from
LXIII 92-3
Peliaco quondam prognatae vertice pinus
Pine trees from Pelion sailed the sea
dicuntur liquidas Neptuni nasse per undas
Phasis, when the happy, chosen youth
Phasidos ad fluctus et fines Aeeteos,
Greece, wishing to sieze the golden
cum laeti iuvenes, Argivae robora pubis,
auratam optantes Colchis avertere pellem
dared to sail the salt sea on swift ship,
churning the skyblue sea with palm
to
of
fleece,
oars.
ausi sunt vada salsa cita decurrere puppi,
caerula verrentes abiegnis aequora palmis.
LXIV 1-7
Tum Thetidis Peleus incensus fetur amore.
19
domum conventu tota frequentat
Then Peleus fell in love with Thetis.
All Thessaly crowded the house, a
palace
Thessalia, oppletur laetanti regia coetu.
32-3
Aqualida desertis rubigo infertur aratris.
42
Ipsius at sedes, quacumque opulenta recessit
regia, fulgenti splendent auro atque argento.
with happy crowd.
Filthy rust covers deserted plows.
Palace gleams with gold and silver.
White ivory thrones, gleaming cups,
the
Candet ebur soliis, collucent pocula mensae,
splendor.
tota domus gaudet regali spledida gaza.
set;
Pulvinar vero divae geniale locatur
this
sedibus in mediis, Indo quod dente politum
heroes.
tincta tegit roseo conchyli purpura fuco.
Haec vestis priscis hominum variata figuris
heroum mira virtutes indicat arte.
But he
Namque fluentisono prospectans litore Diae
oars,
Thesea cedentem celeri cum classe tuetur
storm.
indomitos in corde gerens Ariadna furores.
Necdum etiam sese quae visit visere credit:
ut pote fallaci quae tum primum excita somno
desertam in sola miseram se cernat harena.
Immemor ac iuvenis fugiens pellit vada remis,
whole house shines with royal
For the goddess the marriage bed is
ivory posts and purple cover. On
coverlet the wondrous deeds if
Ariadne, mad at heart, sees Theseus
sailing away from Dia. She scarcely
believes: she sees herself deserted.
heedlessly strikes the sea with his
abandoning his promises to the windy
irrita ventosae linquens promissa procellae.
43-59
Illa vicem curans toto ex te pectore, Theseu,
Theseus, she fixes her mind and heart
on you.
toto animo, tota pendebat perdita mente.
69-70
Ipse suum Theseus pro caris corpus Athenis
proicere optavit.
81-2
Non prius ex illo flagrantia declinavit
until she
lumina, quam cuncto concepit corpore flammam
funditus atque imis exarsit tota medullis.
91-3
aut mortem appeteret Theseus aut praemia laudis
102
omnibus his Thesei dulcem praeoptarit amorem
120
Nunc iam nulla viro iuranti femina credat.
143
tibi iucundo famularer serva labore
161
Nulla fugae ratio, nulla spes: omnia muta.
death
Omnia sunt deserta, ostentant omnia letum.
186-7
tali mente, deae, funustet seque suosque.
201
dulcia nec maesto sustollens signa parenti
210
ceu pulsae ventorum flamine nubes
wind'
239
At parte ex alia florens volitabat Iacchus
251
Talibus amplifice vestis decorata figuris
feasted
pulvinar complexa suo velabat amictu.
Quae postquam cupide spectando Thessala pubes
expletast, sanctis coepit decedere divis.
265-8
Advenit Chiron portans silvestria dona.
279
carmine, perfidiae quod post nulla arguet aetas.
322
Currite ducentes subtegmina, currite, fusi.
327
offered his body for dear Athenians
She did not turn eyes from him
deeply burned with love for him.
win death or glory
choose Theseus over all
Let no woman believe a man.
as love slave to you
no flight, no hope, all deserted, only
With such mind may he destory his!
did not raise welcome sign for dad
'as clouds driven by the breath of the
In other section Bacchus flew
Couch decorated skillfully; youths
their eyes and gave place to the gods.
Next arrived Chiron w/ woody gifts.
truthful chant (of Fates)
Run, spindles bearing woof.
Adveniet fausto cum sidere coniunx.
329
Non illi quisquam bello se conferet heros.
343
Illius egregias virtutes claraque facta
saepe fatebuntur gnatorum in funere matres.
348-9
Troiugenum infesto prosternet corpora ferro.
355
Denique testis erit morti quoque reddita praeda
362
Quare agite optatos animi coniungite amores
accipiat coniunx felici foedere divam,
Wife will arrive under favoring star.
No hero shall match himself with him.
Often burying mothers will recall his
courage and deeds.
shall strike down sons of Troy
Polyxena's death as witness
Unite in desired love; let husband
receive the goddess; let bride
be
dedatur cupido iamdudum nupta marito.
372-4
Praesentes namque ante domos invisere castas
heroum et sese mortali ostendere coetu
caelicolae nondum spreta pietate solebant.
hundred
Saepe pater divum templo in fulgente revisens
annua cum festis venissent sacra diebus,
conspexit terra centum procumbere tauros.
384-9
Sed postquam tellus scelerest imbuta nefando,
iustitiamque omnes cupida de mente fugarunt,
perfudere manus fraterno sanguine fratres,
destitit exstinctos natus lugere parentes,
optavit genitor primaevi funera nati,
liber uti nuptae poteretur flore novellae,
ignaro mater substernens se impia nato
impia non veritast divos scelerare Penates:
omnia fanda nefanda malo permixta furore
iustificam nobis mentem avertere deorum.
Quare nec tales dignantur visere coetus,
nec se contingi patiuntur lumine claro.
397-08
vita frater amabilior
LXV 10
ut missum sponsi furtivo munere malum
procurrit casto virginis e gremio
19-20
huic manat tristi conscius ore rubor.
24
given.
Then often the gods appeared since
piety was not despised. Often Zeus
visited temples and received one
bulls in sacrifice.
After earth was filled with wrong and
all fled justice, brothers killed
brothers, son ceased to weep parent,
father sought son's death to enjoy
bride, mother violated son: all good
and evil was mixed; we turned from
the gods. Therefore the gods no
longer visit us nor are touched by us
in daylight.
brother more loved than life
as apple slips from virginís bosom
unconscious blush
Omnia qui magni dispexit lumina mundi
LXVI 1
An quod amantes
other's body?
non longe a caro corpore abesse volunt?
31-2
Captam Asiam Aegypti finibus addiderat.
36
Invita, o regina, tuo de vertice cessi.
39
Sidus in antiquis diva novum posuit.
64
quae dulcem curis miscet amaritiem
LXVIII 18
Nulli se dicit mulier mea nubere malle
to me, not
quam mihi, non si se Iuppiter ipse petat.
ought to
Dicit: sed mulier cupido quod dicit amanti
in vento et rapida scribere oportet aqua.
LXX
scanned all stars of sky
Do lovers wish to be close to each
He added Asia to Egypt.
unwillingly I left your head
goddess placed new star among old
mix bitter with sweet
My girl says she prefers none
even Zeus. What girl says to lover
be written in wind and rushing water.
cogit amare magis, sed bene velle minus,
LXXII 8
more a lover, less a friend
nec desistere amare, omnia si facias
LXXV 4
nor cease to love if do worst
Difficest longum subito deponere amorem.
LXXVI 13
Ipse valere opto.
25
dificult to drop long love
Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requiris.
Know I hate and love.
I wish to be well.
LXXXV
Nescio, sed fieri sentio et excrucior.
Nulla fides ullo fuit umquam foedere tanta.
LXXXVII
3
no better love
Lesbia mi dicit semper male nec tacet umquam
loud quarrels mean true love
de me: Lesbia me dispeream nisi amat.
Quo signo? Quia sunt totidem mea: deprecor illam
assidue, verum dispeream nisi amo.
XCII
Nil nimium studeo, Caesar, tibi velle placere.
XCIII
Nec scire utrum sis albus an ater homo.
fastidious or hating?
certe non tanto mors immatura dolorist
your love greater than her death's
not wish to please you
pain
Quintiliae, quantum gaudet amore tuo.
XCVI 5-6
Atque in perpetuum, frater, ave atque vale.
CI
aeternum hoc sanctae foedus amicitiae
CIX 6
final farewell, brother
eternal pact of friendship
Basic information about Sallust:
Gaius Sallustius Crispus: 86-35 BC, born at Amiternum, tribune 52 BC, expelled from
senate 50 BC, praetor 47 BC,
Bellum Catilinum: Cato and Caesar contrasted, Cicero barely praised; Bellum
Iugurthinum: Rome for sale and
failure of nobility, Marius key figure; Historiae: omly fragments survive (78 BC
forward), epigarms, virtus
From Sallust's Catilina:
Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est.
our power spiritual and
bodily
I
divitiarum et formae gloria fluxa atque fragilis est.
glory short-lived
vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet body or mind
pro aris et focis
for altars and hearths
lubidinem dominandi causam belli
lust for power cause of war
II
pro labore desidia, pro contientia lubido
sloth for work, lust for
restraint
dediti ventri atque somno
slaves to belly and sleep
Pulchrum est bene facere rei publicae, etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est.
III
It is glorious to do well for on'ís country, not at all absurd to speak well also.
haud par gloria sequitur scriptorem et actorem
more glory to doer than
speaker
pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute audacia, largitio, avaritia vices for virtues
ambitione corrupta
corrupted by ambition
Statui res gestas populi Romani carptim perscribere
write piecemeal history
IV
de Catilinae coniuratione
about the conspiracy of
Catiline
de cuius hominis moribus
about his habits
L. Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo
pravoque.
V
born of noble family, strong mind and body, corrupt talent
Huic bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia civilis grata wrongs pleased him
animus audax, subdolus, varius
a mind bold, tricky, shifty
agitabatur animus ferox inopia rei familiaris
lack of wealth goaded his
fierce mind
divors mala: luxuria atque avaritia
between excess and envy
invidia ex opulentia
envy from wealth
imperium legitumum, nomen imperi regium
legitimate power in fact a
monarchy
VI
annua imperia binosque imperatores
yearly split power
non armatus hostis formidulosus
no armed enemy formidable
VII
laudis avidi, pecuniae liberales
eager for praise,
prodigal with money
prudentissimus quisque maxume negotiosus
ablest busy with work
VIII
faceere quam dicere
action rather tham word
concordia maxuma, minuma avaritia
greatest unity, least envy
IX
audacia in bello
boldness in war
Saevire fortuna ac miscere omnia coepit.
Fortune raged and began to
mix all.
X
primo pecuniae, deinde imperi cupido
first lust for money,
then for power
materies omnium malorum
root of all evils
voltum quam ingenium bonum
good face rather than good
heart
magis ambitio quam avaritia
ambition rather than envy
XI
Nam gloriam, honorem, imperium bonus et ignavus aeque sibi exoptant.
Good and lazy both equally seek glory, honor, power.
bonis initiis malos eventus
bad end from good beginning
Ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Romani amre, potare. Army began to lust and drink.
divitiae honori esse coepere
riches preferred to honors
XII
iniuriam facere id demum esset imperio uti
only way to rule is to injure
ludibrio fuisse divitiae
riches a joke
XIII
viri muliebria pati, mulieres pudicitiam in propatulo habere
Men played the woman's part and women sold their chastity cheaply.
ea omnia luxu antecapere
to anticipate all in luxury
cf. Sen. Cons. ad Helv. 10.3: Vomunt ut edunt, edunt ut vomunt.
They vomit to eat; they eat to
vomit.
Animus indutus malis artibus haud facile lubidinibus carebat.
Minds used to wrong habits could not refrain from lusts.
Omnes quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat, ei Catilinae proxumi erant.
Those evil, need, misdirected mind urged on were friends of Catiline.
XIV
Sed maxume adulescentium familiaritates appetebat.
sought out the young
cuius praeter formam nihil umquam bonus laudavit
only beauty praised
XV
vacuam domum scelestis nuptiis fecisse
made an empty home for evil
marriage
in facie voltuque vecordia inerat
madness in face and glance
XVI
victoriae veteris memores
remembering past victory
opprimundae rei publicae consilium cepit
eager for civil war
maxuma necessitudo et plurimum audaciae
greatest need and most
boldness
XVII
dominationis spes
hope of power
incerta pro certis, bellum quam pacem
uncertainty and war
first
M. Licinium Crassum non ignarum
Crassus knew
facile apud illos principem se fore
that he would be the leader.
Catilina prohibitus erat consulatum petere.
XVIII
Catiline had been forbidden from seeking the consulship.
parabant in capitolio consules interficere
They were preparing to
murder the consuls.
Catilina maturasset signum sociis dare
too hasty to signal his friends
eum infestum inimicum Cn. Pompeio
that he was hostile to
Pompey
XIX
Vos cognovi fortis fidosque mihi.
I know you are faithful to me.
XX
res publica in paucorum potentium ius
country fell to power of few
idem velle atque idem nolle
to like or dislike same things
Catilina polliceri tabulas novas.
debts.
XXI
humani corporis sanguinem vino permixtum
XXII
non minor vanitas quam audacia
XXIII
glorians maria montisque polliceri
mountains
Catiline promised end of
human blood mixed with wine
as untrustworthy as reckless
to promise seas and
ad consulatum mandandum Ciceroni
to give the consulship to
Cicero
Neque tamen Catilinae furor minuebatur
no less Catiline's rage
XXIV
Catilina credebat posse servitia urbana sollicitare, urbem incendere.
Catiline believed that he could stir up the urban slaves and burn the city.
Sempronia quae multa saepe virilis audacia facinora commiserat...psallere et saltare
elegantius.
XXV
Sempronia had done many wrongs with manly courage...dance and sing
Cariora omnia quam decus atque pudicitia.
modesty and chastity cheap
Omnibus modis insidias parabat Ciceroni.
plotting treachery toward
Cicero
XXVI
bellum facere et extrema omnia experiri
to wage war and test all
consulibus insidias tendere, parare incendia
to plot against consuls, bring
fire
XXVII
se Manlium praemisisse ad arma
sent Manlius to arms
Curius...per Fulviam Ciceroni dolum enuntiat
Curius through Fulvia
reveals plot.
XXVIII
egestate simul ac dolore iniuriae novarum rerum cupidam
poverty made ripe for revolt
Senatus decrevit consules ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet.
XXIX
The senate decreed that the consuls take care that the country suffer no harm.
ex summa laetitia...tristia
in place of happiness...sorrow
XXXI
In senatum venit.
He came into the senate.
Quoniam quidem circumventus ab inimicis praeceps agor, incendium meum ruina
restinguam.
Surrounded by enemies I shall destroy all.
Deinde se ex curia domum proripuit.
Then he rushed home.
XXXII
Nos arma neque contra patriam cepisse...sed uti corpora nostra ab iniuria tuta forent.
We are fighting not against country but to protect ourselves.
XXXIII
Neque licuit amisso patrimonio liberum corpus habere.
not permitted liberty
At nos non imperium neque divitias petimus...sed liberatem.
We ask not for power
or riches, but only freedom.
publicam miserorum causam suscepit
undertook cause of the
poor
XXXV
non dignos homines honore honstatos
saw unworthy honored
Antonius cum exercitu Catilinam persequi maturet, Cicero urbi praesidio sit.
XXXVI
Antony should pursue Catiline with an army, Cicero protect the city.
ad occasum ab ortu solis
from rising to setting sun
Tanta vis morbi aeque uti tabes plerosque civium animos invaserat.
Such a fierce disease had invaded the minds of the citizens.
quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident
Those w/o means envy the
good.
XXXVII
Ei Romam sicut in sentinam confluxerant.
flowed into Rome like a sewer
Urbanum otium ingrato labori praetulerat.
preferred urban leisure to
ungrateful work
senatum criminando plebem exagitare
excite plebs by
attacking senate
XXXVIII
populi iura defenderent
defending the people's rights
neque modestia neque modus contentionis
neither restraint nor
moderation in dispute
plebis opes imminutae, paucorum potentia crevit.
more power for wealthy
XXXIX
natura gens Gallica bellicosa
Gauls want to fight
XL
compluris...in vincula coniecerat
had thrown several into
prison
XLII
de ignavia sociorum
about the laziness of friends
XLIII
ut in ponte Mulvio per insidias Allobrogum comitatus deprehendant.
XLV
that they seize in ambush the amabassadors of the Allobroges
At illum ingens cura atque laetitia simul occupavere.
by care and joy
XLVI
poenam illorum sibi oneri
their punishment his burden
in liberis custodiis habeantur
XLVII
veluti ex servitute erepta gaudium
be held in free custody
joy as if freed from slavery
XLVIII
ubi Tarquinius Crassum nominavit
Crassus
C. Caesar falso nominaretur
XLIX
grandem pecuniam debebat
senatus iudicaverat contra rem publicam fecisse
L
supplicium sumendum decreverat
Ab odio, amicitia, ira atque misericordia vacuos
LI
rapi virgines...divelli liberos a parentium complexu
Sed ea res magnae initium cladis fuit.
slaughter
ubi...consul gladium eduxerit, quis moderabitur?
restrain
imitari quam invidere bonis malebant
ipsos in vinculis habendos per municipia
towns
In maxima fortuna minima licentia est.
licence
patriae, parentibus, aris atque focis suis bellum paravere
when Tarquinius named
Caesar was falsely named.
He owed much money.
acted against country
decreed they be executed
be free from hatred...pity
women seized, children taken
beginning of great
sword drawn who shall
prefer to imitate than to envy
they be held in chains in
In highest fortune least
war against country, parents,
and altars.
LII
capta urbe nihil fit reliqui victis
city taken, nothing for
defeated
libertas ac anima nostra in dubio
our liberty and life at stake
bonisne an malis moribus vivamus
whether morals good or bad
bona aliena largiri liberalitas
to take other's property
generosity
Laudamus divitias, sequimur inertiam.
laud riches, create idleness
inertia et mollitia animi...cunctamini
from sloth and slack you
hesitate
Inter bonos et malos nullum discrimen.
no distinction between good
and bad
Cato clarus atque magnus habetur.
Cato is regarded as famous
and great.
LIII
numero parva manu enim magnis legionibus hostem contendisse few of us vs many
paucorum civium egregiam virtutem
by the noteworthy courage of
a few citizens
ingenti virtute viri duo, Cato et Caesar
two mwn of great
merit, Cato and Caesar
aetas, eloquentia prope aequalia
nearly equal in age and
eloquence
LIV
esse quam videri
to be rather than to seem
laqueo gulam fregere
broke his neck
LV
sparos aut lanceas
javelins or lances
LVI
Interea servitia repudiabat.
He rejected use of slaves.
fortunam belli temptare
to try the fortune of war
LVII
verba virtutem non addere
Words do not make courage.
LVIII
Ferro iter aperiendum est.
Way
must be forged by sword.
pro patria, pro libertate, pro vita
for country, for liberty, for life
Nemo nisi victor pace bellum mutavit.
Only winner trades
war for peace.
Audacia pro muro habetur.
Boldness is the best defense.
neu sicuti pecora trucidemini
Do not be slaughtered
like cattle.
se contra latrones inermis pro patria, pro liberis, pro aris atque focis certare
LIX
that they were fighting against unarmed robbers for country, children, altars
Veterani, pristinae virtutis memores,
comminus acriter instare; illi haud timidi
resistunt; maxuma vi certatur. LX
Veterans rushed ahead; enemy stood ground; fierce fight.
strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia
duties of stout soldier and
good leader
in confertissimos hostis incurrit ibique pugnans confoditur. rushed at enemy and died
spirans ferociamque animi
bretathing fierce spirit
LXI
Postremo ex omni copia neque in proelio neque in fuga quisquam civis ingenuus captus est.
No one captured in battle or flight.
Neque tamen exercitus populi Romani laetam aut incruentam victoriam adeptus erat.
Nam strenuissumus quisque aut
occiderat in proelio aut graviter volneratus discesserat. Multi
autem , qui e castris visundi aut spoliandi gratia
processerant, volventes hostilia
cadavera amicum alii pars hospitem aut cognatum reperiebant; fuere item qui inimicos suos
cognoscerent. Ita varie per omnem exercitum laetitia, maeror, luctus atque gaudia agitabantur.
Roman army gained no happiness in unbloody battle. Many, going to the enemy camp to
view or spoil, saw friend or guest or relative; others recognized enemies. Variously the army
was affected with happiness, sorrow, grief, and joy.
from Sallust's Bellum Jugurthinum:
probitatem, industriam, aliasque artis neque dare
fortune can't give honesty
I
genus humanum compositum es corpore et anima
man formed of body and mind
II
Omnia orta occidunt et aucta senescunt.
All that rises sets and all that
grows becomes aged.
corporis et fortunae bonorum ... finis est
an end to goods of body and
fortune
IV
procul a re publica aetatem agere
to live life far from public
realm
maius commodum ex otio meo quam ex aliorum negotiis my leisure over their efforts
memoria rerum gestarum
memory of great deeds
divitiis et sumptibus, non probutate neque industria
rival in wealth
V
Bellum...quod populus Romanus cum Iugurtha
war against Jugurtha
magnum et atrox variaque victoria
great, fierce, with various
victories
Masinissa rex Numidarum in amicitiam a P. Scipione
friendship of
Masinissa and Scipio
Igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis
lasting friendship
pollens viribus, decora facie, sed multo maxume ingenio validus
VI
strong, handsome, fiercely talented
Plurimum facere minimum ipse de se loqui.
Do much, say little about self.
cum omnis gloria anteiret, omnibus tamen carus esse
VII
fortunam temptare
fortune.
et proelio strenuus et bonus consilio
planning
The best still loved to test
strong in battle and good in
divitiae bono honestoque potuires
riches stronger than good
VIII
Non exercitus neque thesauri praesidia regni
neither army nor money
protection
X
Gloria invidiam vicisti.
You have conquered envy by
glory.
Concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maxime dilabuntur.
Small grows in
harmony, large falls in disunity.
Micipsa paucis post diebus moritur.
Micipsa died a few days later.
XI
dividi thesauros finisque imperi singulis
to divide wealth and power
XII
Numidae caput eius...ad Iugurtham referunt.
They take his head to
Jugurtha.
Adherbalem...metus invagit.
Fear possessed Adherbal.
XIII
Victus ex proelio profugit in provinciam.
Defeated he fled to our
province.
in avariria nobilitatis
in the greed of our nobles
maxumo usui esse populo Romano
to be a great use to Rome
XIV
tuta per se ipsa probitas
virtue is (not) its own
protection
Cogor prius oneri quam usui esse.
I am forced to be a burden
rather than use.
Semperne in sanguine, ferro, fuga versabitur?
Live always in blood
and flight?
Spes omnis in armis erat.
All hope was in arms.
intoleranda audacia, scelere, atque superbia
by daring, crime, pride
extorrem patria, domo
an exile from country and
home
pars in crucem acti, pars bestiis obiecti sunt
some hung on cross, some
thrown to beasts
largitione magis quam causa
upon bribery rather than
cause
XV
pro alieno scelere et falgitio quasi pro gloria
for crime as if glory
acerrume victoriam nobilitatis in plebem
use noble victory cruelly
against plebs
XVI
ob calorem aut asperitatem
because of heat and rough
terrain
mare saevom, importuosum, sger frugum fertilis
rough sea, fertile fields
XVII
Mauros pro Medis
Moors for Medes
XVIII
pars imperi cupidine
some for desire of power
XIX
Mauris omnibus rex Bocchus imperitabat.
Bocchus was ruling all the
Moors.
omnis Romae venalia esse
that all Rome was for sale
acer, bellicosus...(enemy) quietus, imbellis
he fierce and warlike, enemy
calm
XX
reliquendum esset aut armis retinendum
give up or hold by arms
XXI
neque carius auctoritate senatus
not dearer than senate's
authority
XXII
Vallo atque fossa moenia circumdat
surround walls with rampart
and ditch
XXIII
ferro an fame acrius urgear
whether sword or famine
worse
XXIV
bonum publicum...privata gratia devictum
public good conquered by
private gain XXV
Vicit tamen in avido ingenio pravom consilium.
bad plan over eager talent
Iugurtha Adherbalem excruciatum necat.
Jugurtha tortures and kills
Adherbal.
XXVI
magnitudine pecuniae a bono honestoque in pravom
bribed from good to bad
XXIX
Nihil vi, nihil secessione opus est,
no need of force and
secession
XXXI
Pars eorum occididsse tribunos plebis, alii quaestiones iniustas, plerique caedem in vos
fecisse pro munimento.
protected by killing, prosecutions, slaughter
Ita quam quisque pessume fecit tam maxume tutus est.
worse crime, greater safety
quo maius dedecus est parta amittere quam omnino non paravisse
worse to lose what have than never gain it
aut serviundum esse aut per manus libertatem retinendam Either fight or lose liberty.
Dominari illi volunt, vos liberi esse.
They wish to rule, you to be
free.
Nam impune quae lubet facere, id est regem esse.
king does what pleases
Bonus tantum modo segnior fit, ubi neglegas, si malus improbior.
When neglected, the good man becomes lazy, the bad man wicked.
alium conscientia alium mala fama et timor
some by guilt, some by fame
XXXV
Ipse deprehensus...indicium profitetur.
Caught he confessed.
Clam in Numidiam Bomilcarem dimittit.
Secretly he sent Bomilcar to
Numidia.
Urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit!
city for sale if buyer
Paucis carior fides quam pecunia fuit.
Few regarded trust
ahead of money.
XXXVI
Metus atque maeror civitatem invasere.
Fear and grief invaded the
city.
XXXIX
Sed plebes...rogationem iusserat.
Plebs passed the bill.
Ut saepe nobilitatem, sic ea tempestate plebem ex secundis rebus insolentia ceperat.
XL
From success insolence had taken both the nobility and the plebs.
Nam ante Carthaginem delectam populus et senatus Romanus placide modesteque inter se
rem publicam tractabant,
neque gloriae neque dominationis certamen inter civis erat; metus
hostilis in bonis artibus civitatem retinebat. XLI
Before the destruction of Carthage the Roman people and senate conducted business
peacefully; neither dispute of
glory nor power occurred among citizens; fear of the enemy
kept the state on even pace.
sibi quisque
each for himself
Ceterum nobilitas factione magis pollebat.
nobles more powerfully
organized
Gracchorum actionibus obviam ierat.
nobility opposed the
Gracchi's acts
XLII
Sed bono vinci satius est quam malo more iniuriam vincere.
Good person would rather be conquered than conquer with a bad precedent.
alteri alteros vincere quovis modo
one side to defeat other by any
means
Bono vinci satius est.
Better to be defeated fairly.
acri viro...fama aequabili et inviolata
reputation'
XLIII
advorsum divitias invictum animum
lingua quam manu promptior
XLIV
magnum et sapientem virum
XLV
infidum, ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum
change
in postremo Marius legatus cum equitibus curabat
avalry
XLVI
Dein repente signo dato hostis invadit.
enemy.
L
pars cadere, alii insequi
attacked
LI
Fors omnia regere.
ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus
LII
arma capiunt ac consistunt
LIII
pro metu repente gaudium
minore detrimento illos vinci quam suos vincere
LIV
De Metello fama praeclara esse.
LV
neque proelium facere neque otium pati
rest
magis opere quam natura munitum
LVII
fierce man with 'unblemished
mind greater than riches
readier of tongue than hand
a great and wise man
unfaithful, shifty, eager for
Marius directed rear with
After signal he attacked the
part retreated, others
'Chance ruled all.'
equal with unequal resources
take up arms and stand
in place of fear sudden joy
loss less harm
Metellus' fame was great.
neither fought nor let them
protected by nature not works
parique periculo sed fama impari
in equal danger but unequal
fame
neque alius in alio
no one relied on another
LX
cum ingenio infido
treacherous
LXI
cuncta prospere eventura
all will turn out well
LXIII
patiens fuit, stipendiis faciundis
enduring in war
postea ambitione praeceps
afterwards headlong with
ambition
Novus homo tam clarus neque tam egregiis factis erat.
new man worthy by deeds
non omnia omnibus cupiunda esse
not to seek everything
LXIV
cupidine et ira
with desire and anger
homo inanis et regiae superbiae imperio
empty man of excessive pride
of rule
si ipse consul ad id bellum missus foret
if only he were sent to war as
consul
LXV
plebs...novos extollebat
people were supporting the
new man
nihil intactum neque quietum
nothing untouched or quiet
LXVI
Iuxta boni malique, strenui et imbelles inulti obtruncari
All
types fell.
LXVII
Praemia an cruciatum mallet.
whether he chose reward or torture
LXX
Bomilcare
aliisque multis...interfectis
Bomilcar and many others killed
LXXII
Iugurthae dies aut nox nulla quieta
his nights and
days restless
formidine quasi vecordia exagitari
driven by dread virtually
insanity
sua necessaria post illius honorem
his honor over their needs
LXXIII
Novi homini consulatus mandatur.
Consulship is granted to new
Quocumque intenderat res advorsae erant.
wherever he turned adversity
man.
lurked
LXXIV
se vitamque rei publicae condonavere
country
LXXIX
per magnas solitudines cum paucis
LXXX
Iugurtha Bocchi animum oratione accendit.
speech.
LXXXI
lubidinem imperitandi
provinciam Numidiam Mario datam
to M
LXXXII
parta victoria ex manibus eriperetur
hands
gave up lives for
through vast desert with few
J inflamed B's heart with
lust for ruling
province of N had been given
victory won snatched from his
bellum sumi facile...aegerrume desinere
easier to start than avoid war
LXXXIII
aid
Marius cupientissimus plebe consul factus
LXXXIV
infestus nobilitati
hostile to the nobles
Interim quae bello opus erant prima habere.
Marius consul with plebeian
Tanta lubido cum Marcio eundi plerosque invaserat.
All wanted to go with Marius.
primo industrios...per ignaviam
first hardworking, then lazy
First attention to war needs.
LXXXV
bellum parare simul et aerario parcere
to get war ready and
spare treasury
domi forisque omnia curare
to care for all in forum and
war
inter invidos, occursantis, factiosos
among enmity, envy, and
intrigue
Mihi spes omnes in memet sitae.
All hopes depend on self.
Illis difficile est in potestatibus temperare.
difficult for powerful to
restrain selves
Bene facere iam ex consuetudine in naturam vortit.
My nature makes it easy.
Bellum me gerere cum Iugurtha oussisitis.
You have ordered me to fight
Jugurtha.
Comparate nunc cum illorum superbia me hominem novom.
me a new man
ignaviae voluptatem et praemia virtutis
'joys of ideleness and rewards
of merit'
Nam quanto vita illorum praeclarior, tanto horum socordia flagitiosior.
The more famous their ancestors' life, the worse their baseness.
neque bona neque mal eorum in occulto
neither good nor bad hidden
Meamet facta mihi dicere licet.
I have done deeds
worthy of mention.
Quod ex aliena virtute sibi arrogant, id mihi ex mea non concedunt.
They false claim credit from ancestors' deeds and wish to deny me credit for mine.
Ego meis plurumis laboribus et periculis quaesivi.
I've won by my own efforts.
Ipsa se virtus satis ostendit.
Virtue shines by own light.
hostem ferire, praesidia agitare
to strike enemy, to puruse
safety
munditias mulieribus, laborem viris
elegance for women, work for
men
Ament, potent...in conviviis.
Let them love, let them drink
in banquets.
Meque vos in omnibus rebus iuxta geram.
I shall treat myself and you
the same.
Nemo ignavia immortalis factus est.
No one became immortal
through cowardice.
Maiorum gloria posteris lumen est.
Glory in one;s ancestors
sheds light for posterity.
Propere armis...navis onerat.
He loaded ships with arms.
LXXXVI
capite censos plerosque
Nam Metellus conspectum Mari fugerat.
Marius.
Ita Iugurtham aut praesidiis nudatum
LXXXVIII
Oppidum incensum, Numidia puberes interfecti
XCI
Omnia non bene consulta in virtutem trahebantur.
XCII
Luctu atque caede omnia comlentur.
killing.
pro gloria atque imperio his, illis pro salute
safety
XCIV
Temeritas gloriam ex culpa invenit.
Sulla gentis patriciae noblis fuit.
XCV
ignarus belli, sollertissimus omnium
XCVI
brevi Mario militibusque carissumus
Marius and soldiers
trepidi improviso metu
unexpected fear
XCVII
vagari passim se modo laborantibus
many proletariat
Metellus had fled sight of
Jugurtha stripped of defenses
Town burned, youths killed
all deeds proof of virtue
All was filled with grief and
for gloria and power, for them
Rashness became glory.
Sulla was from a noble family.
not knowing war, best of all
soon beloved by
frightened by
helping at will the struggling
XCVIII
Nam somno et metu insolito impedita fuga.
Flight hindered by sleep and
fear.
XCIX
Ipse armatus intentusque.
He was
armed and alert.
C
Sulla rediens ab latere Mauris incurrit.
Sulla attacked the Moors from
side.
CI
Denique hostes iam undique fusi.
At last enemy was totally
routed.
constrata telis, armis, cadaveribus
strewn with arms, bodies
te optumum cum pessumo omnium Iugurtha
you the best with worst
Jugurtha
CII
Humanarum rerum fortuna pleraque regit.
Fortune rules human affairs.
numquam populum Romanum beneficiis victum esse.
Roman people never outdone
in favors
se non hostili animo, sed ob regnum tutandum
not hostilely, but to protect
kingdom
munificus nemo putabatur nisi pariter volens
gifts not suspect
CIII
ignari humanarum rerum, quae...mutantur.
ignorant of hanging human
affairs
CIV
Senatus et populus Romanus benefici et iniuriae memor esse solet.
The senate and Roman people usually remember both favor and insult.
se quisque expedire, arma temptare, intendere
each tried arms and was
ready
CV
spes amplior...victoribus
more confidence for victors
Repente Maurus incerto voltu pavens ad Sullam accurrit. Moor fled to Sulla.
CVI
Tum vero ingens metus nostros invadit.
Fear attacked our men.
sceleris atque perfidiae Bocchi testis
witness of Bocchus' crime and
treachery
CVII
colloquio diem, locum, tempus ipse deligeret
choose day and place
to meet
CVIII
Sulla a Boccho occulte accersitur.
Sulla suddenly summoned by
Bocchus
CIX
Denique nihil me sciente frustra voles.
Whatever you want.
CX
Bellum ego populo Romano neque feci neque factum umquam volui; at finis meos
advorsum armatos armis tutatus
sum.
didn't wage war, but defended kingdom
de pace et de de communibus rebus
about peace and common
interests
CXI
Copiam Iugurthae haberet
He could capture Jugurtha.
CXI
Iugurtha carus et Romani invisi erant.
Jugurtha dear and
Romans hated.
Mario parum confidere
He didn't trust Marius.
CXII
Haec Maurus secum ipse diu volvens tandem promisit.
agreed
at last
CXIII
Illi pariter laeti ac spei bonae pleni esse.
Both were joyful and hopeful.
voltu et oculis pariter atque animo varius
face, eyes, mind unsure
Ceteri obtruncati, Iugurtha Sullae vinctus traditur.
others tied, Jugurtha
surrendered
Advorsum Gallos ab ducibus nostris male pugnatum
CXIV
Our leaders fought badly against the Gauls.
cum Gallis pro salute non pro gloria certari
fought Gauls for safety, not
glory
Marius consul absens factus est et ei decreta provincia Gallia.
Marius was elected consul in his absence and given Gaul as his province.
Ita ea tempestate spes atque opes civitatis in illo sitae.
At that time all hopes and resources of the country were placed in him.
from speeches and letters perhaps from Sallust's Historiae:
in tutandis periculis magis quam ulciscendo teneamini
nisi legibus pareremus
bellum cupiens
more avoiding than avenging
submit to the laws
loving war
manus conserentis inter se Romanos exercitus et arma ab externis in nosmet vorsa
Roman armies facing each other and Roman arms turned from enemy to ourselves
secundae res mire sunt vitia optentui
success hides vices
Ubi malos praemia secuntur, haud facile quisquam gratuito bonus est.
When evil men receive rewards, it is difficult for anyone to remain good.
Neque te provinciae neque leges neque di penates civem patiuntur.
Neither province nor law nor gods accept you as citizen.
Avidissimus privatae gratiae maxumas inimicitias pro re publica suscepi.
Most eager for friendship I have incurred the bitterest animosity for my country.
Hacine spe populus Romanus liberos suos ad bellum misit?
war for this?
quid inter ius a maioribus relictum vobis et hoc a Sulla paratum servitum
what a difference between laws of ancestors and slavery of Sulla
Statui certaminis advorsa pro libertate potiora esse forti viro quam omnino non certavisse
fight for liberty better than not to have fought at all
more pecorum
in the manner of beasts
Cavendus dolus est.
Beware of trickery.
Fama erat divitem neque serviturum esse.
that I was rich and would not
be a slave
Atque ego ultus iniurias Nicomedem Bithynia expuli.
I drove Niocomedes from
Bithynia in vengenace.
tibi magnas opes virorum armorum et auri esse
You have much money and
soldiers.
Pauci libertatem, pras magna iustos dominos volunt.
Few want liberty; most want
just master.
fabrum esse suae quemque fortunae
each master of his fortune
Pessumus quisque asperume rectorem patitur.
worst fear corrector
bellum aliorum pace mollius gessisiti
your war fairer than peace
particeps dominationis neque fuit quisquam neque...orbis terrarum bello concussus foret
If he had accepted a partner, a world war would have been avoided.
qua tempestate urbi Romanae fatum excidii adventarit, civis cum civibus manus
conserturos
When Rome is fated to fall, citizen will battle citizen.
magnitudinem animi in addendo non demendo rei publicae ostendere
to show great soul by enriching, not plundering the state
Sapientes pacis causa bellum gerunt.
Wise men wage war to gain
peace.
pecunia(e), quae maxuma omnium pernicies
money, the root of all evil
Saepe prava magis quam bona consilia prospere eveniunt. bad counsel, good result
Semper tibi maiorem in adversis quam in secundis rebus animum esse
that your spirit was always greater in difficulties than in prosperity.
in patres et plebem
into patricians and plebeians
nullius potentia super leges
no one's power over law
pro communi imperio privatim sibi quisque servitutem
rule traded for slavery
Ego censeo permixtos cum veteribus novos in coloniis.
settle new in colonies
regnum denique ex libera civitate
kingdom from free state
maiore cura fideique amici...paranda sunt
surround self with loyal
friends
Hostem adversum deprimere strenuo homini haud difficilest; occulta pericula neque facere
neque vitare bonis in
promptu est.
hidden
enemy harder to defeat
Nam ad virtutem via ardua est.
Path to virtue is difficult.
neque exercitus neque moenia obstant
neither army nor wall
withstands (avarice)
magnae navis supervacuanea onera esse
like useless overlaod of ship
haud ferme armis atque equis corpus exercui
exercise body with neither
arms nor horses
plebs senatui sicuti corpus animo oboedit
plebs obey senate as body
obeys soul
si numero auctus per tabellam sententiam foret
by written vote by more
members
neque modum neque molestiam
'neither moderation nor
modesty'
ut se ipse ac fortunas suas venales habeat
offer selves and property for
sale
tibi iucundior atque obsequentior
(daughter) too pleasant and
obsequious
Te consule fortunatam?
fortunate with you as consul?
vitae necisque potestatem
power of life and death
quasi vero togatus et non armatus
as if toga-clad and not armed
Quem amicum, quem inimicum habes?
What friend, what enemy do
you have?
levissime transfuga, neque in hac neque in illa parte fidem habens vile turncoat, trusted
by neither side
ut omnis oratio moribus consonet
speech and character match
ut lutulentus...volutari
to wallow in mud
togatus armatos et pace bellum oppressi
in toga crushed armed men,
giving peace
multo minor est quam habere dignus sum
much less than I deserve
Ego fugax?
I a runaway?
quantum quisque rei publicae studuit
in proportion to his love for
country
laudes egregii civis
praise of an outstanding
citizen
lapsus aetatis tirocinio
fell because of youth
ut nihil in eo non venale habuerit
offered all for sale
in unam voraginem coetus omnium vitiorum excesserat
All vices flowed into sewer.
patrimonio non comesso, sed devorato
not consumed, but devoured
inheritance
Carere decet omni vitio qui in alterum dicere parat.
Only perfect may criticize.
Saepe enim vidi gravius offendere animos auditorum eos, qui aliena falgitia aperte
dixerunt, quam eos, qui
commisserunt.
critic harsher tham wrongdoer
Basic information about Lucretius:
Titus Lucretius Caro, 94-55 BC, friend of Memmius, Cicero may have emended the De
Rerum Natura:
1) atom and void
2) motions of atoms
3) soul mortal
4) sensations including sex
5) progressive human development
6) various phenomena ending with plague at Athens
an epic in dactylic hexameer
from: Lucretius' De Rerum Natura
Aeneadum genetrix, hominum divumque voluptas,
I 1-2
alma Venus
Mother of Aeneas' race, delight for
all, nourishing Venus
tibi suavis daedala tellus
7-8
summittit flores.
for you wondrous earth bears sweet
flowers
Inde ferae, pecudes persultant pabula laeta
Animals dance over rich meadows
and
et rapidos tranant amnis: ita capta lepore
swim fast rivers: captured by your
charm
te sequitur cupide quo quamque inducere pergis.
All go where you bid.
14-16
rerum naturam sola gubernas
alone govern the nature of things.
21
quo magis aeternum da dictis, diva, leporem
Grant charm to my speech, goddess.
28
Effice ut interea fera moenera militai
Still savage war on land and sea.
29-30
per maria ac terras omnis sopita quiescant.
devictus vulnere amoris
defeated by love's wound
34
funde petens placidam Romanis, incluta, pacem
Give peace to Rome
40
Omnis enim per se divum natura necessest
Necessarily
divinity enjoys immortal
44-9
immortali aevo summa cum pace fruatur
life with eternal peace, removed from
our
semota ab nostris rebus seiuncta longe;
cares; by its own strength divinity is
free
nam privata dolore omni, privata periclis,
from sorrow and danger, not needing
us,
ipsa suis pollens opibus, nil indiga nostri,
not captured by our favors nor
touched by anger.
nec bene promeritis capitur neque tangitur ira.
rerum primordia pandam
I shall explain the first seeds.
55
Humana ante oculos foede cum vita iaceret
63-79
in terris oppressa gravi sub religione,
quae caput a caeli rgionibus ostendebat
horribili super aspectu mortalibus instans,
primum Graius homo mortalis tollere contra,
quem neque fama deorum nec fulmina nec minitanti
murmure compressit caelum, sed eo magis acrem
inritat animi virtutem, effringere ut arta
naturae primus portarum claustra cupiret.
Ergo vivida vis animi pervicit, et extra
processit longe flammantia moenia mundi
atque omne immensum peragravit mente animoque,
unde refert nobis victor quid possit oriri,
quid nequeat, finita potestas denique cuique
quanam sit ratione atque alte terminus haerens.
Quare religio pedibus subiecta vicissim
obteritur, nos exaequat victoria caelo.
When human life lay low, crushed by superstition, revealed from heaven, threatening
mortals, first a Greek stood opposed, whom neither gods nor lightning intimidated, the more his
heart stood firm to shatter the bolts. His mind
conquered and examined flaming walls of the
world and the entire universe, whence he returns to tell how things are
formed, what powers
each has. what end each has. Superstition is now cast down and we are exalted to the sky.
Religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta:
Superstition urges foul deeds: as at
83-6
Aulide quo pacto Triviai virginis aram
Aulis where at Diana's altar the
Greek
Iphianassai turparunt sanguine foede
leaders sacrificed Iphigenia in foul
blood.
ductores Danaum delecti, prima virorum.
tantum religio potuit suadere malorum
Such evil superstition could
urge!
101
Nunc ratio nulla est restandi, nulla facultas,
no way to resist since fear death
110-1
aeternas quoniam poenas in morte timendum.
unde anima atque animi constet natura videndum nature of mind
131
multa novis verbis
many things with new words
138
terrorem animi...naturae species ratioque
Nature and reasoning end fear.
146-8
Nullam rem e nilo gigni divinitus umquam.
nothing from nothing divinely
150
omnia quando paulatim crescunt
188-9
multis communia corpora rebus...verbis elementa
196-7
nil igitur fieri de nilo posse
205
Huc accedit uti quidque in sua corpora rursum
215-6
Nullius exitium patitur natuea videri.
218
dissoluat natura neque ad nilum interemat res.
248-9
sed omnes
discidio redeunt in corpora materiai.
Tangere enim et tangi, nisi corpus, nulla potest res.
304
Corporibus caecis igitur natura gerit res.
unseen.'
327
Namque est in rebus inane.
330
Quapropter locus est intractus inane vacans.
334
esse in rebus inanae tamen fateare necessest
399
Omnis ut est igitur per se natura duabus
419-20
constitit in rebus; nam corpora sunt inane.
Tum porro si nil esset quod inane vacaret,
520-1
omne foret solidum.
Alternis igitur nimirium corpus inani
524-5
distinctum
nil posse creari
nothing
543-4
de nilo
Nam quidvis citius dissolvi posse videmus
556-7
quam rursus refici.
soldissima materiai corpora
565-6
mollia quae fiunt: aer aqua terra vapores
567
Sunt igitur solida primordia simplicitate.
609
All grow gradually.
atoms to body as letter to word
nothing from nothing
back to elements
no place for extinction
all returns to elements
only body touches
'Nature works by means of bodies
empty space in every body
Thus empty space exists.
empty space in things
all consists of body and void
if no empty space, all solid.
body and void distinct
nothing can be formed from
easier dissolved than restored
elements solid
four elements soft
first elements solid
aliquid superare necesse est incolume
673
Quo referemus enim? Quid nobis certius ipsis
699-700
sensibus esse potest, qui vera ac falsa notemus?
Multa elementa vides multis communia verbis
824
at neque recidere ad nilum res posse neque autem
857-8
crescere de nilo
Scire licet non esse in rebus rs ita mixtas,
894-6
verum semina multimodis inmixta latere
multarum rerum in rebus communia debent.
Extremum porro nullius posse videtur
960-1
esse.
ultimus extremas iaciatque volatile telum
970
Fiet uti nusquam possit consistere finis
982-3
effugiumque fugae prolatet copia semper.
quae corpus inani
1009-10
et quod inane autem est finiri corpore cogit
Nam certe neque consilio primordia rerum
1021-3
ordine se quo quaeque sagaci mente locarunt
nec quos quaeque darent motus pepeigere profecto.
qualibus haec rerum consistit summa creata
1028
Infinita opus est vis undique materiai.
1051
in medium summae quod dicunt omnia niti
1053
nam medium nil esse potest
1070
Nam quaecumque prius de parti corpora deesse
1111-2
constitues, haec rebus erit pars ianua leti.
Something must survive.
what to judge by? only sure senses
letters common to words
nothing to or from nothing
Things are not mixed, but their
seeds are.
always something beyond
Throw a spear at the limit.
no boundary, flight possible
Body and void bind each other.
no design in atoms
eventually fall right
need for infinite matter
All things seek center.
can be no middle
Any place lacking particles is door of
death.
Suave, mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis,
II 1-19
e terra magnum alterius spectare laborem;
non quia vexari quemquamst iucunda voluptas,
Sweet, when we see another
struggling on the sea, not because it
is sweet to see another struggle, but
sed quibus ipse malis careas quia cernere suave est. because we lack these misfortunes.
Suave etiam belli certamina magna tueri
Sweet to observe battles without care.
per campos instructa tua sine parte pericli.
Sweetest to have safe temples with
secure
Sed nil dulcius est bene quam munita tenere
edita doctrina sapientum templa serena,
knowledge, to look down on others
wandering and looking for the path to
despicere unde queas alios passimque videre
to compete in talent, to fight with
errare atque viam palantis quaerere vitae,
to spend day and night seeking riches
life,
nobles,
and
certare ingenio, contendere nobilitate,
noctes atque dies niti praestante labore
ad summas emergere opes rerumque potiri.
O miseras hominum mentes, O pectora caeca!
Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis
to take power.
O miserable minds, blind hearts!
In what gloom and dangers
your
deligitur hoc aevi quodcumquest! Nonne videre
nil aliud sibi naturam latrare, nisi utqui
corpore seiunctus dolor absit, mensque fruatur
iucundo sensu cura semota metuque?
Nec calidae citius decedunt corpore febres,
34-6
textilibus si in picturis ostroque rubenti
iacteris, quam si in plebeia veste cubandum est.
in tenebris vita laboret
54
Nam veluti pueri trepidant atque omnia caecis
life passes! Don't you see that
nature barks this: a body free from
pain and a mind removed from
worry enjoys delight?
No matter what covers
in tenebris metuunt, sic nos in luce timemus
interdum nilo quae sunt metuenda magis quam
quae pueri in tenebris pavitant finguntque futura.
Hunc igitur terrorem animi tenebrasque necessest
non radii solis neque lucida tela diei
discutiant, sed naturae species ratioque.
55-61
et quasi cursores vitai lampada tradunt
79
Nam quoniam per inane vaguntur, cuncta necessest
83-5
aut gravitate sua ferri primordia rerum
fear things no more to be feared and
imagine what will be. Neither rays of
sun nor bright day will drive away
these fears, but law of nature.
aut ictu forte alterius.
Dumtaxat rerum magnarum parva potest res
123-4
exemplare dare et vestigia notitiai.
or chance blow.
Small things reveal big.
fever lasts just as long.
life one long struggle in dark
As boys fear in dark, so we in
light
as runners pass torch of life
Since they wander thru void,
All atoms are carried by own
weight
Quorum omnia causa
174-6
constituisse deos cum fingunt, omnibus rebus
nagno opere a vera lapsi ratione videntur.
nullam rem posse sua vi
185-6
corpoream sursum ferri sursumque meari.
cadit in terras vis falmmea volgo.
215
Omnia quapropter debent per inane quietum
238-9
aeque ponderibus non aequis concita ferri.
paulum inclinare necessest corpora
243-4
ex infinito ne causam causa sequatur
255
Nunc age iam deinceps cunctarum exordia rerum
333-5
qualia sint et quam longe distantia formis
percipe, multigenis quam sint variata figuris.
Sed quia non volgo paria omnibus omnia constant.
337
Invenies tamen inter se differe figuris.
348
usque adeo quiddam proprium notumque requiit
366
Ad sua quisque fere decurrunt ubera lactis.
370
dissimili inter se quaedam volitare figura
380
ut facile agnoscas e levibus atque rutundis
403-4
esse ea quae sensus iucunde tangere possunt
primordia rerum
479-80
finita variare figurarum ratione.
subdola cum ridet placidi pellacia ponti
559
Nec nox ulla diem neque noctem aurora secutatst
578-80
quae non audierit mixtos vagitibus aegris
ploratus mortis comites et funeris atri.
Nec quicquam quod non permixto semine constet.
585
sed quia non volgo paria omnibus omnia constant.
724
When they believe the gods
arranged all for humans, they err
greatly.
Nothing of its own power
moves upward.
commonly bolt hits ground
all carried with equal speed
even though not of equal weight
bodies must incline a little
that cause not follow cause
what kind and how different
in shape and form the beginnings are
commonly not alike
find they differ in shape
seeks her own
run to own type's udder
different shapes as they fly
that you may understand that
round atoms touch us pleasantly
'1st beginnings have finite
number of differing shapes'
sea shows false smile
day and night hear wailing
All have mingled seed
commonly not all like all.
Denique caelesti sumus omnes semine oriundi.
991
Cedit item retro.
999
Sic ipsis in rebus item iam materiai
All from heavenly seed
falls back again.
When motion, order,
1019-22
concursus motus ordo positura figutae
cum permutantur, mutari res quoque debent.
Sed neque tam facilis res ulla est quin ea primum
1026-7
difficilis magis ad credendum constet.
fessus satiate videndi
1038
Nulla erat finis.
1050
hic sit natura factus
1058
hominum geminam prolem
1082
Ipsa sua per se sponte omnia dis agere expers.
1093
omnibus inve locis esse omni tempore praesto
1099
Saeviat exercens telum quod saepe nocentes
1103-4
praeterit exanimatque indignos inque merentes?
Sic igitur magni quoque circum moenia mundi
1144-5
expugnata dabunt labem putrisque ruinas.
Haud, ut opinor, enim mortalia saecla superne
1153-4
aurea de caelo demisit funis in arva.
Iamque caput quassans grandis suspirat arator
1184-94
crebrius, incassum magnum cecidisse laborem,
et cum tempora temporibus praesentia confert
position are changed, thing is also
changed.
nothing so easy that it isn't
praeteritis, laudat fortunas saepe parentis.
Tristis item vetulae vitis sator atque vietae
temporis incusat momen saeclumque fatigat,
cultivator of blasted vine criticizes
his times and grumbles that pious old
times easily supported one on
et crepat antiquum genus ut pietate repletum
perfacile angustis tolerarit finibus aevom,
cum minor esset agri multo modus ante viritim;
nec tenet omnia paulatim tabescere et ire
ad scopulum, spatio aetatis defessa vetusto.
plot, though they had less land; he
does not understand that all decay
and go to the reef of destruction
worn out by the passing years.
difficult to believe.
weary from excess of sight
There is no end.
this (world) made by nature
The double-typed human
does all without help of,gods.
present at all time and place
raging throws weapon and
passes guilty while hitting innocent.
Thus shall collapse the
mighty walls of the world.
Humans were not dropped
from heaven on golden chain.
Plowman regrets labor
worthless, compares times past and
praises fatherís luck. Sadly
the
a small
O tenebris tantis tam clarum extollere lumen
III 1-3
qui primus potuisti inlustrans commoda vitae,
You who first in darkness
raised the light of life, I follow
you.
te sequor.
floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant
11
Apparet divum numen sedesque quietae
18-30
quas neque concutiunt venti nec nubila nimbis
aspergunt neque nix acri concreta pruina
cana cadens violat semperque innubilus aether
integit, et large diffuso lumine ridet.
Omnia suppeditat porro natura neque ulla
res animi pacem delibat tempore in ullo.
At contra nusquam apparent Acherusia templa,
nec tellus obstat quin omnia disipiciantur,
sub pedibus quaecumque infra per inane geruntur.
His ibi me rebus quaedam divina voluptas
percipit atque horror, quod sic natura tua vi
tam manifesta patens ex omni parte retecta est.
et metus ille foras praeceps Acheruntis agendus
37
Extorres idem patria longeque fugati
48-50
conspectu ex hominum, foedati crimine turpi,
afflicted
omnibus aerumnis adfecti denique vivunt.
Convenit adversisque in rebus noscere qui sit.
56
Eripitur persona, manet res.
revealed.
58
caedem caede accumulantes
71
Crudeles gaudent in tristi funere fratris
72-3
et consanguineum mensas odere timentque.
Intereunt partim statuarum et nominis ergo.
78
Est igitur calor ac ventus vitalis in ipso
128-9
corpore qui nobis moribundos deserit artus.
Idque situm media regione in pectoris haeret.
140
Denique concidere ex animi terrore videmus
157-8
as bees sip sweets in glade
The gods and their abodes
appear to me, where neither winds
nor clouds strike nor snow falls;
but bright air surrounds with
laughter. Nature supplies all, mind
is unwearied. Underworld does not
appear even though earth does not
block. Divine delight and shuddering
seizes me, because nature is so
openly revealed.
Dismiss fear of Hell.
Exiled, driven far from men,
befouled with evil crime,
with every woe, yet they live.
Learn worth in trouble.
The mask is ripped off, the man
piling murder on murder
They rejoice in kin's death
and hate and fear brother's table.
Wear out selves for statue.
Heat and breath deserts
limbs at death.
It (mind) centers in heart.
Men fall in mental error.
saepe homines.
hominem totum regere et versare
to guide and steer whole man
164
Principio esse aio persubtilem atque minutis
(mind) is made of fine
179-80
perquam corporibus factum constare.
particles
quoniam fugiens nil ponderis aufert.
takes nothing from weight
230
Nec tamen haec simplex nobis natura putanda est. Soul not single.
231
aura...calor...aer
breath, heat, air
232-3
patrii sermonis egestas
poverty of our language
260
ut nil inpediat dignam dis degere vitam.
We can live worthy of gods.
322
Nam velut infirmo pueri teneroque vagantur
child has weak body, weak
417-8
corpore, sic animi sequitur sententia tenuis.
mind
Claudicat ingenium, delirat lingua, labat mens.
intellect, tongue, mind fail
453
desipit, extentat nervos, torquetur, anhelat
gapes, twitches, twists, gasps
490
At neque transferri sibi partis nec tribui vult
Immortal doesn't shed
517-8
immortale quod est quicquam neque defluere hilum. tears.
Sic anima atque animus per se nil posse videtur.
Mind can do nothing by self.
565
animo male factum...animam liquisse
mind (soul) fails
597-8
vestem relinquere ut anguis
as a snake sheds its skin
614
Haud igitur per se possunt sentire neque esse.
soul can't exist by self
633
et discissa simul cum corpore dissicietur
split with body
639
animas nec leti lege solutas
souls not free from death
687
Haud igitur faciunt animae sibi corpora et artus.
Souls do not make bodies.
737
Denique cur acris violentia triste leonum
why lion fierce, fox wily,
741-2
seminium sequitur, volpes dolus, et fuga cervis
deer given to flight
Quod mutatur enim dissolvitur, interit ergo.
If changes, dissolves and dies.
756
At non sunt immortali ulla pericla.
no dangers for immortals
775
Denique in aethere non arbor, non aequore in alto
784-6
nubes esse queunt nec psices vivere in arvis
nec cruor in lignis neque saxis sucus inesse.
mortale aeterno iungere
800
Nil igitur mors est ad nos.
830
In dubioque fuere utrorum ad regna cadendum
836-7
omnibus humanis esset terraque marique.
Et nunc nil ad nos de nobis attinet.
852
nobis nil esse in morte timendum
866
Proinde ubi se videas hominem indignarier ipsum,
870-4
post mortem fore ut aut putescat corpore posto
aut flammis interfiat malisve ferarum,
Tree not in sky, cloud not in
sea, fish not in field, nor blood in
wood nor sap in rocks.
to yoke mortal to eternal
Death is nothing to us.
in doubt which would rule
Now what before matters not.
nothing to be feared in death
If you see a man resent fate,
he must rot, die by fire or beast,
He speaks falsely with hidden
sting.
scire licet non sincerum sonere atque subesse
caecum aliquem cordi stimulum.
corpus uti volucres lacerent in morte feraeque
880
indignatur se mortalem esse creatum
884
Iam iam non domus accipiet te laeta neque uxor
beast or bird mangle body
resents he was made mortal
No longer wife and sons
894-901
optima, nec dulces occurrent oscula nati
praeripere et tacita pectus dulcedine tangent.
Non poteris factis florentibus esse, tuisque
praesidium. Misero misere aiunt omnia ademit
una dies infesta tibi tot praemia vitae.
Illud in his rebus non addunt: nec tibi earum
iam desiderium rerum super insidet una.
Illud ab hoc igitur quaerendum est, quid sit amari
909-11
tanto opere, ad summum si res redit atque quietem,
cur quisquam aeterno possit tabescere luctu.
Brevis hic est fructus homullis;
914-5
iam fuerit neque post umquam revocare licebit.
Nec sibi enim quisquam tum se vitamque requirit,
919-20
cum pariter mens et corpus sopita quiescunt.
Nec quisquam expergitus exstat,
greet you, no longer live happily,
no longer protect family. One day
took away all human rewards.
Should add: nor any desire for this.
If all ends in rest, why be
bitter in lasting sorrow?
Short pleasure for man;
soon gone, none will recall it.
sleeping don't feel need of
self
No one rises after death.
929-30
frigida quem semel est vitai pausa secuta.
inperfecta tibi elapsast ingrataque vita
958
Cedit enim rerum novitate extrusa vetustas
964-5
semper et ex aliis aliud reparare necessest.
Vitaque mancipio nulli datur, omnibus usu.
971
Hoc igitur speculum nobis natura futuri
974-5
temporis exponit post mortem denique nostram.
atque in eo semper durum sufferre laborem
999
Deinde animi ingratam naturam pascere semper
1003-4
atque explere bonis rebus satiareque numquam
vitai fructibus
1007
Cerberus et Furiae iam vero et lucis egestas,
1011-3
Tartarus horriferos eructans faucibus aestus-qui neque sunt usquam nec possunt esse profecto.
Hic Acherusia fit stultorum denique vita.
1023
nec reperire potes tibi quid sit saepe mali
1050
temporis aeterni quoniam, non unius horae
1073
Denique tanto opere in dubiis trepidare periclis
1076-9
quae mala nos subigit vitai tanat cupido?
Certa quidem finis vitae mortalibus ad stat,
nec devirari letum pote quin obeamus.
Proinde licet quot vis vivendo condere saecla:
1090-4
mors aeterna tamen nilo minus illa manebit;
nec minus ille diu iam non erit, ex hodierno
lumine qui finem vitai fecit, et ille,
mensibus atque annis qui multis occidit ante.
dum percipis omnem
IV. 24-5
naturam rerum ac persentis utilitatem.
esse ea quae rerum simulacra vocamus
130
life slips away unpleasing
Old falls; new rises.
life: not as gift but for use
Mirror shows time after our
death.
to endure hard work for it
To feed ungrateful mind and
never fill and satify it
fruits of life
Cerberus, Furies, no light,
do not exist anywhere.
Fool's life hell on earth.
cannot determine wrong
eternity, not one hour
why drven mad in life?
We must die.
Death for all; all dead same
length of time.
While you learn nature of
things and see its value.
we call them images.
uti tenebras omnis Scherunta rearis
You might think shadows
170-1
liquisse et magnas caeli complesse cavernas.
left hell and filled large caves.
Impendent atrae formidinis ora superne.
black faces of fear hang over us
173
cycni melior canor quam clamor gruum
swan song better than craneís
181
Esse in imaginibus quapropter causa videtur
Images cause vision and w/o
237-8
cernundi neque posse sine his res ulla videri.
them nothing is seen.
ac resilire ab rebus ad aequos reddita flexus
angle reflection equals angle
incidence
347
quasi in ignem lana trahatur
as wool drawn into a flame
376
Proinde animi vitium hoc oculis adfingere noli.
fault of mind, not eye
386
Deinde nil sciri siquis putat, id quoque nescit
If claim not know, do not
469-70
an sciri possit, quoniam nil scire fatetur.
that.
capite ipse sua in statuit vestigia sese
put head in footsteps
472
Invenies primis ab sensibus esse creatam
truth from senses
478-9
notitem veri.
Qui nisi sunt veri, ratio quoque falsa fit omnis.
unless true, all false
485
Humanum genus est avidum nimis auricularum.
humans have itching ears
594
quae movent animum res accipe
learn what stirs mind
722
Tenuis enim mens est et mire mobilis ipsa.
mind fine and mobile
748
Idque petit corpus, mens unde est saucia amore.
body seeks wounded w/love
1048
Sed leviter poenas frangit Venus inter amorem.
Venus breaks pain in love.
1084
flore fruuntur aetatis
enjoy the flower of age
1105-6
in eost Venus ut muliebria conserat arva
Venus to sow woman's field
1107
Usque adeo incerti tabescunt volnere caeco.
pine w/ uncertain wound
1120
alterius sub nutu degitur aetas
One lives at otherís call.
1122
Atque in amore mala haec proprio summeque secundo inveniuntur.
1141-2
'Evils are found in a love that brings possession.'
praetermittas animi vitia omnia
1151
Multimodis igitur pravas turpisque videmus
1155-6
esee in deliciis summoque in honore vigere.
nigra
melichrus
1160
inmunda et fetida
acosmos
caesia
Palladium
1161
nervos et lignea
dorcas
parvula pusillo chariton mia
1162
magna atque inmanis cataplexis plenaque honoris
1163
balba loqui non quit traulizi
1164
muta
pudens
flagrans odiosa loquacula
lampadium
1165
...labosa
philema
1169
nempe hac sine viximus ante
1173
At lacrimans exclusus amator limina saepe
1177-8
floribus et sertis operit.
tu animo tamen omnia possis protrahere in lucem
1188-9
sollicitat spatium decurrere amoris
1196
mutua saepe voluptas vinxit
1202
est communi voluptas
1207
neque utrum superavit eorum nec superatumst
conquered
1229
Nam multum harmoniae Veneris differre videntur.
1248
partu possent ditescere dulci
1253
nam mulier prohibet se concipere atque repugnat
1269
consuetudo concinnat amorem
1283
Overlook her faults.
We turn bad to good.
black
nut-brown
fetid
green-eyed
disordered
an Athena
nervous and wooden gazelle
fat dwarf
a grace
huge virago
stunner
cannot speak ??
dumb
modest
spiteful squib
thick lipped
kissy
lived without her before
Excluded lover adorns door
with flowers.
you can drag to light
rouses him to full course
mutual pleasure enchained
pleasure is for both
neither conquering nor
sexual harmony varies
enriched with sweet child
forbids conception
Habit produces love.
Quis potis est dignum pollenti pectore carmen
V 1-2
condere pro rerum amiestate hisque repertis?
Dicendum est, deus ille fuit, deus, inclute Memmi,
8-10
qui princeps vitae rationem invenit eam quae
nunc appellatur sapientia.
At bene non poterat sine puro pectore vivi.
18
quo neque noster adit quisquam nec barbarus audet
36
quidve superbia spucitia ac petulantia
47
Haec igitur qui cuncta subegerit ex animoque
49-51
expulerit dictis, non armis, nonne decebit
hunc hominem numero divom dignarier esse?
atque omnem rerum naturam pandere dictis
54
fundarit terram caelum mare sidera solem
68-9
lunaique globum
quove modo genus humanum variante loquella
71-2
coeperit inter se vesci per nomina rerum
deos securum agere aevom
82
et dominos acris adsciscunt
87
principio maria ac terras caelumque tuere
92
accidat exitium caeli terraeque futurum
98
tenuis enim natura deum
148
dicere porro hominum causa voluisse parare
156-9
praeclaram mundi naturam proptereaque
adlaudabile opus divum laudare decere
aeternumque putare atque inmortale futurum...
desiperest.
165
Nam gaudere novis rebus debere videtur
170-1
cui veteres obsunt.
Who make song worthy of
nature and discoveries?
a god who found wisdom
good life needs pure heart
where no one goes
what of pride, filth, pettiness
Vanquished all by word not
arms, should he not be regarded as
a god?
to tell the nature of things
has built earth, sky, sea,
stars, sun, and globe of moon
Humans began to speak by
names of things.
Gods lead life without cares
and take cruel masters
guard seas and lands and sky
destruction awaits sky and land
nature of gods thin
To say that the gods have
prepared the world for us and to
make it eternal and immortal..
is to be a fool.
Rejoice in new things who
is offended by old.
Quid potuit novitatis amorem accendere tali?
173
si non ipsa dedit specimen natura creandi
186
Nequaquam nobis divinitus esse paratam
198-9
naturam rerum: tanta stat praedita culpa.
Inde avidam partem montes silvaeque ferarum
201-2
possedere.
Tum porro puer, ut saevis proiectus ab undis
222-7
navita, nudus humi iacet, infans, indigus omni
vitali auxilio, cum primum in hominis oras
nixibus ex alvo matris natura profudit,
vagituque locum lugubri complet, ut aequumst
cui tantum in vita restet trasnire malorum.
Denique non armis opus est, non moenibus altis,
232-4
qui sua tutentur, quando omnibus omnia large
tellus ipsa parit naturaque daedala rerum.
Cum vidam membra ac partis consumpta regigni,
244-6
scire licet caeli quoque item terraeque fuisse
principiale aliquod tempus clademque futuram.
corripuisse rearis
247
Praeterea pro parte sua, quodcumque alit auget,
257
redditur.
inter quasi rumpere
287
Denique non lapides quoque vinci cernis ab aevo,
306-7
non altas turris ruere et putrescere saxa?
Nam quodcumque alias ex se res auget alique,
322-3
deminui debet, recreari, cum recipit res.
habet novitatem summa recensque
330-1
naturast mundi
Aut ex imbribus adsiduis exisse rapaces
341-2
per terras amnes atque oppida coperuisse.
Haud igitur leti praeclusa est ianua caelo
373-5
love of novelty by such?
if nature didn't supply model
World not created divinely:
look at its flaws.
Mountains, forests, beasts
occupy a great part.
Child, as sailor thrown by
waves, naked infant, lacking all aid,
as soon as he is born, wails loudly,
justly given all the evils he will face.
Need no weapons and walls
to protect, since earth bears all.
When I see parts destroyed
and restored, I conclude heavens and
earth have beginning and end
beg the question
Whatever increased is returned.
'as it were to break' (tmesis)
Stones, towers, rocks fail.
Increase other, decrease self.
world is new
or storms crush land & town
Door of death open for sky,
nec soli terraeque neque altis aequoris undis,
sed patet immani et vasto respectat hiatu.
hominum multos quando obruit undis
412
Atque omnis mundi quasi limus in imum
496-7
confluxit gravis et subsedit funditus ut faex.
Usque adeo magni refert quid quaeque queat res.
545
Quantaque quantast, hinc nobis videatur in alto.
584
Conseque quoque iam redeunt ex ordine certo.
679
Crescere itemque dies licet et tabescere noctes,
680-1
et minui luces, cum sumant augmina noctes.
Luna potest solis radiis percussa nitere.
705
Principio genus herbarum viridiemque nitorem
783-5
terra dedit circum collis camposque per omnis,
florida fulserunt viridanti prata colore.
Nam neque de caelo cecidisse animalia possunt
793-4
nec terrestria de salsis exisse lacunis.
Cum peperit, dulci repletur lacte.
814
ut mulier spatio defessa vetusto
827
Omnia migrant;
830-1
omnia commutat natura et vertere cogit.
Nec potuere cupitum aetatis tangere florem
847-8
nec reperire cibum nec iungi per veneris res.
feminaque ut maribus coniungi possit
853
Principio genus acre leonum saevaque saecla
862-4
tutast virtus, volpes dolus et fuga cervos.
At levisomna canum fido cum pectore corda...
omnia sunt hominum tutelae tradita.
867
indupedita suis fatalibus omnia vinclis
876
Nam saepe etiam nunc
sun, earth, and sea.
Waves crushed humans.
All mud settled to bottom as
dregs.
'So important what each does.'
(moon) exactly as seen
return in fixed order
Days and nights may vary.
Moon shines by sun's rays.
First earth produced various
plants and meadows shone.
Neither animals from sky
nor beasts from salt ponds.
Giving birth, filled with milk.
like woman worn out by age
All move and change.
Neither attain flower nor
food nor sexual pleasure.
Female and male may join.
Lion by courage, fox by
deer by flight protected;
Faithful dog protected by humans.
impeded by own fatal chains
Even then seek milky breast.
884-5
ubera mammarum in somnis lactantia quaeret.
Quippe videre licet pinguescere saepe cicuta
goats fat on hemlock,
899-900
barbigeras pecudes, homini quae est acre venenum. a poison for man
aurea tam dicat per terras flumina vulgo
rivers of gold and jeweled
911-2
fluxisse, et gemmis florere arbusta suesse
shrubs
Nec robustus erat curvi moderator aratri
No plowman, no iron worker,
933-8
quisquam, nec scibat ferro mollirier arva
no pruner; what sun, rain, and land
nec nova defodere in terram virgultambeque altis produced sufficed as gift.
arboribus veteres decidere falcibus ramos.
Quod sol atque imbres dederant, quod terra crearat
sponte sua, satis id placabat donum.
pabula dura tulit, miseris mortalibus ampla
hardy, ample for wretched
944
Necdum res igni scibant tractare neque uti
Not yet know to use fire
953-65
pellibus et spoliis corpus vestire ferarum,
nor clothing, but inhabited groves
sed nemora atque cavos montis silvasque colebant, and forest, ate nuts, hid in caves
et frutices inter condebant squalida membra
to avoid storms.
verbera ventorum vitare imbrisque coacti.
Nec commune bonum poterant spectare, neque ullis no common laws and habits
moribus inter se scibant nec legibus uti,
quod cuique obtulerat praedae fortuna, ferebat
took what fortune gave, each learns
sponte sua sibi quisque valere et vivere doctus.
to grow and live. They joined bodies
Et Venus in silvis iungerat corpora amantum.
by mutual lust or male force
or
Conciliabat enim vel mutua quamque cupido
vel violenta viri vis atque inpensa libido
vel pretium, glandes atque arbita vel pira lecta.
quod saecla ferarum
982-3
infestam miseris faciebant saepe quitem.
viva videns vivo sepeliri viscera busto
993
Una dies dabat exitio, nec turbida ponti
1000
aequora lidebant navis ad saxa virosque;
tum temere in cassum frustra mare saepe coortum
saevibat leviterque minas ponebat inanis,
nec poterat quemquam placidi pellacia ponti
subdola pellicere in fraudem ridentibus undis:
improba navigii ratio tum caeca iacebat.
Tum penuria deinde cibi languentia leto
bribery: nuts and pears.
Beasts made rest a peril.
'living flesh...in living tomb'
one day not kill many on sea
Seaís threats idle; none sailed.
Lack of food killed, now excess.
Then poisoned unwittingly, now
aware.
membra dabat, contra nunc rerum copia mersat.
Illi inprudentes ipsi sibi saepe venenum
vergebant, nunc se perdunt sollertius ipsi.
1010
et mulier coniuncta viro concessit in unum
married to one (house)
1012
Tum genus humanum primum mollescere coepit. race then softened
1014
finitimi inter se nec laedere nec violari
joined to not harm each
1020
At varios linguae sonitus natura subegit mittere
compelled to utter sounds
1028-9
Sentit enim vis quisque suas quoad possit abuit.
each feels use of his power
1033
nec ratione docere ulla suadereque surdis
not easy to teach deaf
1052
Ergo si varii sensus animalia cogunt,
animals compelled to utter;
1087-0
muta tamen cum sint, varias emittere voces,
more so mortals to indicate things
quanto mortalis magis aequumst tum potuisse
by voice.
dissimilis alia atque alia res voce notare!
fulmen detulit in terram mortalibus ignem
lightning gave fire to men
1092
ingenio praetabant et corde vigebant
great talent and strong mind
1107
divitiae grandes homini sunt vivere parce aequo animo
rich to live on little
1117-8
et placidam possent opulenti degere vitam
rich to live calm life
1122
Et tamen e summo, quasi fulmen, deicit ictos
Like a bolt envy strikes him
1125-6
invidia interdum contemptum in Tartara taetra.
down to foul Tartarus.
Nam cupide conculcatur nimis ante metutum.
eager to trod what feared
1140
Sponte sua cecidit sub leges artaque iura.
submit to laws
1147
metus maculat poenarum praemia vitae
fear taints prizes
1151
Nec facilest placidam ac pacatam degere vitam
hard for wrongdoer to live
1154-5
qui violat factis communia foedera pacis.
peacefully
quae causa deum per magnas numina gentis pervulgarit
spread worship
1161
fortunisque ideo longe praestare putabant,
thought selves happiest
1179-0
quod mortis timor huad quemquam vexaret eorum. because did not fear death
et illorum nutu facere omnia flecti
to suppose they did all
1187
O genus infelix humanum, talia divis
unlucky race, to assign such
1194-7
cum tribuit facta atque iras adiunxit acerbas!
deeds and angers to the gods!
Quantos tum gemitus ipsi sibi, quantaque nobis
what misfortunes for us and those to
volnera, quas lacrimas peperere minoribus nostris! come
votis nectere vota
link vow to vow
1202
res humanas vis abdita quaedam obterit
hidden power wears us down
1233-4
atque potestates magnas mirasque relinquunt
grant power to gods to rule
1239-0
in rebus viris divum, quae cuncta gubernent
aes atque aurum ferrumque repertumst
copper, gold, iron, silver,
1241-2
et simul argenti pondus plumbique potestas
and lead were discovered
haec liquefacta calore
melted and shaped
1262-3
quamlibet in formam et faciem decrurrere rerum
Quod fuit in pretio fit nullo denique honore.
What was valuable now is worthless.
1274
sic volvenda aetas commutat tempora rerum
Time changes seasons.
1276
Posterius ferri vis est aerisque reperta.
power of iron and bronze last
1286
horribile humanis quod gentibus esset in armis
horrid for man in battle
1306
turbabant saevi nullo discrimine turmas
in mad rush without order
1314
Nexilis ante fuit vestis quam textile tegmen.
plait before weave
1350
opere in duro durarent membra manusque
hard work hardened body
1360
frusctusque feros mansuescere terra
wild tamed by tillage
1368-9
cernebant indulgendo blandeque colendo
tum ioca, tum sermo, tum dulces esse cacchinnni consuerant
free time
1397
Nam quod adest praesto, nisi quid cognovimus ante current pleases until novelty
1412-3
suavius, in primis placet et poller videtur.
Sic odium coepit glandis, sic illa relicta
acorns and old beds deserted
1416-7
strata cubilia sunt herbis et frondibus aucta.
Tunc igitur pelles, nunc aurum et purpura curis
Pelts and gold troubled men.
1424-5
exercent hominum vitam belloque fatigant.
Iam validis saepti degebant turribus aevom,
1440-5
et divisa colebatur discretaque tellus.
Tum mare velivolis florebat navibus altum,
auxilia ac socios iam pacto foedere habebant,
Men lived fenced in with
towers and earth divided. Ships
filled the sea; treaties made friends,
when poets sang of great
deeds,
carminibus cum res gestas coepere poetae
tradere; nec multo prius sunt elementa reperta.
usus et impigrae simul experientia mentis
1452
letters having been recently made.
solacia dulcia vitae
VI 4
veridico ex ore
6
vitium vas efficere ipsum
17
cetera quae fieri in terris caeloque tuentur mortales
50-1
non quo violari summus deum vis possit
71
fieri divino numine rentur
91
te duce ut insigni capiam cum laude coronam
95
Ut calidis candens ferrum e fornacibus olim
148-9
stridit, ubi in gelidum propter demersimus imbrem.
semper ad auris tardius adveniunt quam visum
165-6
Ignis enim sunt haec non venti signa neque imbris.
222
celeri flamma
224
supera nostrum caput
262
ventis atque ignibus omnia plena
269
omnino natura pondere deorsum omnia nituntur
335
crescit eundo
342
Dissolvit porro facile aes aurumque repente
352-3
sweet delights of life
use and experiment of mind
from truth-telling mouth
'pot itself made the flaw'
all men see on earth and sky
high power not to be insulted
think done by divinity
you leading I take crown
Just as gleaming iron hisses,
when dipped in cold water.
slower to ear than eye
marks of fire, not wind or rain
with quick flame
above our heads
all full of wind and fire
all push downward
It grows by going.
easily melts bronze and gold
confervefacit.
Cur quibus incautum scelus aversabile cumquest
390-7
non faciunt icti flammas ut fulfuris halent
pectore perfixo, documen mortalibus acre,
et potius nulla sibi turpi conscius in re
volvitur in flammas innoxius unque peditur
turbine caelesti subito correptus et igni?
Cur etiam loca sola petunt frustraque laborant?
An tum bracchia consuescunt firmantque lacertos?
Consimili ratione ex omnibus amnibus umor
506-7
tollitur in nubis.
bene cognoris elementis reddita quae sint
534
frigus uti nostros penitus cum venit in artus
594
magnam sol partem detrahit aestu
616
Nunc ratio quae sit, per fauces montis ut Aetnae
639-41
expirent ignes interdum turbine tanto,
expediam.
Forsitan Aethiopum penitus de montibus altis
735-7
crescat, ubi in campos albas decedere ningues
Why innocent punished and
and guilty struck down?
Why vainly strike deserts?
practice arms and stregthen muscles
water raised to clouds
qualities belong to elements
when cold pierces limbs
sun draws off much w/ heat
explain volcanoes
Perhaps in grows from high
mountains of Ethiopeia, when
sun
tabificis subigit radiis sol omnia lustrans.
snow.
multa, cibo quae sunt, vitalia, multaque, morbos
many bring life, many death
771
perire in tempore parvo
die in a short time
813
effluat ambrosiam qasi vero et nectare tinctus
as if flowing with nectar
971
insatiabiliter toti ut volvantur ibidem
to always roll in it (mud)
978
Nunc ratio quae sit morbis, aut unde repente
1090-3
mortiferam possit cladem conflare coorta
morbida vis hominum generi pecudeumque catervis,.
exoediam.
I'll explain how diseases develop and how
they harm animals and man.
Inde aliis alius locus es tinimicus
1117-8
partibus ac membris
different places dangerous to
different limbs
aer inimicus serpere coepit
hostile air begins to crawl
1120
clades nova pestilitasque
new palgue or disease
1125
Haec ratio quondam morborum et mortifer aestus
1138-0
finibus in Cecropis funestos reddidit agros
vasravitque vias, exhausit civibus urbem.
Disease once devasted Athens and
the city lost men.
Inde catervatim morbo mortique dabantur.
Many fell of disease.
1144
morbida vis in cor maestum confluxerat aegris
Disease flooded mind.
1152
spiritus ore foras taetrum volvebat odorem
Mouth spewed foul odor.
1154
Flagrabat stomacho flamma ut fornacibus intus.
inner flame like furnace
1169
In fluvios partim gelidos ardentia morbo
1172-3
membra dabant nudum iacientes corpus in undas. Many threw themselves naked into
cold rivers.
nec requies erat ulla mali
no respite
1177
perturbata animi mens in maerore metuque
mind disturbed by fear
1183
rigida artus morte iacebant
limbs rigid with death
1196
ferro privati parte virile
cut off manly part
1209
multaque humi inhumata corpora super corporibus bodies piled on bodies
1215
Incomitata rapi certabant funera vasta.
Funerals vied with speed.
1225
deficiens animo maesto cum corde iacebat
giving up lay down
1233
Nec poterat quisquam reperiri, quem neque morbus All suffered in some way.
1250-1
nec mors nec luctus temperaret tempore tali.
exanimis pueris super exanimata parentum corpora lifeless parent on dead child
1257
Nec iam religio divom nec numina magni pendebantur.
worship disregarded
1276-7
Multa res subita et paupertas horrida suasit;
1282-6
namque suos consanguineos aliena rogorum
insuper extructa ingenti clamore locabant
subdebantque faces, multo cum sanguine saepe
rixantes potius quam corpora deserentur.
Poverty caused dreadful acts. They laid bodies on foreign tombs and fought not to
abandon bodies.
Basic information about Caesar:
Gaius Julius Caesar: 100-44 BC, heavy spending aedile, elected pontifex maximus in 63,
praetor 61 in Spain,
fromed First triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey, elected consul for 59 BC,
radical agenda,
assigned Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum as his province, fighting in Gaul 58-50 BC,
De Bello Gallico,
attempts at compromise with Pompey fail, Civil Wars his De Bello Civili, both
written in third person
wars in Gaul: 58 vs Helvetii and Ariovistus, 2 invasions of Germany and Britain
civil war battles: Ilerda, Pharsalus, Zela, Thapsus, Munda affair with Cleopatra
from Caesar's Bellum Gallicum:
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres.
all Gaul divided into 3 parts
I1
Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae.
Belgae are the bravest
Apud Helvetios nobilissimus fuit Orgetorix.
Orgetirix was most noble of Swiss.
2
Is coniurationem nobilitatis fecit et civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis exirent.
He made a conspiracy of the nobility and persuaded the citizens to leave the country.
Constituerunt ea quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent compare.
to gather supplies
Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur.
Orgetorix chosen to do these things.
Ea res est Helvetiis per indicium enuntiata.
Swiss informed by informer
4
Orgetorix mortuus est.
Orgetorix was dead.
reditionis spe sublata paratiores ad omnia pericula no return, more prepared
5
Erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo exire possent:
two routes to leave
6
unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile.
one through
Sequani, narrow and difficult
alterum, per provinciam nostram, multo facilius
other through our province, much
easier
Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, eos per provinciam nostram iter facere conari,
7
maturat ab urbe proficisci et...in Galliam ulteriorem contendit et ad Genavam pervenit.
When Caesar was told that the Swiss were trying to march through our province, he
hastened from the city to farther
Gaul and came to Geneva.
Pontem qui erat ad Genevam iubet rescindi.
ordered bridge to be chopped down
concedendum non putabat
He thought he should not agree.
Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via.
one route left through Sequani
9
magno cum periculo provinciae
province in great danger
10
Ei munitioni T. Labienum legatum praefecit.
He put Labienus in charge of fort.
Helvetii in Aeduorum fines pervenerant eorumque agros populabantur.
11
The Swiss had entered the teritory of the Aedui and were devastating their fields.
sive casu sive consilio deorum immortalium
whether by chance or gods' plans
12
Eos impeditos et inopinantes adgressus magnam partem eorum concidit.
He attacked them hindered and unsuspecting and killed many.
Helvetii legatos ad eum mittit.
Swiss sent envoys to him.
13
magis virtute quam dolo
by courage not trickery
uti obsides accipere, non dare
to take not give hostages
14
Diviciaci studium, voluntatem, fidem, isutitiam
Diviacus showed virtues
19
rei frumenariae prospiciendum existimavit
thought to care for grain
23
interim in colle medio tripilicem aciem instruxit.
placed troops on hill
24
ut aequo omnium periculo spem fugae tolleret
removed horses so equal
danger
25
Ancipiti proelio diu et acriter pugnatum est.
long and fierce battle
26
Aversum hostem videre nemo potuit.
no enemy turned in flight
Ibi Orgetorigis filia atque unus e filiis captus est. relatives of Orgetorix captured
Ipse cum omnibus copiis eos sequi coepit.
followed with all troops
Obsides, arma, servos qui ad eos perfugisset poposcit.
demanded arms, slaves
27
Ne propter bonitatem agrorum Germani transirent lest Germans cross to fertile fields
28
qui numerus domo exisset eorum, qui arma ferre possent # left, # soldiers
29
Summa erat capitum Helvetiorum milia CCLXIII.
263,000 Swiss
Summa omnium fuerunt ad milia CCCLXVIII.
total of 368,000
qui domum redierunt...repertus est numerus milium C et X 110,000 survivors
non minus ex usus Galliae quam populi Romani
as useful for Gaul
30
ab Arvernis Sequanisque Germani arcesserentur
Both summoned Germans.
31
superbe et crudeliter imperare
Ariovistus ruled cruelly and
haughtily.
hominem esse barbarum, iracundum, temerarium barbaric, angry, bold
turpissimum sibi et rei publicae
disgrace to self and country
33
tantam arrogantiam susmpserat
had acted arrogantly
in sua Gallia quam bello vicisset
in his conquered France
34
obsides quos haberet ab Aeduis traduceret
return Aeduan hostages
35
ius esse belli...imperarent
right of law to rule
36
belli fortunam temptassent
had tried test of war
magnam Caesarem iniuriam facere
Caesar was harming him.
neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse
Any who fought him suffered.
Magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum contendit.
hurried to Ariovistus
37
subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit
fear seized army
39
ex urbe amicitiae causa Caesarem secuti
followed Caesar for friendship
neque propter timorem signa laturos
not advance because of fear
aequitate condicionum
fairness of terms
40
nuper in Italia servili tumultu
recent slave revolt in Italy
quantum haberet in se boni constantia
value of steadiness
suam innocentiam perpetua vita
my perpetual innocence
cum sola decima legione iturum
advance with only tenth legion
Planities erat magna et in ea tumulus terrenus.
plain with earthen mound
43
ne aut Aeduis bellum inferret
must not war on Aedui
de suis virtutibus multa praedicavit
said much about own quality
44
rogatum et arcessitum a Gallis
They asked him to come.
non sese Gallis sed Gallos sibi bellum intulisse
They fought him.
amicitiam populi Romani sibi praesidio
Roman friendship a protection
provinciam suam hanc esse Galliam sicut illam nostram
this France was his province
as that France was ours
sese ilum non pro amico, sed hoste habiturum
Caesar not as friend, but enemy
Primam et secundam aciem in armis esse, tertiam castra munire iussit.
49
He ordered the first and second lines to stand at arms, the third to build camp.
uti eos testes suae quisque virtutis haberet
that each might have witness
52
Reiectis pilis comminus gladiis pugnatum est.
fought
at close hand
Crassus adulescens tetiam aciem laborantibus nostris subsidio misit.
The youth Crassus sent the third line to aid our struggling men.
Caesar una aestate duobus maximis bellis confectis maturius paulo quam tempus
54
anni postulabat in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum deduxit.
Hibernis Labienum
praeposuit; ipse in citeriorem Galliam ad conventus agendos profectus est.
After finishing two major wars, Caesar a bit early sent an army to the Sequani. He put
Labienus in charge of the
winter quarters and set out for nearer Gaul to hold court.
omnes Belgas contra populum Romanum coniurare Belgae were conspiring.
II 1
Diebus...quindecim ad fines Belgarum pervenit.
went to Belgium in fifteen days
2
celerius omni opinione
faster
than they thought
3
Remi ad eum legatos miserunt.
Remi sent envoys to him.
in fidem atque in potestatem populi Romani
into Roman faith and power
propter loci fertilitatem
because of fertility
4
Caesar...proelio supersedere statuit.
decided to avoid battle
8
rerum omnium magister usus
practice, the teacher of all
quisque primum itineris locum peteret
each looking for a place
11
Aeduos ab Caesare in servitutem reductos
Aedui have been made slaves.
14
nihil pati vini
allowed no wine
15
Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda.
all had to be done at once
20
scientia atque usus militum
knowledge and training of soldiers
Adversis hostibus occurrebant et rursus in aliam partem fugam petebant.
24
(cavalry) They met the enemy head on and tried to flee in anpther direction.
Romanos pulsos superatosque
that the Romans were defeated
signifero interfecto, signo amisso
bearer killed, sign lost
25
in primam aciem processit centurionibusque nominatim appellatis
He went to the first line and called the centurions by name.
Labienus decimam legionem subsidio nostris misit. Labienus sent tenth legion to help.
26
Hostes tantam virtutem praestiterunt.
enemy showed great courage
27
gente ac nomine Nerviorum redacto
race and name of destroyed
28
in unum oppidum egregie natura munitum
put all in well-dfended town
29
homines tantulae staturae
such short men
30
a viris fortibus in extrema spec salutis
hope of safety in brave men
33
Eius oppidi universam Caesar vendidit.
Caesar sold whole town.
omni Gallia pacata
all Gaul pacified
35
Legionibus in hibernacula deductis in Italiam profectus est. Ob easque res ex litteris
Caesaris dies quindecim
supplicatio decreta est.
Caesar led his legions to winter quarters and set out for Italy. fifteen days' thanks granted
perpetuae possessionis culmina Alpium occupare to seize Alps' peaks
III 2
consilio celeriter convocato sententias exquirere
call assembly, ask opinion
3
eruptione facta
sally made
6
commutata fortuna
fortune changed
omnibus eius vici aedificiis incensis
all buildings of town burned
Caesar pacatam Galliam existimaret, in Illyricum Gaul pacified, went to Illyricum.
7
auctoritas omnis orae
authority over all shores
8
ut sunt Gallorum subita et repentina consilia
sudden shifty plans
in ea libertate permanere quam Romanorum servitutem
liberty, not slavery
Ipse ad exercitum contendit.
Caesar hastened to army.
9
se plurimum navibus posse
They had sea power.
Erant hae difficultates belli gerendi.
10
omnes fere Gallos novis rebus studere
quod nostrae naves tempestatibus detinebantur
12
frustra tantum laborem sumi
14
falces praeacutae insertae adfixaeque longuriis
Fuga salutem petere contenderunt.
15
Omni senatu necato reliquos sub corona vendidit.
16
Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt.
want to.
18
non mediocrem sibi diligentiam adhibendam
20
Confecti vulneribus hostes terga vertere.
21
se amicitiae dediderun
22
cum Quinto Sertorio
23
Caesar exercitum reduxit et in hibernis collocavit.
28
Conducting war difficult.
All Gauls desired revolution.
our ships delayed by storm
undertook such work vainly
hooks fastened to poles
Hastened to flee safely
Senate killed, others enslaved
Men easily believe what they
exercise good care
Worn out enemy fled.
gave friendship to him
with Quintus Sertorius
Caesar led back army to quarters.
Gnaeo Pompeio Marco Crasso consulibus
Pompey and Crassus consuls
IV 1
Sueborum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Germanorum omium
The Suebi were by far the greatest and most warlike of the Germans
lavantur in fluminibus
bathe in rivers
vinum ad se omnino importati non sinunt.
do n ot permit import of wine
2
Multum ad eos mercatores ventitant.
Often merchants visit them.
3
infirmitatem Gallorum
French fickleness
5
cum incertis rumorinus serviant
since slaves to uncertain rumors
Maturius quam consuerat ad exercitum proficiscitur.
went early to army
6
Bellum cum Germanis gerere constituit.
He decided to
fight the Germans.
venisse invitos, eiectos domo
came unwilling, expelled from home
sibi nullam cum his amicitiam esse posse, si in Gallia remanerent
8
that he could have no friendship with them, if they stayed in France
Impetu facto celeriter nostros perturnaverunt.
attacked and shocked our men
12
Frater...se hostibus obtulit atque interfectus est.
rushed enemy and was killed
cognita Gallorum infirmitate
noting French fickleness
13
et perfidia et simulatione
with treachery and pretence
sibi Carsar oblatos gavisus illos retineri iussit.
glad he ordered them held
Prius ad hostium castra pervenit quam quid ageretur Germani sentire possent.
14
He arrived before the Germans knew it.
numerus capitum CCCCXXX milium
460,000
15
Germanico bello confecto...Caesar statuit sibi Rhenum esse traneundem.
16
After he finished the German war, Caesar decided to cross the Rhine.
populi Romani imperium Rhenum finire
Roamn power ended at Rhine
difficultas faciendi pontis
difficulty of building bridge
17
Diebus decem omni opere confecto exercitus traditur.
led army over in ten days
18
Se in Galiam recepit pontemque rescidit.
returned and destroyed bridge
19
exigua parte aestatis reliqua
small part of summer left
20
hostibus nostris inde sumministrata auxilia
aid to enemy from there
exploratis omnibus rebus ad se quam primum revertatur
explore and return
21
cuius et virtutem et consilium probabat
approved his
courage
tantularum rerum
trivialities
22
Britanniam attigit
reached Britain
23
aperto ac plano litore naves constituit
beached ships on level shore
praemiso equitatu et essedariis
sent cavalry and charioteers
24
simil desiliendum, consistendum, pugnandum
at one time jump, stand, fight
Desilite, milites, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prodere.
Jump unless give up.
25
Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter.
both
sides fought fiercely
26
Nostri, simul in arido constiterunt, eos in fugam dederunt. landed and routed enemy
Ignoscere imprudentiae dixit obsidesque imperavit. pardon and demand hostages
27
Tanta tempestas subito coorta est ut nulla earum cursum tenere posset.
28
So great a storm arose that not one ship was able to hold course.
luna plena...maritimos aestus maximos
full moon, high tides
29
XII navibus amissis
twelve ships lost
31
Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae.
chariot fight is such
33
Brevi tempore intermisso in castra legiones reduxit. led troops back to camp
34
Nostrorum militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt ac terga verterunt.
35
They enemy was not able to withstand our attack and fled.
Numerum obsidum duplicavit eosque in continetem adduci iussit.
36
He doubled the number of hostages and ordered they be delivered to the continent.
Omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt.
All reached the continent safely.
Caesar postero die Titum Labienum legatum cum eis legionibus in Morinos misit.
38
Caesar sent Titus Labienus with those legions into the territory of the Morini.
Caesar in Belgis omnium legionum hiberna constituit. Eo duae omnino civitates ex
Britannia obsides miserunt, reliquae neglexerunt. His rebus gestis, ex litteris Caesaris dierum
viginti supplicatio a senatu decreta est.
Caesar placed his soldiers in the teritory of the Belgae for the winter. Two tribes from
Britain sent hostages; the
others declined. For these deeds from the letters of Caesar
a thanksgiving of twnety days was decreed by the senate.
uti quam plurimas possent hieme naves aeificandas ordered many ships be built
V1
In citeriorem Galliam revertitur atque inde ad exercitum proficiscitur.
2
He returned to near France and there hurried to his army.
circiter milium passuum XXX transmissum a continenti
passage of thirty miles
Duo de principatu inter se contendebant.
Two competed for power.
3
quod, cum ipse abesset, motum Galliae verbatur
feared revolt in his absence
5
Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix Aeduus.
Among others
was Dumnorix, the Aeduan.
6
Tandem idoneam nactus tempestatem milites equitatesque conscendere in naves iubet.
7
Finally with good weather he ordered the soldiers to climb aboard the ships.
Saepe clamitans liberum esse.
He often shouted that he was a free
man.
Illi circumsistunt hominem et interficiunt.
They surround and kill him.
Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus meridiano fere tempore neque in eo loco
hostis est visus.
8
They arrived at mid day and saw no enemy.
A litore discesserant ac se in superiora loca abdiderant.
withdrew and hid
Eadem fere quae ex nuntiis litterisque cognoverat coram perspicit.
11
He personally saw virtually what he had been told.
navibus reliquae tamen refici posse
other ships could be repaired
pecorum magnus numerus
a great number of cattle
12
loca temperatiora, remissioribus frigoribus
more temperate places, cold reduced
Insula natura triquetra, cuius unum latus est contra Galliam. The island of Britain is
tirangular.
13
Hibernia dimidio minor
Ireland, half the size
Interiores plerique frumenta non serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt pellibusque sunt
14
vestiti. Omnes vero se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod caeruleum efficit colorem atque hos
horridiores sunt in pugna
aspectu. Those in the interior do not sow grain, but live on milk
and meat and clothe themeselves with hides. All the
Britons stain themselves with woad,
which produces a blue color and renders them horrid in war.
praecipites hostes egerunt magnoque eorum numero interfecto
enemy routed and
killed
17
Caesar ad flumen Tamesim exercitum duxit.
Caesar led army to the Thames River
18
Multi in fuga sunt comprehensi atque interfecti.
many captured and killed.
21
Duobus commeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. to carry army
in two trips
23
Terram attigit omnesque incolumes naves perduxit. reached land and saved ships
legionibus in plures civitates distribuere
place his legions among more tribes
24
initium repentini tumultus ac defectionis ortum
disorder and
revolt arose
26
non facile Gallos Gallis negare potuisse
not easily Gaul rejected Gaul
27
nihil temere agendum
nothing should be done rashly
28
brevem consulendi esse occasionem
short time to plan
29
Vincite, inquit, si ita vultis.
Conquer, if you wish.
30
Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus.
Finally Cotta yielded.
31
collocatis insidiis bipertito in silvis
double ambush in forest
32
in appellandis cohortandisque militibus imperatoris et in pugna militis officia
33
in urging the soldiers the duty of a commander, in the battle the duty of a soldier
summo timore er desperatione
with greatest fear and
desperation
Erant et virtute et studio pugnandi pares.
equal in courage and fighting
34
Paulatim cicumventus interficitur.
surrounded and killed
37
Mittuntur ad Caesarem ab Cicerone litterae.
Cicero sent letters to Caesar
40
omnem esse in armis Galliam
that all Gaul was in arms
41
non esse consuetudinem populi Romani accipere ab hoste armato condicionem
that the Roman people did not accept terms from an armed enemy
omes acerrime fortissimeque pugnarent
all fought very fiercely and bravely
43
Aut quem locum tuae probandae virtutis exspectas? Cicero sent letters to Caesar
44
Succurrit inimicus illi Vorenus et laboranti subvenit.
enemy assisted
Servo spe libertatis magnisque persuadet praemiis ut litteras ad Caesarem deferat.
45
By a promise of freedom and great rewards he persuaded a slave to deliver a letter to
Caesar.
Gallus inter Gallos sine ulla suspicione versatus ad Caesarem pervenit.
Not suspected as a Gaul he came to Caesar.
Tamen unum communis salutis auxilium in celeritate ponebat.
He thought speed was
their only safety.
48
quantoque in periculo res sit
how dangerous things were
Haec casu ad turrim adhaesit neque ab nostris biduo animadversa tertio die a quodam
milite conspicitur.
Note stuck in tower was found three days later.
Equitatu emisso celeriter hostes in fugam dat.
drove enemy into flight
51
Eodem die ad Ciceronem pervenit.
He
came to Cicero the same day.
52
Quod tanti motus Galliae...totam hiemem ipse ad exercitum manere decrevit.
53
Because of the general uprising he decided to stay with his army the entire winter.
praeter Aeduos et Remos
except the Aedui and the Remi
54
Neque tamen ulli civitati Germanorum persuaderi potuit ut Rhenum transiret.
55
No German tribe could be persuaded to cross the Rhine.
Armatum concilium indicit.
He declared an armed assembly.
56
et loci natura et manu munitissimis castris
a camp fortified by place and hand
57
unum omnes peternt Indutiomarum
all should attack Indutiomarus only
58
In ipso fluminis vado deprehensus Indutiomarus interficitur.
Captured at the shoal
Indutiomarus was killed.
Habuit post id factum Caesar quietiorem Galliam. Thus Caesar found Gaul calm.
Multis de causis Caesar maiorem Galliae motum exspectans
greater uprising
VI 1
Pompeius et rei poblicae et amicitia tribuisset
Pompey for service and friend
Ambiorigem sibi societate et foedere adiungunt.
Allied Ambiorex with them
2
Nervios, Aduatucos esse in armis
Nervii and Atuatuci were armed
Maturius sibi de bello cogitandum putavit.
needed to plan early campaign
In deditionem venire atque obsides sibi dare coegit. forced them to surrender
3
Concilium Lutetiam Parisiorum transfert.
moved meeting to Paris
Eodem die cum legionibus in Senones proficiscitur. with legions went to Senones
Libenter Caesar petentibus Aeduis dat veniam.
Caesar willingly pardoned the Aedui
4
Treveri Labienum adoriri parabant.
Treveri ready to attack Labienus.
7
sperans temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimicandi facultatem
rashly hoping for
chance to attack
Erat inter Labienum atque hostem difficili transitu flumen. river difficult to cross
Celeriter nostri clamore sublato pila in hostes immitunt.
javelins at enemy
8
Quos Labienus equitatu consectatus
chased them
with cavalry
Caesar Rhenum transire constituit.
Caesar decided to cross Rhine.
9
quod auxilia contra se Treveris miserant
had sent aid to Treveri vs Caesar
magno militum studio
great eagerness of soldiers
innocentes pro nocentibus poenas pendant
innocent punished with guilty
Castris idoneum locum deligit.
He chose suitable place for camp.
10
de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus
about habits of Gauls and Germans
11
suos enim quisque opprimi et circumveniri non patitur
not allow own to be crushed
Alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani. Sequani and Aedui ruled
parties.
12
ut magnam partem clientium ab Aeduis ab se
clients from Aedui to self
adventu Caesaris facta commutatione rerum
Caesar's arrival changed things
ut longe principes haberentur Aedui
Aedui regarded as first by far
Nam plebes paene servorum habetur loco.
plebs regarded as virtual slaves
13
Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. druids and knights
Praeest unus.
One is chief.
Druides a bello abesse consuerunt.
druids not involved in war
14
A parentibus propinquisque mittuntur.
sent by parents and relatives
non interire animas
that souls don't perish
Alterum genus est equitum.
The other type is the knight.
15
Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus. devoted to religion
16
pro vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur
life for a life
circumventi flamma exanimantur homines
men are burned to death
Deum maxime Mercurium colunt.
They especially worship Mercury.
17
Galli se omnes ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant.
all descended from Dis
18
Viri in uxores, sicuti in liberos, vitae necisque habent potestatem.
death power
19
Funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumptuosa. expensive funerals
Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant.
Officials hide what they want.
20
Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt.
Germans different
21
vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris
life in
hunting and fighting
promiscue in fluminibus perluuntur
mix bathe in river
Victus in lacte, caeso, carne consistit.
Their food: milk, cheese, meet.
22
Studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent
substitute farming for war
ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos
avoid cold and heat
cum suas quisque opes opes cum potentissimus aequari videat.
each equal power
Hospitem violare fas non putant.
think it wrong to disgrace guest
23
cum Geranos Galli virtute superarent
when Gauls were more courageous
24
summam habet iustitiae et bellicae laudis opinionembetter in war
in eadem inopia, egestate, patientia
in same poverty and suffering
paulatim adsuefacti superari
accustomed to losing
Sunt item, quae appellantur alces.
There are elks.
27
Infirmas arbores pondere adfligunt atque una ipsae concidunt.
fall with tree
mansuefieri ne parvuli excepti possunt.
can't be tamed even if young
28
Suebos sese in silvas recepisse
the Suebi had retreated into woods
29
Basilus, ut imperatum est, facit.
Basilus did as ordered.
30
aedificio circumdato silva
house surrounded by forest
ad subeundeum periculum et ad vitandum
in undergoing and avoiding danger
Sibi quemque consulere iussit.
Each should care for self.
31
Sed in omnes partes dispersa multitudo.
Crowd had scattered.
34
praedae cupiditas
lust for loot
stirpem hominum sceleratorum interfici
to kill bands of evil men
locus ipse erat praesidio barbaris
place was aid to barbarians
etsi omnium animi ad ulciscendum ardebant
minds burned to avenge
diripi Eburones
the Eburones were being plundered
35
Tribus horis Aduatucam venire potestis
in three hours you can come to A.
Cicero...milites in castris continuisset
Cicero had kept soldiers in camp
36
Aegre portas nostri tuentur.
With difficulty ours defended camp.
37
totis trepidatur castris
total confusion in camp
Cottae et Tturi calamitatem
the disaster of Cotta and Turius
Perrumpere nitunur.
tried to break through
hic diffusus suae atque omnium saluti
doubting his and their safety
38
Capit arma a proximis atque in porta consistit.
He took arms, stood at gate.
Reliquit animus Sextium gravibus acceptis vulneribus.
Sextius collapsed.
Interim confecta frumentatione milites nostri clamorem exaudiunt.
39
After they finished gathering grain our soldiers heard the shout.
Ad tribunum militum centurionesque ora convertunt.
looked to centurions
Nemo est tam fortis quin rei noviatae perturbetur. novelty scares brave
Despecta paucitate ex omnibus partibus impetum faciunt. attacked on all sides
Nemo est tam fortis quin rei novitate perturbatur. A new situation will scare anyone.
Calones in proximum tumulum procurrunt.
Camp followers run to mound.
40
Se in castra recipere conati iniquum in locum demiserunt. retreat to bad ground
Militum pars incolumis in castra pervenit.
Some came safely to camp.
Germani desperata expugnatione castrorum
Germans despaired to attack camp
41
Animos terror praeoccupaverat.
Fear seized their minds.
eventus belli non ignarus
knowing the accidents of war
42
Caesar rursus ad vexandos hostes profectus qui se summam ab Caesare gratiam inituros
putarent non maiore 43
equitum praesio quam quattuor
Caesar marched again to bother enemy.thought to gain great favor, only four cavlrymen as
guard
concilio Galliae indicto
called a conference of Gauls
44
More maiorum supplicium sumpsit.
gave traditional punishment
duas legiones ad fines Treverorum
two legions to the Treveri
In Italiam ad conventus agendos profectus est.
He went to Italy to hold court .
Quieta Gallia Caesar in Italiam ad conventus agendos proficiscitur.
VII 1
With Gaul pacified Caesar set out to Italy to hold court.
retineri urbano motu Caesarem
that Caesar was held by urban revolt
Miserantur communem galliae fortunam.
They pitied Gaulís misfortune.
sui capite periculo Galliam in libertatem
free Gaul even at price of death
ut Caesar ab exercitu intercludatur
to keep Caesar from his army
Postremo in acie praestare interfici quam non veterem belli gloriam libertatemque quam a
maioribus acceperint
recuperare.
It would be better to be killed in battle than not to
regain their past glory and freedom which they
received from their ancestors.
Cives Romanos...interficiunt
They kill Roman citizens.
3
Vercingetorix, summae potentiae adulescens
Vercingetorix, a youth of great
potential
4
Cognito eius consilio ad arma concurritur.
Plan
known, arms taken up.
Hortatur ut communis libertatis causa arma capiant. He urges they fight for liberty.
Rex ab suis appellatur.
His men called him king.
Omnium consensu ad eum defertur imperium.
power given unaimously
magnitudine poenae perterreant alios
frighten others by great threats
urbanas res virtute Cn. Pompei commodiorem in statum
Pompey stabilized city
6
eis qui quieti viderentur suam salutem committi
entrust self to apparently peaceful
Caesar...Narbonem proficisceretur.
C thought he should go to Narbo.
7
Durissimo tempore aniis altissima nive iter impediebat.
snow hindered path
8
et quam maximum hostibus terrorem inferant
to
cause as much terror as possible
Castra ex Biturigibus movet in Arvernos versus.
moved camp to Arverni
in Lingones contendit...celeritate ptaecurreret
to Lingones very quickly
9
Gorgobinam...oppugnare instituit
decided to besiege Gergobina
Ad Boios proficiscitur.
He set out for the Boii.
10
Oppugnare instituit idque biduo circumvallavit.
attacked and surrounded it
11
Oppidum diripit atque incendit.
He plundered
and burned the town.
Vercingetorix oppugnatione destitit.
Vercingetorix abandoned the siege.
12
Caesar ex castris equitatum educi iubet.
ordered cavalry to be led from camp
13
Caesar ad oppidum Avaricum profectus est.
Caesar set out for Avaricum.
Vercingetorix suos ad concilium convocat. Docet longe alia ratione esse bellum
gerendum...ut pabulatione et commeatu
Romani prohibeantur.
14
called assembly, explained war must be fought differently, Romans blocked from grain
vicos atque aedificia incendi
villages and buildings should be
burned
Romanos inopiam non laturos
Romans would not endure
scarcity.
oppida incendi opotere quae non periculo tuta
unsafe towns be burned
liberos, coniuges in servitutem abstrahi, ipsos interfici
others seized, selves killed
In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciuntur.
In all directions fires were seen.
15
Deliberatur de Avarico in communi concilio.
council on Avaricum
Facile se loci natura defensuros dicunt.
They say it will be defended by
geography.
Defensores oppido idonei deliguntur.
Suitable defenders are chosen.
summa difficultate rei frumentariae adfecto exercitu army troubled for grain
17
pecore ex longinquioribus vicis adacto
cattle driven long distance
ne qua civitas suis finibus recipiat
no state shall admit it
20
Conclamat omnis multitudo.
All shouted (in approval).
21
ut X milia hominum delecta in oppidum mittantur send 10,000 picked men to town
summus genus sollertiae
race of remarkable ingenuity
22
Totum autem murum ex omni parte turribus contabulaverant.
furnished wall with
towers
Postero die consilium ceperant ex oppido profugere. resolved to escape
26
Illi subito ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt.
They rushed
out from all sides.
27
Non mulieribus, non infantibus pepercerunt.
spared neither women nor children
28
non virtute vicisse Romanos, sed artificio
Romans won not by courage
29
in bello omnes secundas rerum proventus
all things turn out well
unum consilium totius Galliae
one plan for all France
incendendum Avaricum, post deserendum
burn, then abandon Avaricum
30
homines insueti laboris
men unaccustomed to work
Caesar Avarici complures dies commoratus
stayed several days at Avaricum
32
quanta ex dissensionibus incommoda oriri
troubles arise from such dissension
33
Ipse in Aeduos proficisci statuit.
He decided to go to the Aedui.
omnibus interruptis eius fluminis pontibus
all bridges cut down
34
Pontem reficere coepit.
He began to rebuild the bridge.
35
Caesar ex eo loco quintis castris Gergoviam pervenit.
arrived at Gergovia in five
days
36
erat e regione oppidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis
town at foot of mountain
plus communi libertati tribuere
owed more to common liberty
37
principes civitatis...ab Romanis interfecti sunt
leaders killed by Romans
38
Hos latrones interficiamus.
Let us
kill those robbers.
Semper Aeduorum civitati praecipue indulserat.
specially favored the Aedui
40
Caesar...castra ad Gergoviam movit.
Caesar moved camp to Geregovia.
41
Impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia et temeritas. greed, anger, rashness moved
42
ipse maiorem Galliae motum exspectans
expecting greater
revolt in Gaul
43
occasionis, non proeli
opportinity, not battle
45
cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur
when fought fiercely and closely
50
Quoniam me una vobiscum servare non possum, vestrae quidem certe vitae prospiciam.
Since I cannot save myself with you, I shall look to aid your life.
Ita pugnans post paulum concidit ac suis saluti fuit. fell, but saved his men
Temeritatem cupiditatemque militum reprehendit. criticized their rashness
52
nec minus modestiam et continentiam quam virtutem
required restraint and courage
Noviodunum erat oppidum Aeduorum opportuno loco.
town well placed
55
Bibracte oppidum incenderunt.
They burned
the town Bibracte.
Labienus cum quattuor legionibus Lutetiam proficisictur. Labienus set out with four
legions to Paris
57
maximam opinionem virtutis
greatest respect for courage
59
Reliquas copias contra Labienum duxerunt.
They led other troops against
Labienus
61
Circumventi omnes interfecti sunt.
All were surrounded and killed.
62
Defectione Aeduorum cognita bellum augetur.
revolt of Aedui expanded war
63
Petunt a Vercingetorige Aedui ut ad se veniat rationesque belli gerendi communicet.
The Aedui ask Vercingetorix to come to them and explain his conduct of the war.
Ab hoc concilio Remi, Lingones, Treveri afuerunt. Remi, Lingones, and Treveri three
tribes not at assembly
perfacile esse factu frumentationibus pabulationibus Romanos prohibere
64
It would be easy to blockc the Romans from their grain supply.
Altero die ad Alesiam castra fecit.
The next day he moved camp to
Alesia.
68
Fit magna caedes.
A great slaughter occurred.
70
Consilium capit omnem ab se equitatum noctu dimittere. decided to dismiss cavalry
71
tanta univesae Galliae consensio fuit libertatis vindicandae agreement on freedom
76
concilio coacto de exitu suarum fortunarum assembly about own fortunes
77
Qui se ultro morti offerant facilius reperiuntur quam qui dolorem patienter ferant.
easier to find those who offer selves for death than those who endure pain patiently
Subacti eorum corporibus qui aetate ad inutiles videbantur live on bodies of useless
aeternam iniungere servitutem
to bind in perpetual slavery
Commius reliquique duces...cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam pervenit.
79
Commius and the other leaders with all their troops arrived near Alesia.
Erat ex oppido Alesia despectus in campum. Concurrunt his auxiliis visis; fit gratulatio
inter eos atque omnium animi
ad laetitiam excitantur.
from
the town a view to the plain
When they see them, they rush to it. All give thanks and are pleased.
ad utramque partem munitionum
on each side of the fortifications
80
Utrosque ex laudis cupiditas et timor ignominiae ad virtutem excitabant.
Each side was motivated toward courage by desire of praise and fear of disgrace.
Tuba signum suis Vercingetorix atque ex oppido educit.
Vercingetorix leads troops
out.
81
Discessisse cognoverunt.
found out allies had withdrawn
82
Bis magno cum detrimento repulsi Galli quid agant consulant.
After two disastrous defeats they consider what to do.
83
Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus ex oppido egreditur.
Vercingetorix went out from the citadel of Alesia.
84
Pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis.
fighting at once everywhere
Absunt vehementius hominum mentes perturbant unknown disturbs more
Mittit primo Brutum adulescentem cum cohortibus. sent Brutus the youth with cohorts
87
fors obtulit
chance offered
Accelerat Caesar ut proelio intersit.
Caesar hastens to battle.
Hostes terga vertunt; fugientibus equites occurrunt; fit magna caedes.
88
The enemy fled; the cavalry rushed upon those fleeing; a great slaughter occurs.
Conspicati ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum desperata salute copias a munitionibus
reducunt.
Despairing, seeing the flight of allies, they lead back their troops.
id bellum se suscepisse non suarum necessitatium, sed communis libertatis causa
89
He had fought the war not for own advantage but for common liberty
seu morte sua Romanis satisfacere seu vivum tradere satisfy Romans by death or
life
Ex reliquis captivis toto exercitui capita singula praedae nomine distribuit.
He distributed prisoners one apiece to his entire army as loot.
His rebus confectis in Aeduos proficiscitur.
Affairs settled he went to the Aedui.
90
Ipse Bibracte hiemare constituit. His litteris cognitis Romae dierum viginti supplicatio
redditur.
He decided to winter at Bibracte. Twenty days of thanksgiving were declared.
from Book VIII of the Gallic Wars (written by Aulus Hirtius, co-consul in 43 BC):
quam invitus susceperim scribendos
how unwillingly I write this
quam facile atque celeriter eos perfecerit
how quickly and easily he finshed the
work
omni Gallia devicta
All Gaul conquered
1
complures eodem tempore civitates renovare belli consilia several tribes resumed war
cohortibus ad impedimenta tuenda relictis reliquum exercitum in copiossimos
2
agros Biturigum inducit.
cohorts left to protect baggage he
went to Biturigesí fields
ducenos sestertios
two hundred sesterces for each
soldier
4
Cum duabus legionibus ad persequendos Carnutes proficiscitur.
With two legions he set out to punish Carnutes
Bellovacos...belli gloria praestabant
Bellovaci greatest in war
6
nullam calamitatem socios accipere
that the allies suffer no harm
offerre se ad dimicandum
offer himself to fight
7
singularis virtutis legiones...summae spei delectae iuventutis
great virtue...youth of
great potential
8
turpiter refugerunt
They
fled in disgrace.
13
Dimitunt eos quos aut aetate aut viribus inferiores aut inermes habebant.
14
They send away those whom they regarded by age or strength to weak or ill to fight.
fuga timoris simul callidatisque
fight by fear and strategy
16
Commius Atrebas ad eos confugit Germanos.
Commius the Atrebatian fled to the
Germans.
21
causam peccati facillime mortuis delegari
to shift blame
to the dead
22
non tam pugnandi quam diffugiendi
not fighting but flight
23
numquam in conspectum cuiusquam Romani venire never be seen by a Roman
bellocissimis gentibus devictis
most warlike tribes defeated
24
Labienum cum duabus legionibus in reveros mittit. He sends Labienus with two legions
to Treveri.
25
singularis et animi et prudentiae vir
man of
outstanding mind and care
28
milibus XII interfectis
twelve thousand killed
29
oppidum Uxellodunum natura loci munitum
town Uxellodunum defended by
position
32
Vallum in oppidi circuitum ducere instituit.
He decided to besiege the town.
33
Profugit inde cum paucis Lucterius.
Lucterius fled with a few.
35
omnibus aut interfectis aut captis
all killed or captured
36
Caninius ad obsidendos oppidanos revertitur.
Caninius resumed besieging.
37
Interim M. Antonium quaestorem cum cohortibus XV in Bellovacis relinquit.
38
Meanwhile Caesar left the quaestor Mark Antony with fifteen cohorts in the Bellovaci's
land.
Cogitur in eius supplicium Caesar contra suam naturam concursu maximo militum.
Caesar was forced to execute him contrary to his nature by a rush of the soldiers.
Cum contra exspectationem omnium Caesar Uxellodunum venisset
40
Caesar reached Uxellodunum before anyone anticipated.
Aqua prohibere hostem temptare coepit.
He began to try to block enemy from
water.
Itaque se necessitate coacti tradiderunt.
Necessity forced them to surrender.
43
Omnibus qui arma tulerant manus praecidit.
He cut off the hands of all fighters.
44
Labienus equestre proelium facit secundum.
Labienus fought an equestrian battle
well.
45
Volusenus ad eam virtutem...odium Commi
Volusenus had courage and hated
Commius.
48
Malum dux equi velocitati evitavit.
avoided death by fast horse
Scio Caesarem singulorum annorum singulos commentarios confecisse.
I know that Caesar composed yearly accounts.
continere in amicitia civitates
to keep tribes in friendship
49
In Italiam quam maximis itineribus est profectus. set out quickly to Italy
50
Exceptus est Caesaris adventus ab omnibus municipiis.
All
greeted Caesar.
51
magnificentia apud opulentiores, cupiditas apud humiliores generosity of wealthy, hope of
poor
T. Labienum Galliae togatae praefecit.
Labienus in charge of
toga-Gaul.
52
Curio, tribunus plebis,...Caesaris causam dignitatemque defendendam suscepisset
Curio the tribune defended the rights of Caesar
uterque ab armis exercitusque dimitteret
each should disarm
Sic enim existimabat tutissimam fore Galliam, si Belgae, quorum maxima virtus, Aedui,
quorum auctoritas summa
esset, exercitibus continerentur. Ipse in Italiam profectus est.
He thought France would be best protected if the brace Belgians and influential Aedui
were restrained by armies. He
set out for Italy.
54
Cn. Pompeio traditas atque in Italia retentas esse
handed over to Pompey, kept in Italy
55
iure potius disceptandi quam belli gerendi
as long as hope of negotiation not
war
from Caesar's Bellum Civile:
litteris Caesaris consulibus redditis
Caesar's letter given to the consuls
I1
Referunt consules de re publica.
The consuls move regarding the state.
se sibi consilium capturum
'that he would consider his own
interests'
ex ipsius ure Pompei
from Pompey's mouth
2
ut Pompeius in suas provincias proficisceretur
Pompey should go to his province
terrore praesentis exercitus
threat of present army
ab inimicis Caesaris
by enemies of Caesar
Completur urbs...tribunis, centurionibus.
city filled with tribune, centurions
3
Catonem veteres inimicitiae Caesaris incitant.
Old hatreds stir Cato.
4
neminem dignitate secum exaequari
that no
one equal him
Rem ad arma deduci studebat.
eager to put the matter to war
ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat
that the country suffer no harm
5
de imperio Caesaris et de...tribunis plebis
about Caesar's command and the
tribunes
pecunia uti ex aerario Pompeio detur
public money should be given to
Pompey
6
Consules ex urbe proficiscuntur.
The consuls left the city.
Omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur.
divine and human laws mixed
Iniurias inimicorum in se commemorat.
He recalls the insults of his enemies.
7
ut tribunicia intercessio armis notaretur
tribune's veto branded by arms
ut existimationem dignitatemque ab inimicis defendant
They defend commander.
Ariminum cum ea legione proficiscitur.
sets out for Ariminum with legion.
8
rei publicae commoda privatis necessitudinibus
state before
self
sibi semper primam rei publicae fuisse dignitatem state over personal dignity
9
erepto imperio in urbem retraheretur
deprived of
power, dragged to city
civitatem esse in armis
city in arms
Proficiscatur Pompeius in suas provincias, ipsi exercitus dimittant, discedant in Italia
omnes ab armis, metu e civiate
tollatur.
Let Pompey go, let him dismiss armies. Let all in Italy put aside arms and let fear be
removed from the city.
uti per colloquia omnes controversiae componantur conference resolve disputes
Caesar in Galliam reverteretur, Armino excederet, exercitus dimitteret
10
that Caesar should return to France, leave Ariminum, and disband his army
pacis desperationem
desperation for peace
11
Itaque ab Arimino M. Antonium cum cohortibus V Arretium mittit.
He sends Mark Antony with five cohorts to Ariminum.
Lentulus ex urbe profugeret
Lentulus fled from the city.
14
Cn. Pompeius pridie ex urne profectus
Pompey had fled the city.
gladiatores ad forum productos
gladiators had been led to the forum
oppidum Labienus constituerat
town Labienus had founded
15
Milites imperat; mittunt.
He orders soldiers; they send them.
M. Antonium cum legionis XIII cohortibus V.
sends Mark Antony with five cohorts
18
Ipse arcano cum paucis familiaribus suis colloquitur consiliumque fugae capere constituit
He talks with a few friends and decides to form a plan to flee.
19
per tribunos militum centurionesque
by military tribunes and centurions
20
L. Domitium vivum eius potestate trahere
give over L. Domitius alive to him
saepe in bello parvis momentis magni casus
21
Orat atque obsecrat ut sibi parcat.
22
uti se a contumeliis inimicorum defenderet
small events create greeat results
He begs him to spare him.
to defend himself from enemiesí
insults
Omnes productos a contumeliis militum conviciisque prohibet.
spares them from
soldiers' insults
23
ne continentier in vita hominum quam in pecunia fuisse videatur
that he not be thought more restrained with respect to men's lives than their money
Pompeius...Luceria proficiscitur...Brundisium
Pompey went from Luceria to
Brundisium.
24
interesse rei publicae et communis salutis se cum Pompeio
colloqui
aid republic and common safety if he conferred with Pompey
Brundisium cum legionibus VI pervenit.
He arrived at Brundisium with six
legions.
25
ut condiciones pacis dimittendas non existimaret
thought try for peace
26
ut aequis condicionibus ab armis discedatur
both equally
should shun arms
quod ab initio Italia excedere constituerat
since he had planned to leave Italy
27
Portas obstruit.
He blocked the gates.
Pompeius sub noctem naves solvit.
Pompey set sail at night.
28
a freto naves essent exspectandae
wait for ships from the strait
29
In Hispaniam proficisci constituit.
He decided to set out for Spain.
30
Ille...ex Sardinia in Africam profugit.
He fled from Sardinia to Africa.
Haec magno studio agebat.
He (Cato) put much effort into it.
non necessarium bellum suscepisset
had fought an unnecessary war
Haec in contione questus ex provincia fugit.
Complaining in assembly he fled
province.
Ipse ad urbem proficiscitur.
He set out for the city.
32
omnia permisceri mallent quam imperium exercitusque dimittere
preferred all things confused rather than give up power and army
crudelitatem et insolentiam
their cruelty and insolence
tenuis atque infirmi...animi
weak and unstaedy mind
eodem loco qui Romae remansissent et qui in castris Caesaris fuissent
33
treat the same those who remained in Rome and those who went to Caesar's camp
Ab urbe proficiscitur atque in ulteriorem Galliam pervenit. went to farther France
Massilienses portas Caesari clauserant.
Massiliens closed the gate from
Caesar
34
populum Romanum in duas partes
Romans divided into two parties
35
paribus eorum beneficiis parem voluntatem
equal favors, equal support
Summa ei belli administrandi permittur.
given supreme war authority
36
Saltus Pyrenaeos occupari iubet.
orders the Pyrenees' passes taken
37
Constituunt communi concilio bellum ad Ilerdam. Council decides to fight at Ilerda.
38
Eo biduo Caesar in castra pervenit.
In two days Caesar reaches camp.
41
Potestate facta Afranius copias educit.
Given chance Afranius leads
out his troops.
ne in opere faciundo milites repentino hostium incursu exterrerentur
lest while working our soldiers be frightened by a sudden attack of the enemy
Sic omne prius est perfectum quam intellegeretur ab Afranio castra muniri.
This was done before Afranius realized it.
Nostri...terga vertere seque ad signa legionum recipere coguntur.
43
Our men were forced to retreat and regroup at their standards.
paene omni acie perterrita
whole battle line panicked
45
Hostem insolenter atque acriter nostros insequentem supprimit.
He stops the enemy pursuing our men insolently and fiercely.
Reliquos sese convertere cogunt.
They force the rest to flee.
46
At exercitus Afranii omnium rerum abundat copia. Afranius' army well supplied
49
difficile...rapidissimo flumine opera perficere
fast current hindered work
50
Ad hos opprimendos cum omni equitatu tribusque
legionibus Afranius de nocte proficiscitur.
51
To crush them Afranius set out at night with cavalry and three legions.
Caesar...pecus imperabat; calones...dimittebat.
demanded cattle, dismissed aides
52
ut paene bellum confectum videretur
war seemed almost over
53
Multi ex italia ad Cn. Pompeium proficiscebantur. Many set out from Italy to Pompey.
Rem frumentariam expedire incipit.
He began to settle his grain supply.
54
Simul perfecto ponte celeriter fortuna mutatur.
Bridge built fortune changed.
59
Magna celeriter commutatio rerum.
A great
change occurred quickly.
60
pons in Hebro prope effectus nuntiabatur
bridge finishing is announced
62
hostem ex manibus dimitti
enemy was escaping
64
posse et audere ea transire flumen
we dare and can cross the river
Caesar in campis exercitum reficit.
Caesar rearranges his army on the
plain.
65
duces adversariorum silentio copias castris educere enemy leading troops out
66
perterritus miles in civili dissensione timori magis quam religioni
consulere
67
Frightened soldiers in civil war consider fear more than obligation.
eum omnium laborum finem fore
would be an end to their work
68
Erat in celeritate omne positum certamen.
Speed decided the issue.
70
Concurrebant legati, centuriones tribunique militum ne dubitaret proelium committere.
Lieutenants, centurions, tribunes begged him to engage in battle.
71
imperatoris consilio superare quam gladio
for leader to win by plan, not sword
72
Cur denique fortunam percliteretur?
Why trust fortune of battle?
eorum se beneficio vivere
You saved our lives.
74
arma cum hominibus necessariis et consanguineis contulerint fought with friends
Petreius vero non deserit sese.
Petreius didn't lose it.
75
edicunt Caesaris miles ut producatur...interficitur soldier of Caesar led out and killed
76
Caesar milites adversarium remitti iubet.
Caesar
orders enemies released.
77
In his erat angustiis res.
(Their) situation was dire.
78
Caesar equitatu praemisso cum legionibus subsequitur.
Caesar with legions follows.
Tali dum pugnatur modo, lente atque paulatim proceditur. advance slowly
80
procul ab aqua et natura iniquo loco
far from water in bad position
81
necessarium subire deditionem
submit to unavoisable surrender
Constituerat signa inferentibus resistere
to resist if they attacked
82
Caesar ne nisi coactus proelium committeret, ille ut opera Caesaris
impediret
83
Caesar not to fight unless forced, he (Afranius) to hinder Caesar's work.
frumenti inopia colloquium petunt
forced by lack of grain they ask for
parley
84
fidem erga imperatorem suum Cn. Pompeium conservare voluerint save faith withPompey
ut feras
as wild beasts
ipsos duces a pace abhorruisse
all leaders have shunned peace
85
exercitus velle dimitti
wish armies to be disbanded
omnia...contra se parari
all prepared against me
duas bellocissimas provincias absens
rule two warlike provinces in absence
per paucos probati
approved by a few
ut rebus feliciter gestis aut cum honore aliquo aut certe sine ignominia domum revertantur
After success a commander should return with honor or at least without disgrace.
provinciis excederent exercitumque dimitterent
both should leave province, disbamd
army
ut statim dimitterentur
86
Ibi reliqua pars exercitus dimissa est.
87
should be discharged
The rest of the army was disbanded.
Aggerem in altitudinem pedum LXXX exstruit.
He builds eighty foot earthwork.
II 1
Multitudo tormentorum omnem administrationem tardabat.
machines slow work
2
imprudente atque inopinante Curione
without Curio knowing
3
ut inusitatis atque incognitis rebus magis confidamus vehementiusque exterreatur
4
We are overconfident or frightened in unusual circumstances.
Eodem Brutus contendit aucto navium numero.
Brutus hurries to same place.
5
ad extremum vitae
peril of life
7
Ad legatos atque exercitum supplices ,amus tendunt.
beg mercy
11
ad studium audiendi et cognoscendi
to
desire to hear and know
12
defectionis odio
by hatred of revolt
13
At hostes sine fide tempus atque occasionem fraudis ac doli quaerunt.
14
But the enemy without trust sought time and chance for fraud and trickery.
Ita multorum mensium labor hostium perfidia et vi tempestatis puncto temporis interiit.
In a flash the work of many months was destroyed by enemy's treachery and the storm.
ut nullus perfidiae neque eruptioni locus esset
no chance for treachery
16
M. Varro...diffidens Pompeianis rebus amicissime de
Caesare loquebatur.
17
Varro mistrusting the fortunes of Pompey spoke most friendly of Caesar.
ad motus fortunae
to the changes of fortune
Delectum habuit tota provincia.
He had a levy in the entire province.
18
Provinciam omnem in sua et Pompei verba iusiurandum adigebat. oath to Pompey
Non civis Romanus paulo notior quin ad diem conveniret. every citizen met
19
Tam secunda in Caesarem voluntas provinciae reperiebatur.
province for Caesar
20
praeclusas esse portas
that the gates were closed
Varro ad caesarem venit.
Varro came to Caesar.
Reliquos in posterum bona spe complet.
encourages the rest
21
Ibi totius fere citerioris provinciae legationes Caesaris adventum exspectabant.
There many embassies from all over the province were awaiting Caesar's arrival.
magis pro nomine et vetustate quam pro meritis
for name rather than merits
22
Curio Marcium Uticam navibus praemitit.
Curio sends
Marcius with fleet to Utica.
24
Huic et paternum hospitium cum Pompeio et simultas cum Curione intercedebat.
25
He (Juba) had hospitality with Pompey and a quarrel with Curio.
Postero die exercitum Uticam ducit.
Next day he led his army to Utica.
26
nullo ordine et sine timore
in no order and confidently
nam quae volumus et credimus libenter et, quae sentimus ipsi, reliquos sentire speramus
What we wish we gladly believe, we ourselves feel we hope others feel.
27
At in castris Curionis magnus omnium incessit timor animis.
all fearful
29
castra Vari oppugnanda
Varro's camp should be attacked.
30
uti corporis vulnera, ita exercitus incommoda sunt tegenda as body wounds, so army
reverses should be hidden
31
aut pudore aut metu
by shame or fear
duos pulsos exercitus, duos superatos duces, duas receptas provincias
32
two armies routed, two leaders defeated, two provinces regained
Equidem me caesaris militem dici volui.
I wished to be called a soldier of
Caesar.
Curio postero die productos eodem loco in acie collocat. Curio ready for battle
33
Omnis Varri acies terga vertit seque in castra recepit.
Varro's line retreated.
34
Postero die Curio obsidere Uticam et vallo circummunire instituit. besiege Utica
36
ne sua pertinacia omnium fortunas perturbari vellet not ruin all by stubbornness
Tantam habebat suarum rerum fiduciam.
such confidence in his fortune
37
Sese in castra Cornelia recepit.
He retreated to the Cornelian camp.
Curio reliquas copias exspectare parabat.
Curio prepared to wait for other
troops.
his auctoribus temere credens
rashly believing these scouts
38
Equites missi nocte iter conficiunt.
Knights sent out at night finish
journey.
abesse regem, exiguas esse copias missas
king gone, few troops sent
39
Haec tamen ab ipsis inflatius commemorabantur ut de suis homines laudibus libenter
praedicant.
told rather extravagantly as people tell of own praise
At illi itinere totius noctis confecti subsequi non poterant. worn out couldn't pursue
Ipse cum reliquis copiis elephantisque LX lentius subsequitur.
followed with troops
and sixty elephants 40
Non deest negotio Curio.
Curio is equal
to the work.
41
Hostium copiae submissis ab rege auxiliis crebro augebantur. enemies increased
extremo vitae tempore
at crisis point
in miseris rebus spem reliquam salutis esse
in misery only one hope
42
ad summam desperationem
in total desperation
ut fuga salutem petata
to seek safety in flight
Milites ad unum omnes interficiuntur.
Soldiers slain to last man.
omnium terror
pity
universal terror
43
Sibi quisque consulebat.
Each consulted for his own interests.
qui aut gratia aut misericordia valerent
who prevailed by influence or
44
partem eorum interfici
part of them were killed
Ipse equo in oppidum vectus...se in regnum cum omnibus copiis recepit.
He was carried on horse...he retreated with all his troops to his kingdom.
Dictatore hebente comitia Ceasare consules creantur Iulius Caesar et P. Servilius.
III 1
Is enim erat annus, quo per leges ei consulem fieri liceret.
As dictator Caesar conducted the elections. Servilius and Caesar were elected consul,
this being the year Caesar could serve.
ad timorem novarum tabularum
fear of canceling debts
bella et civiles dissentiones sequi
follow wars and civil disputes
iudicio populi quam suo beneficio
by people's judgment than his favor
Dictatura se abdicat et ab urbe proficiscitur Brundisiumque pervenit.
2
He resigned the dictatorship, left the city, and went to Brundisium.
ad celeritatem conficiendi belli
to finish the war quickly
Pompeius...magnam...classem coegerat.
Pompey had gathered a large fleet.
3
magnam imperatam...exegerat.
had collected great sums
Legiones effecerat civium Romanorum VIIII.
He had formed nine citizen legions.
4
Hiemare Dyrrachii...constituerat ut mare transire Caesarem prohiberet.
5
He had decided to winter at Dyrrachium to prevent Caesar from crossing the sea.
Toti tamen officio maritimo M. Bibulus praepositus Bibulus in charge of navy
Caesar...II Non. Ian. naves solvit
Caesar set sail on January 4.
6
Postridie terram attigit.
Next day he landed.
neque illi sibi confisi ex portu prodire
not confident to leave port
7
Expositis militibus naves eadem nocte Brundisium a Caesare remittunur ut reliquae
legiones equitatusque transportari
possent.
other
ships sent to Brundisium to transport soldiers
8
in eas indiligentiae suae ac
doloris iracundiam erupit
Bibulus's bile on them
exspectans si in Caesaris complexum venire posset to come upon Caesar
neque pollicitationibus neque denuntiatione periculi neither by promises nor threats
Ipsum Octavium in naves confugere coegerunt.
forced Octavian to flee to ships
9
si uterque in contione statim iuravisset se triduo proximo exercitum
dimissurum.
10
if each would swear in assembly to disband his army within three days
Ad Pompeium contendit ut adesse Caesarem nuntiaret.
to announce Caesar's arrival
11
Se atque oppidum Caesari dedit.
He surrendered self and town to
Caesar.
Clam profugit Apollonia Staberius.
Staberius secretly fled Apollonia.
12
Princeps Labienus procedit iuratque se eum non desetrurum.
13
Labienus was the first to advance and pledge not to desert him (Pompey).
iracundia summa erat inimicitiasque habebat etiam privatas cum Caesare
16
that he (Bibulus) was hot-tempered and had private quarrels with Caesar
summam belli rerumque omnium Pompeio permiserint
Pompey given final say
Bibulus...vim morbi sustinere non potuit.
Bibulus died.
18
Labienus...altercari cum Vatinio incipit.
Labienus begins to dispute with
Vatinius
19
Nam nobis nisis Caesaris capite relato pax esse nulla potest. Caesar's head for peace
clementer et moderate
with mercy and moderation
20
Senatus Caelium ab re publica removendum censuit. Caelius removed from office.
21
Caelius ab his est interfectus.
Caelius was killed by them.
22
subitam commutationem fortunae
sudden change of fortune
27
quantum esset hominbus praesidii in animi firmitudine
firm mind protects
28
Pompeius ne duobus circumcluderetur exercitibus ex eo loco discedit.
30
Pompey to avoid being surrounded by two armies departs from that place.
finitmis hostibus Parthis post se relictis, qui M. Crassum imperatorem interfecerant
31
leaving the enemy Parthians who had recently slain Crassus
Qui horum quid acerbissime crudelissimeque fecerat, is et vir et optimus habebatur.
32
Those who acted most cruelly were regarded as the best citizens.
gravissimae usurae quod in bello plerumque accidere
usury common in war
nam plerumque in novitate rem fama antecedit
In novelty rumor outstrips fact.
36
rivus difficilibus ripis
river with
steep banks
37
temere progressus turpem habuit exitium
rash advance had base end
Sed nostri fortiter impetum eorum tulerunt.
Our men bravely withstood their
attack.
loco idoneo et occulto
a suitable, hidden place
38
Cn. Pompeius filius...ad Oricum venit.
Cnaeus. Pompey came to Oricum.
40
Postridie decernendi potestatem Pompeio fecit.
gave Pompey chance to fight
41
Caesar...mane Dyrrachium venit.
In the morning
Caesar came to Dyrrachium.
ut auctoritatem...minueret
that he might reduce his influence
43
Neque munitiones Caesaris prohibere poterat, nisi proelio decertare vellet.
44
Nor was he able to stop Caesar's fortifications unless he wished to fight.
magnus incesserat timor sagittarum
a great dread of arrows took the men
insolentius atque audacius
more boldly and daringly
46
Sed tamen haec singulari patientia milites ferebant. soldiers endured patiently
47
Ex hoc effectos panes...vulgo in eos iaciebant.
threw bread
made of this at enemy.
48
Aliae enim sunt legati partes atque imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter
liberum ad summam rerum consulere debet.
legate obey;
general take steps
50
uno die VI proeliis factis
six battles fought in one day
53
milia sagittarum circiter XXX in castellum
30,000 arrows into the fort
si Pompeius proelio decertare vellet
if Pompey wished to fight
55
freti amicitia Caesaris et stulta ac barbara arrogantia
59
relying on Caesar's friendship and stupid, barabaric arrogance
Ad Pompeium transtulerunt.
They crossed to Pompey.
60
cum paene cotidie a Pompeio ad Caesarem perfugerent
deserting to Caesar
61
Hanc ego et vivus magna diligentia defendi.
Iíve defended this eagle carefully.
64
Castra iuxta Pompeium munire iussit.
He ordered men to fortify a
camp.
65
Pervenit prius quam Pompeius sentire posset.
arrived before Pompey knew
67
Sed tamen nostri virtute vicerunt.
Our
men won by courage.
Sed fortuna, quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus tum praecipue in bello, parvis
momentis magnas rerum
commutationes efficit.
68
Fortune, which has great effect especially in war, makes great changes at small moments.
omnia erant tumultus, timoris, fugae plena
all full of disturbance, fear, flight
69
Pompeius insidias timens
Pompey fearing ambush
70
Ita parvae res magnum in utramque partem momentum habuerunt.
Small twists have great effect on either side.
Pompeius eo proelio imperator est appellatus.
Pompey called imperator.
71
Labienus...in omnium conspectu interfecit.
Labienus killed them in sight of all.
ut non de ratione belli cogitarent, sed vicisse iam viderentur
72
that they didn't plan carefully, but seemed to have won
communes belli casus...magna detrimenta
common fortunes of war...great
losses
quod Italiam sine aliquo vulnere cepissent
that they captured Italy without harm
73
dolor...studium infamiae sarciendae
sorrow...desire make right disgrace
74
Impedimenta omnia silentio prima nocte ex castris Apolloniam praemisit.
75
He silently sent all the baggage at early night from camp to Apollonia.
Celeriter ex conspectu castrorum discessit.
He quickly left behind the camp.
VIII milia passuum ex eo loco procedit.
He advanced eight miles from place.
76
ad saucios deponendos
to place the wounded
78
pari condicione belli secum decertare
to fight war on equal terms
Uterque eorum celeritati studebat.
Each sough to move quickly.
79
a Pompeio litteris...dimissis
letters sent by Pompey
latius inflatiusque multo
much exaggerated and inflated
gloria elati
Conuncto exercitu Caesar Gomphos pervenit.
arrived.
80
fama de proelio Dyrrachino
Pompeius nondum Thessaliae appropinquabat.
Thessaly.
Ad diripiendum militibus concessit.
praedae ac praemiorum participes
82
glory of success
With joined army Caesar
rumor about the battle at Dyrrachium
Pompey had not yet reached
He gave it to his soldiers as plunder.
as partners in loot and rewards
inter se palam de praemiis ac de sacerdotiis
already disputing rewards and
priesthoods
ad gravissimas verborum contumelias
to deeply insulting words
83
de honoribus suis
about honors for selves
quemadmodum uti victoria superare possent
how to use victory
Quae res in dies confirmatiorem eius exercitum efficiebat. army more confident
84
si iniquis locis Caesar se suiceret
if Caesar would fight on bad ground
85
insolitum ad laborem Pompei exercitum
Pompey\'s army unaccustomed to
work
Animo simus ad dimicandum parati.
Let us be prepared to fight.
priusquam concurrerent acies, fore uti exercitus Caesaris pelleretur
86
that Caesar's army would be driven off before the lines clashed
Noli existimare, Pompei, hunc esse exercitum, qui Galliam Germaniamque devicerit.
87
Don't think that this is the army which conquered France and Germany.
quod fuit roboris duobus proeliis Dyrrachinis interiit flower fell at Dyrrachium
se nisi victorem in castra reversurum
would not return except as winner
Haec erant milia XLV
He had 45,000 soldiers.
88
decimam legionem in dextro cornu
tenth legion at right wing
89
summa erat milium XXII
total (of our men) 22,000
Ipse contra Pompeium constitit.
He stood opposite Pompey.
quanto studio pacem petiisset
great eagerness he sought peace
90
neque umquam abuti militum sanguine
did not want to waste soldiers' blood
Unum hoc proelium superest.
This one battle remains.
91
ut aut vivo mihi aut mortuo gratias agas
You may thank me dead or alive.
ut Caesaris impetum exciperent
to await Caesar's charge
quaedam animi incitatio atque alacritas
a desire and eagerness of mind
92
Cursum represserunt.
They checked their attack.
93
Quartae aciei...dedit signum.
He gave a signal to the fourth line.
Eodem tempore tertiam aciem Caesar...procurrere iussit. third line to advance
94
Sustinere Pompeiani non potuerunt atque universi terga verterunt.
The Pompeiani were not able to hold off our charge and all turned tail.
Pompeius...se in castra equo contulit.
Pompey retreated to camp on horse.
Milites cohortatus est ut castra oppugnarent.
urged soldiers to attack camp
95
missis armis signisque militaribus
throwing aside arms and standards
magnum argnti pondus
96
nimiam luxuriam et victoriae fiduciam
Pompeius...equo citato Larisam contendit.
great weight of silver
excess
luxury and confidence
On spurred horse Pompey hurried to
Larisa.
in planitiem descendere atque arma proicere
to go down and cast forth arms
98
de lenitate sua
about his leniency
milia XV cecidisse...in deditionem milia XXIIII
14,000 killed; 24,000 captured
99
Persequendum sibi Pompeium existimavit.
thought he
should pursue Pompey
102
In Ciliciam atque inde Cyprum pervenit.
He went to Cilicia and then Cyprus.
Ptolemaeus puer cum sorore Cleopatra bellum gerens
Ptolemy wage war
with Cleopatra
Achillam et Septimium ad inteficiendum Pompeium
sent to kill Pompey
104
Lentulus comprehnditur ab rege et in custodia necatur.
Lentulus taken and killed by
king.
Caesar...Alexandriam pervenit.
Caesar went to Alexandria.
106
confisus fama gestarum
trusting in his fame
Alexandriae de Pompei morte cognoscit.
At Alexandria he discovers Pompey's
death.
Complures milites huius urbis omnibus partibus interficiebantur. soldiers killed
necessario etesiis tenebatur
necessarily held by etesian winds
107
regem atque sororem exercitus dimittere
king and sister disband armies
Exercitum a Pelusio clam Alexandriam evocavit. called army to Alexandria
108
exercitus regius equitatusque venire Alexandriam army
approaching
109
Corripi atque interfici iussit.
He ordered them to be taken and killed.
in consuetudinem Alexandrinae vitae licentiae
to Alexandrine habits and
vice
110
paucitatem militum Caesaris despiciens
despising the small number of troops
111
Pugnatum est ad portum.
battle fought at the port
commeatu auxiliisque Caesarem prohiberent
try to keep Caesar from supply line
celerem victoriam
swift victory
Reliquas incendit.
He burned the rest.
Confestim ad Pharum navibus milites exposuit.
landed men at Pharos
in insula turris magna altitudine
on the island a tall tower
112
eis invitis non potest esse propter angustias navibus introitus in portum
guards unwilling, because of narrows no entrance to port
Caesar Pharum prehendit.
Caesar took the pharos.
neutri pellerentur
Noctu praemuniit.
Filia minor bellum adminitrare coepit.
administer the war.
res apud milites largitiones auxit
Haec initia belli Alexandrini fuerunt.
From Sententiae of Publilius Syrus:
Ab alio expectes, alteri quod feceris.
treated.
1
Aut amat aut odit mulier.
6
Avarus ipse miseriae causa est suae.
14
Amantis ius iurandum poenam non habet.
37
Beneficium accipere libertatem est vendere.
freedom.
61
Bonum est fugienda aspicere in alieno malo.
76
Bona causa nullum iudicem verebitur.
judge.
98
Citius venit periculum cum contemnitur.
despised.
88
Consueta vitia ferimus, nova reprehendimus.
100
Crudelem medicum intemperans aeger facit.
104
Cum vitia prosunt, peccat qui recte facit.
113
Deliberandum est saepe; statuendum est semel.
155
Deliberando saepe perit occasion.
pondering.
163
Etiam capillus unus habet umbram suam.
186
Feras non culpes quod mutari non potest.
206
Formosa facies muta commendatio est.
recommendation.
163
Habet suum veneum blanda oratio.
251
Heredis fletus sub persona risus est.
under the mask.
187
Ignoscito saepe alteri, numquam tibi.
208
neither side beaten
At night he fortified it.
Younger sister began to
increased bribes to the soldiers
This began the Alexandrine war.
As you treat another, expect to be
A woman hates or loves.
The miser causes his own misery.
The lover's oath has no punishment.
To accept a favor is to sell your
Learn from other's mistakes.
A good cause will fear no
Danger comes more quickly when
We endure old fault, denounce new.
Crabby patient makes doctor cruel.
When vices profit, good doer errs.
Deliberate often, decide once.
Opportunity is often lost by
Even one hair has its shadow.
Endure, not blame the unchangeable.
A beatiful face is a silent
Sweet talk has its own sting.
Weeping of the heir is happiness
Often parson others, never self.
Humilis nec alte cadere nec graviter potest.
Humble fall neither far nor hard.
267
Iudex damnatur cum nocens absolvitur.
The judge is condemned when guilty
freed.
296
In venere semper dulcis est dementia.
Madness is always sweet in
love.
314
Improbe Neptunum accusat qui iterum naufragium facit.
331
He who suffers second shipwreck wrongly blames Neptune.
Mulier cum sola cogitat male cogitat.
A woman plotting alone plots badly.
376
Multos timere debet quem multi timent.
He ought to fear many whom many
fear.
379
Mulier quae multis nubit multis non placet.
Woman who marries many displeases
many.
381
Malum est consilium quod mutari non potest.
Bad is the plan which can't be
changed.
403
Necesse est multos timeat qem multi timent.
If many fear, you must fear many.
Numquam periculum sine periculo vincitur.
Only danger beats danger.
428
Nec vita nec fortuna hominibus perpes est.
Neither life nor fortune permanent
for man.
456
Paratae lacrimae insidias non fletum indicant.
Planned tears reveal
treachery, not grief.
536
Qui metuit calamitatem rarius accipit.
He who fears disaster rarely
receives it.
555
Qui se ipse laudat cito desirorem invenit.
He who praises himself soon is
mocked.
426
Repente dives nemo factus est bonus.
No good man becomes suddenly
wealthy.
449
Stulti timent fortunm, sapiente ferunt.
The stupid fear fortune, the
wise endure it.
648
Stultum est timere quod vitre non potest.
Stupid to fear what you cannot avoid.
652
Stultum facit fortuna quem vult perdere.
Fortune makes stupid whom she
wishes to destroy.
671
Unus deus poenam affert, multi cogitant.
God alone assigns penalty, many
plot.
702
Ubi peccat aetas maior, male discit minor.
When elders sin, young learn bad.
703
Ubi coepit ditem pauper imitari. perit.
When poor imitate rich, they
fail.
714
Velox consilium sequitur paenitentiae.
Regret follows a swift plan.
730
Basic information about Cato:
Marcus Porcius Cato: 234-149 BC born in Tusculum, military tribune in 2nd Punic War,
queastor 204, aedile 199,
praetor 198, consul 195, opponent of Scipio, censor 184, Origines, De Agri Cultura
rem tene, verba sequentur
from Cato's De Agri Cultura
Est interdum praestare mercaturis rem quaerere.
trade more profitable
Et virum bonum quom laudabant, ita laudabant, bonum agricolam bonumque colonum.
When our nacestors praised a good man they called him good farmer or good colonist.
At ex agricolis et viri fortissimi et milites strenuissimi gignuntur.
From farmers are born the bravest men and the sturdiest soldiers.
uti ne cupide emas
Don't be overeager to buy.
I
Circumspicias uti inde exire possis.
Look about so you can leave.
Siet in his agris qui non saepe dominos mutant.
Locate in stable area.
Scito idem agrum quod hominem: quamvis quaestuosus siet, si sumptuosus erit, relinqui
non multum.
Farm like man: great income not enough if great expense.
de omnibus agris optimoque loco iugera agri centum
100 jugera best farm
Aequo animo sint quae opera sint curare uti perficiantur. calmly order work
II
Boves vetulos, arumenta delicula, oves deliculas, lanam, pelles, plostrum vetus, ferramenta
vetera, servum senem,
servum morgosum...vendat.
Sell all
outworn plows and slaves.
Patrem familias vendacem, non emacem esse oportet.
Be seller, not buyer.
Prima dulescentia patrem familae agrum conserere studere oportet. plant!
III
Conserere cogitare non oportet sed favere oportet. not to think, but to do: so
Vicinis bonus esto; familiam ne siveris peccare.
Be good neighbor.
IV
Facilius tua vendes.
You will sell easier.
Frons occipitio prior est.
Forehead is worth more.
Haec erunt vilici officia.
overseer'ís duties
V
Siquis quid deliquerit, pro noxa bono modo vindicet.
Punish wrongdoer fairly.
Opere bene exerceat, facilius malo...prohibebit.
Keep them busy to avoid wrong.
Familiam exerceat, consideret quae dominus imperaverit fiant. Ne plus censeat sapere se
quam dominum.
Exercise the slaves, follow master's orders, not think oneself better than he.
Primus cubitu surgat, postremus cubitum eat.
first to rise, last to sleep
Si unam rem sero feceris, omnia opera sero facies. One thing late, all late.
Ubi ager crassus et laetus est sine arboribus, eum agrum frumentarium esse oportet.
VI
Plant grain in rich, thick soil without trees.
Ager oleto conserundo, qui in ventum favonium spectabit et soli ostentus erit.
Plant olive in field facing west and exposed to the sun.
serito aut inserito
sown or unsown
VII
Trapetum hoc modo accommodare oportet.
Adjust the mill this way.
XXII
Vinum Graecum hoc modo fieri oportet.
Greek wine be made thus.
XXV
Oleas, ulmos, ficos, poma, vites, pinos, cupressos cum seres, bene cum radicibus eximito
um terra.
XXVIII
In transplanting....tie with ground and roots.
Stercus dividito sic.
Spread manure thus.
XXIX
Arbores hoc modo putentur.
Trim trees thus.
XXXII
Per imbrem in villa quaerito quid fieri possit. Ne cessetur, munditias facito. Cogitato, si
nihil fiet, nihilo minus
sumptum futurum.
In rain
work inside; expenses go up.
XXXIX
Pulmentarium familiae: olease caducae quam plurimum condito.
LVIII
Relish for slaves: store windblown olives.
Vestimenta familiae: tunicam saga alternis annis...prius veterem accipito, unde centones
fiant.
Clothing for slaves: tunic and cloak every two years: stitch old garment.
LIX
Quid est agrum bene colere? Bene arare. Quid est secundum? Arare. Quid tertium?
Stercorare.
LXI
What is cultivating a field? 1) Plow well. 2) Plow. 3) Fertilize.
Quot iuga boverum, mulorum, asinorum habebis, totidem plostra esse oportet.
LXII
As many wagons as teams of animals.
Itam custodis officia.
More duties of watchman.
LXVII
Bos si aegrotare coeperit, dato continuo ei unum ovum.
one egg for sick cow
LXXI
Ubi uvae variae coeperint fieri, bubus medicamentum dato quotannis uti valeant.
LXXIII
As soon as leaves change color, give cattle medicine to keep them well.
Panem depsticium sic facito.
Make kneaded bread thus.
LXXIV
Mulier ad eam rem divinam ne adsit.
Women may not be admitted.
LXXXIII
Muriam in patinas in sole ponito.
Put brine in pan with sun.
LXXXVIII
Gallinas et anseres sic farcito.
Thus to stuff fowl.
LXXXIX
Polline vel farina hordeacia consparsa turundas faciat...in os indat. Make pellets of
grain...Stuff into the mouth.
Hoc vinum durabit tibi usque ad solstitium.
Wine will last to solstice.
CIV
Canes interdiu clausos esse oportet ut noctu acriores et vigilantiores sint.
CXXIV
Dogs should be locked up during the day to make them more active and watchful at night.
Daps Iovi assaria pecuina urna vini.
feast to J of meat and wine
CXXXII
Romae tunicas, togas...
CXXXV
Boves feriis coniungere licet.
clothes to be bought in Rome
may yoke oxen on feast day
Vilici officia quae sunt, quae dominus praecepit
master's orders
CXLII
Si eam tibi dederit dominus uxorem, ea esto contentus. Ea te metuat facito.
CXLIII
If the master has given you wife, be content with her. See that she fears you.
L. Manli
John Doe
CXLIV
Scalae ita uti datae erunt, ita reddito, nisi quae vetustate fractae erunt.
Ladders will be returned as given, unless broken from age.
Si non erunt redditae, aequom viri boni arbitratu deducetur.
If not returned, a fair payment judged by an honest man shall be given.
Per hiemem aquam de agro depelli oportet.
Drain land in winter.
CLV
Brassica est quae omnibus holeribus antistat.
Cabbage best vegetable.
CLVI
Alvum bonam facit.
excellent
laxative
Tantum bilis pititaeque eiciet uti ipse miretur unde tantum siet.
He will release so much bile and mucus that he will wonder where it came from.
Sed si poterit solam brassicam esse, edit.
If can eat it straight, do so.
Altera est crispa, apiacon vocatur.
second curly type called parsley
CLVII
De capite et de oculis omnia deducet.
will heal headache or eyeache
Si sumptus esset, tamen valetudinis causa experires. try even if expense
Cito sanus fiet.
quick cure
Nulla res tam bene purgabit...salubrem corpori
will purge without harm
Alvum deicere hoc modo oportet, si vis bene tibi deicere. purge remedy
CLVIIIHuat huat huat istasis tarsis ardannabou damnaustra (chant vs dislocation)
CLX
Basic information about Varro:
Marcus Terentius Varro: born Reate, 116-27 BC, praetor, for Pompey in Spain 49 BC,
restored by Caesar,
De Lingua Latina (15 books with fanciful derivations), Rerum Rusticarum Libri III
(1: agriculture
2) breeding of cattle and sheep 3) burds, bees, fish etc. 'Rome's greatest scholar.'
from Varro's Rerum Rusticarum:
Otium si essem consecutus, Fundania...
II
Si est homo bulla, eo magis senex.
old.
ut sarcinas conligam antequam proficiscar e vita
Dei facientes adiuvant.
sed illos XII deos...Iovem et tellurem
If I had more time, Fundania
If man is a bubble, so much more the
gather pack before die
Gods help those doing.
those twelve gods, Jupiter and Earth
Hos Nobilitate Mago Carthaginiensis praeteriit.
C. Mago surpasses them in nobility.
uno de agri cultura, altero de re pecuaria, tertio de villaticis pastionibus
one about tilling the field, second about caring for cattle, third about shepherding
Fundanium...Agrium...Agrasium
names punning on fundus and ager
II
Romanus sedendo vincit.
The Roman conquers by sitting.
portam itineri dici longissimam
the gate is the longest part of the
journey
primum quod est in Europa
first because it (Italy) is in Europe
secundo quod haec temperatior pars quam interior more temperate than interior
fructus...saluber
profit...health
non pinacothecas sed oporothecas
not pictures but baskets
non modo ovom illut sublatum est
egg has not been taken down
utilitatemne an voluptatem
(purpose) utilty or pleasure
unus vocatur vilicus, alter magister pecoris
one the overseer, other shepherd
Disiungamus pastionem a cultura.
exclude pasturing from agriculture
ex satione terra sit natum ad fruendum
from sowing is produced to enjoy
ante esse oportet brassicam crudam ex aceto aliqua folia quinque
first eat five leaves of raw cabbage with vinegar
Est ars, sed etiam necessaria ac magna.
It (farming) is a great, necessary art.
III
principia sunt...aqua, terra, anima, et sol.
Its elements are water, earth, breath,
sun.
IV
Utilitas quaerit fructum, voluptas delectationem.
utility for fruit, pleasure for delight
Utilissimus autem is ager qui salubrior est quam alii. most useful field the healthier
Agri culturae quattuor sunt partes summae.
Agriculture has four parts.
V
(knowledge, equipment, operations, seasons)
de solo fundi
about the soil of the farm
VI
(conformation, quality, extent, protection)
segetes meliores exisitmantur esse campestres
plains best for grain
In locis feris plura ferunt, in iis quae sunt culta meliora.
VII
(Trees) produce more in the wild, better under cultivation.
Alii dant primatum bonis pratis.
Some give first to meadows.
quibus metirentur rura, alius alios constituit.
Diffrent measures in different
countries.
IX
Praeterea quod a sole toto die illustratior, salubrior est.
sun healthy
XII
ad anticorum diligentiam quam ad horum luxuriam to old
diligence not our luxury
XIII
si vicina regio est infesta
if the neighborhood is unsafe
XVI
nequis iniussu vilici exierit
no one leaves without overseer's
permission
Manicipia esse oportere neque formidulosa neque animosa.
slaves even temper
XVII
non ut verberibus coerceant potius quam verbis
control with words not whips
ad certum modum agri et genus sationis
to size or crop (number of slaves)
XVIII
Antiquissimi agricolae temptando pleraque constituerunt. old farmers by experiment
canes...acres paucos...quam multos
a few fierce dogs rather than many
XXI
Quae enim res cotidie videntur minus metuunt furem.
everyday not taken
XXII
ager crassus et laetus....frumentarium fieri
rich
soil supports grain
XXIV
Dicam de sole.
I shall speak of the sun.
XXVII
Dividitur in ver et aestatem et autumnum et hiemem.
(the seasons)
Vere sationes quae fiunt, terram rudem proscindere spring planting, break soil
Dies primus est veris in aquario.
first day of spring (sun) in Aquarius
XXVIII
Dies lunares quoque observandi.
Watch also the lunar period.
XXXVII
Primo praeparandum, secundo serendum, tertio nutricandum, quartio legendum, quinque
condendum, sexto
promendum.
prepare, plant,
cultivate, harvest, store, market
Ego arbitror praestare ex aviariis turdorum.
best dung from thrush aviary
XXXVIII
semen...duplex: quod latet...quod apertum
seed of two types: hidden and open
XL
In primis observes ne in terram nimium aridam aut variam. Don't plant in dry or wet land.
XLII
Dicam de fructibus maturis capiendis.
I shall speak about harvesting
crops.
XLIX
Quae manu tangi non poterunt ita quati debent.
shake what can't reach
LV
Olea alia ad cibum, alia ut eliquescat corpus.
Olive for food
and to wet body.
Itaque dominum et in balneas et gymnasium sequitur.
follows master to both
Promunt condita aut propterea quod sunt tuenda, aut quod utenda, aut quod vendenda.
Stored things bought out to protect, consumed, or sold.
LXII
de casu humano magis querentes quam admirantes id Romae fatum
LXIX
rather complaining at human misfortune than wondering that this happened in Rome
Nostri maiores praeponebant rusticos Romanos urbanis.
II Intro
Our ancestors ranked farmers first.
qui in villa vivunt ignaviores quam qui in agro versantur worker more active
propter avaritiam contra leges ex segetibus fecit prata
meadows from crops
Armentum enim id quod in agro non creat.
Cattle do not produce on land.
Ipse pecuarios habui grandes.
I have owned great flocks.
de origine et dignitate
about origin and dignity
I

a much better man than I
Nemo enim omnia potest scire.
No one can know everything.
Non omnes qui habent citharam sunt citharoedi.
Not all who own flute are flutists.
cum viverent homines ex his rebus quae inviolata ultro ferret terra
when men lived from those things the unviolated land willingly bore
primum oves assumptas
sheep were taken first
Signa multi numerant ab ariete et tauro, cum ea praeponerent Apollini et Herculi.
Many number the signs from the ram and bull, when they make Apollo and Hercules
second.
Romanorum vero populum a pastoribus esse ortum Romans from shepherds
de scientia pastorali
about animal husbandry
a quibus ipsa pecunia nominata est
from which money itself is derived
de pastione, de fetura, de nutricatu, de sanitate
about pasture, breed, feed, health
incipiat admissura fieri mares a feminis secretos
separate before breeding
quot diebus matris sugant mammam
how long access to breast
Quanti sunt porci sacres? (Plautus Men.)
What's the price of sacred pigs?
unum ad quae adhibendi medici, alterum quae ipse etiam pastor diligens mederi possit
One requires the doctor, the other the shepherd can handle.
de numero
about the number
Quoniam satis balasti
'Since you have bleated enough.'
III
Numquam enim sine febrei sunt.
(Goats) always with fever.
non naribus sed auribus spiritum ducere
(Goats) breathe through ears.
Quis e portu Italico prodit se de suillo pecore expedit?
Who sails from port to tell of
pig?
nec me esse ab Eumaeo ortum
not born from Eumaeus
IV
sumptuosum esse qui succidam in carnario suspenderit
luxurious who purchase ham
lupos, cum sint nancti sues, trahere usque ad aquam
wolves drag swine to water
Admissuras cum faciunt, prodigunt in lutosos limites
breed in mud
iis animam datam esse proinde ac salem
life given to them like salt
Vere sus usque adeo pinguitudine crescere solet ut se ipsa stans sustinere non possit.
In spring the sow grows so fat that she cannot support herself.
Parere dicunt oportere porcos quot mammas habeat.
Bear as many offspring as
teats.
in Italia, quae a bubus nomen habere sit existimata
In Italy, name derived from
V
Mas an femina sit concepta significat descensu taurus.
leaving shows sex
Lactantes cum matribus ne cubent; obteruntur enim.
Suckling crushed by mother.
Commode pascuntur farre et furfuribus hordeaecis.
Best food spilt and barley
bran.
VI
equi boni...contendit in currendo
best horses challenges a race
VII
Alii sunt ad rem militarem idonei, alii ad vecturam, alii ad admissuram, alii ad cursuram.
Some (horses) suited for fighting, some for transport, som for breeding, some for racing.
Nam muli et item hinni bigeneri.
Mule and hinny hybrids.
VIII
canes custos pecoris
dog guardian of herd
IX
mulos circumflexisse et eum occidisse
mules turned and killed wolf
canes e desiderio hominum...ad pastores redierunt dogs returned to shepherds
Cibatus canis proprior hominis quam ovis.
dog food like human, not sheep
in dominum adferant dentes
bite their master
Quam paucissimos reliqueris, tam optimi in alendo Fewer dogs grow larger.
ut singuli sequantur singulos opiliones
one dog per shepherd
in fundum satis esse duo
on a farm two suffice
Ad maiores pecudes aetate superiores, ad minores etiam pueri.
X
For large cattle men, for small cattle boys.
Neque enim senes neque pueri callium difficultatem facile ferunt. not old nor boy bear
quod habent conservam in villa
have mate on farm
easdem fere et nutrices et matres
mothers suckle young
ante nuptias ut succumberent quibus vellent
before marriage with anyone
de lacte et tonsura
about milk and shearing
XI
Omnino tonsores in Italiam primum venisse ex Sicilia dicuntur p R c a
CCCCLIII.
It is claimed that the first barbers arrived in Rome from Sicily in 300 BC.
cow.
rustica et urbana
country and city
III I
Antiquior enim multo rustica.
Country life first.
divina natura dedit agros, ars humana aedificavit urbes
country from divine source
Neque solum antiquior cultura agri, sed etiam melior.
Tilling more ancient and
noble.
Altera est villatica pastio, altera agrestis.
One homestead, other farming.
Malum consilium consultori pessimum.
Bad advice worse for advisor.
II
Duo genera cum sint pastionum, unum agreste...alterum villiaticum.
two
pasturages
utrum morticinas editis volucres an pisces
whether eat dead bird or fish
tria: ornithones, leporaria, piscinae
3: aviary, hare-pen, fishpond
III
sine retibus aucupis venstoris piscatoris ut glires cochlias gallinas tamed animals
apes...villatico usae tecto
bees used villa roof
Peream, ni piscem putavi esse.
Hanged, if I did'ít think it a fish.
post principia
after the beginning
IV
in mazomono coctos, alios volitare
see cooked and flying birds
inquinatur facilius et bibitur exire
foul and undrinkable
numerum exclusum...omnes occidit
kills all the selected number
quendam deprehensum tesserulas coientem
caught stuffing ballots
V
tecum duceret serram
'a bone to pick with you'
VI
Columbas redire solere ad locum licet animadvertere.
Doves return.
VII
Deinde manducato candido farciunt pane.
Stuff
with chewed white bread.
in certamine pertinaces
(cocks) stubborn in fighting
IX
quod inanae natet, plenum desidit
empty egg floats, full sinks
Gaillinae rusticae sunt in urbe rarae.
Wild hens rarely found in town.
Veneunt propter penuriam magno.
sold at high price because of rarity
sed requirit piscinas
(fowl) which wants fishponds
eligere oportet palustrem
(for ducks) select swamp
XI
paucos si lepores, mares ac feminas, intromiserit, brevi tempore fore ut impleatur
XII
If you admit a few rabbits of each sex, soon the place will be filled.
cervorum aprorum...multitudo
crowd of deer and boars
XIII
Glirarium autem dissimili ratione habetur.
Doormice hive different.
XV
volucres, quibus plurimum natura ingeni atque artis tribuit birds with talent
XVI
Apes nascuntur partim ex apibus, partim ex bublo corpore putrefacto.
Some bees are born from bees, others from the rotten corpse of a cow.
Apes non sunt solitaria natura.
bees companionable
cibus, domus, opus
food, home, work
hexagonon...plurimum loci includatur
hexagon encloses greatest
area
ut hominum civitates
like human cities
pungunt, non, ut muscas, ligurriunt
sting, not lick as flies
Regem suum secuntur.
They follow their king.
Omnes ut in exercitu vivunt.
All live as if in an army.
Nunc cursu lampada tibi trado.
Now I hand over the torch in race.
ne reguli plures existant; inutiles fiunt.
not several kings; become useless
vim illiciendi
force of attraction
Praeparandus his cibus.
provide food
ut coloniam emittere volunt
wish to send out as colony
permanent adeo libenter
willingly stay there
de fructu
about profit
ne infirmiores a valentioribus opprimantur
that weak not be overwhelmed
plebeiae cenae piscis
fish for plebs' meal
XVII
posteaquam perfodisset montem
after he cut a mountain
ut architecto permiserit ut suam pecuniam consumeret
spend as if own money
candidatus noster designatus aedilis in villam
our candidate as aedile
designate
Basic information about Columella:
Lucius Iunius Columella: Spaniard. tribune, De Re Rustica: 12 books. book 10 gardening
in verse
From De Re Rustica of Columella:
Oculos et vestigia domini res agro saluberrimas.
field.
4.18
Eyes and steps of master fertilize
From De Lingua Latina of Varro:
cur et unde sint verba
why and where words are
(etymology)
V.2
Multa verba aliud nunc ostendunt, aliud ante significabant
3
Many words now mean something other than what they once meant.
magis delectar quam utar
more pleasure than use
9
Omnis natura in caelum et terram divisa est.
All nature is divided into sky and
earth.
31
Sol...solus ita lucet.
Sun so named because it shines
alone.
68
Consul nominatus qui consuleret populum et snatum.
80
The consul was so named because he ought to consult with the people and senate.
In re militari praetor dictus qui praeiret exercitui.
In military matters the praetor was so named because he ought to go before the army.
milites, quod trium milium primo legio fiebat
soldiers, because three
groups of a thousand
89
sus quod us, bos quod bous, taurus quod tauros
pig, cow, bull
96
Origo potionis aqua, quod aequa summa.
origin of drink is aqua, level surface
123
ab aedibus et faciendo maxime aedificium
building plus do equals building
141
moenia quo moenitus esset
fortification from fortify
nox quod nocet
night because it harms
VI.6
dicta bruma, quod brevissimus tunc dies est
called bruma because shortest day
8
loqui ab loco dictum
56
proprio nomine dicitur facere a facie
78
Hypocorismata semper generibus suis unde oriuntur consonant, pauca dissonant, velut
haec rana hic ranunculus
fr10
Dies communis generis est.
Day is of common gender.
fr11
Basic information about Laberius:
Decimus Laberius 115-43 BC, rival of Publilius Syrus, mimes, women acted in his plays
From Decimus Laberius:
Necesse esse multos timeant quem multi timent.
He must fear many whom many fear.
Basic information about Cicero:
Marcus Tullius Cicero: born Arpinum, 106-43 BC, military service 89 BC under Ponpeius
Strabo, Pro Quinctio (81),
critic of Sulla, eastern sojourn, quaestor in Sicily 75, condemnation of Verres 70,
praetor 66, supported
Manilian Law for Pompey, consul 63 (novus homo), exiled by Clodius in 58,
recalled in 57, governor of
Cilicia 50-49, supported Pompey in Civil War, pardoned by Caesar, opposed
Antony, killed 12/7/43
married Terentia, children: Tullia and Marcus Tullius Cicero, association with
Atticus and Tiro
Works:
Orations:
Pro Quinctio (81)
Pro Roscio Amerino (80)
Pro Roscio Comoedo (77?)
In Caeciliam Divinatio, In Verrem (70)
Pro Tullio, Pro Fonteio, Pro Caecina (69)
Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Cluentio (66)
Contra Rullum, Pro Rabirio, In Catilinam, Pro Murena (63)
Pro Sulla, Pro Archia (62)
Pro Flacco (59)
Post Reditum, De Domo Sua, De Haruspicum Responso,
Pro Sestio, In Vatinium,
Pro Caelio, De Prov. Cons., Pro Balbo (56)
In Pisonem (55)
Pro Plancio, Pro Rabirio Postumo (54)
Pro Milone (52)
Pro Marcello, Pro Ligario (46)
Pro Rege deiotario (45)
Philippicae (45-4)
Rhetorica:
De Inventione (early), technical arguments
De Oratore (55), dialogue, advocates broad education,
general principles
Philosphica:
Brutus (46), survey of oratory and three styles
Orator (46), seems to advocate middle style
De Re Publica: (c. 51) theory of government based on Rome,
Somnium Scipionis
De Legibus (c.51-0), 'divinely sanctioned law based on
reason'
Paradoxa Stoicorum (46), 'haven of refuge'
Consolatio, Hortensius (both lost)
De Finibus: theories of summum bonum, compromise
between Stoic and Academic
De Natura Deorum: theories of the gods, need for state
religion
De Divinatione: rejection of prophecy, support of God
Tusculan Disputations: death, fear, grief etc.
De Senectute: old age best time if accept infirmities
De Amicita: a real friendship involves mutual support and
criticism
De Officiis: (44) advice on conduct
Poems;
Phaenomina: translation of Aratus
De Consulatu Suo: grandiloquent defense of his consulship
Letters:
931 in 16 books, some letters to him, most with
Atticus, clearly not intended for public,
theories why they were published and when
From Orator of Cicero:
Nescire autem quid ante quam natus sis acciderit, id est semper esse puerum.
34, 120
Not to know what happened before you were born is to be forever a child.
ex beato miser
wretched from
better times
from Cicero's Letters to Atticus:
Catilina, si iudicatum erit meridie non lucere, certus erit competitor.
I.1
If the jury says the sun doesn't shine midday, Catiline will be a competitor.
Filiolo me auctum scito, salva Terentia.
I have a son, wife safe.
2
Hoc tempore Catilinam, competitorem nostrum, defendere cogitamus.
At this time I propose to defend our competitor Catiline.
Crebras exspectationes nobis tui commoves.
make me think you're coming
4
ut abs te adiuvandi simus
to be helped by you
8
Nimium raro nobis abs te litterae adferuntur.
few letters from you
9
De comitiis meis: et tibi me permisisse memini.
left election to you
10
Libros vero tuos cave cuiquam tradas
keep books for me
11
Pompeium nobis amicissimum
Pompey very friendly to me
12
plus quam servi mors debere videbatur
more than slave's death should
anchora soluta de phaselo
anchor loosed from ship
13
me non esse rogatum sententiam praepositum
not first speaker
venisse pro muliebri vestitu virum
a man came disguised as woman
aperte laudat, occulte...invidet
praises but really jealous
senatus auctoritatem sibi maximi
held senate's authority high
14
me valde Crasso adiunxit
now close to Crassus
totus ille grex Catilinae duce filiola Curionis
Catiline's mob with little guy
Asiam Quinto suavissimo fratri obtigisse audisti
Asia granted to my brother
15
clemens lanista
soft-hearted trainer
16
an ne nummi vobis eripiuntur timebatis
scared to be pick-pocketed
epistula quam nolo alis legi
letter others not to read
absolutum esse bis Catilinam
Catiline twice acquitted
commissatores coniurationis, barbatuli iuvenes
bearded conspirators
asellus onustus auro
donkey loaded with gold
probitatis, integritatis, diligentiae, religionis
honor, integrity, diligence
17
conglutinatan concordiam
stitched unity
litus atque aer
seashore and air
18
cum uxore et filiola et mellito Cicerone
with wife, daughter, sweet little
Cicero.
neminem quocum iocari libere
no one with whom to joke
freely
vulnus ipsa medicina efficit
spe non corrigendae sed sanandae civitatis
senatus auctoritam et ordinum concoridam
amissa re publica piscinas suas fore salvas
integritate quam consilio
medicine itself wounds
of healing not correcting society
senate's authority and unity of orders
lose country, keep fishponds
more integrity than foresight
quibus fluctibus iactemur
retinendum me in urbe censuit
19
sentinam urbis exhauriri
salutem imperi atque orbis terrarum
by what squalls we are tossed
decreed I stay in Rome
dregs of city removed
safety of Rome and world
me rescripsit iam Rhodo Posidonius
Posidonius has wriiten me from
Rhodes.
II.1
Oratiunculas ...mittam.
I'll send my little speeches.
septima qua Catilinam emisi
seventh by which I sent away
Catiline.
venti valde sunt secundi
on favorable wave
equitatus...senatum deseruerit
knights deserted senate
mulli barbati in piscinis qui ad manum accedant
fish feed from hand
Catonem nostrum non tu amas plus quam ego.
You love Cato no more than I.
dicit enim tamquam in Platonis  
speaks as if in Plato's Republic
Paetus omnis libros..mihi donavit.
Paetus has given me all his books.
Clodius ergo ad Tigranem!
Clodius to Tigranes!
4
Cato ille noster, qui mihi usus est pro centum milibus
Cato worth ten
thousand
5
De istis rebus exspecto tuas litteras.
I await your letters.
quam essent inania
how empty these things
Sum complexus otium ut ab eo dicelli non queam. so devoted to leisure
6
ad lacertas captandas
for catching lizards
a scribendo prorsus abhorret animus
aversion to writing
ubi me interpellet nemo, diligant omnes
none hinder, all love me
reges odisse superbos
hates proud kings
8
illa  




that ox-eyed lady
9
video iam quo invidia transeat et ubi habitatura
where envy is headed
Volo ames meam constantiam.
you admire my steadiness.
10
inter suasorem facti et probatorem
(no difference) between instigator
and approver
12
tam lente quam ego fero
endures so easily as I
13
Quantum tu mihi moves expectationem de sermone Bibuli. whet my appetite
14
magnum quid adgrediamur et multae cogitationis atque oti big
project
non minus incerta in re publica quam in epistula tua letter and politics uncertain
15
quos ego homines effugi, cum in hos incidi
from frying pan to fire
agro Campano diviso
Campanian fields divided
16

in like a lion, then
turbat Sampsiceramus...
Pompey for trouble and power
17
sed conferemus tranquillo animo
let's talk with calm mind
Bellum est enim sua vitia nosse.
It is good to know our faults.
ne Sampsericami merita in patriam ad annos sescentos maiora viderentur quam nostra
that Pompey's services to country be higher regarded than mine
quoniam in me animo sit Arabarces.
how Pompey regard me
tenemur undique neque iam quo minus serviamus recusamus sed mortem et eiectionem
quasi maiora timemus 18
held on all sides we do not object to slavery but fear death and expulsion as worse
hic status, qui una voce omnium gemitur
state which all bemoan
voluntatem solutam, virtutem adligatam
will free, courage tied
a Caesare valde liberaliter invitor in legatione illam Caesar's offer of appointment to staff
apud pudorem Pulchelli
little beauty ís sense of decency
non simultatem meam revereri saltem
my displeasure nil (fr
Terence)
19
tam infame, tam turpe, iam pleraeque
omnibus generibus hated by all
utor via media
I use the middle way.
nostra miseria tu es magnus
to our misfortune you are great
si neque leges neque mores cogunt
if neither laws nor habits restrain
inimici erant equitibus...hostes omnibus
unfriendly to knights, enemy to all
sane res erat perturnata
everything disturbed
Noster autem Publius mihi minitatur, inimicus est. Clodius attacks me with tthreats.
Sunt enim illi apud bonos invidiosi, ego apud improbos.
They are hated by the good, I
by the unjust.
Caesar me sibi vult esse legatum.
Caesar wishes to make me his
assistant.
Hoc, opinor, certi sumus perisse omnia.
all has had it
Pompeius amat nos carosque habet.
Pompey cares for us.
20
Clodius adhuc mihi denuntiat periculum.
Clodius threatens trouble.
novo quodam morbo civitas moritur
country dying from new malady
medicina nulla adferatur
no medicine is bought forth
populare nunc nihil tam est quam odium popularium
popular to hate populares
poeta ineptus et tamen scit nihil
awful poet, yet ignorant
tota periit
all is lost
21
orbem rei publicae esse conversum
wheel of country turns
si homines transitum tempestatis exspectare potuissent
if had let storm pass
ille noster amicus, insolens infamiae
our friend, unused to disgrace
ut ille tam humilis, ut demissus erat
so humble, so downcast
spectaculum uni Crasso iucundum
sight pleasing to only Crassus
deciderat ex astris
a fallen star
Bibuli qui sit exitus futurus nescio.
Where Bibulus ends I don't know.
Clodius inimicus es nobis.
Clodius is hostile to us.
ille non destitit de nobis asperrime loqui
speaks most hostilely of me
22
expedita mihi erunt omnia si te habebo
smooth sailing if you're here
qua fide ab illis agatur
how much he can be trusted
Sampsiceramum nostrum amicum vehementer sui status paenitere Pompey deeply
regrets his present state.
23
desiderio versamur
engage in desire
Si dormis expergescere, si stas ingredere, si ingrederis curre, si curris advola.
If you sleep, awake; if you stand, walk; if you walk, run; if you run, fly!
Idem Bibulus Pompeium fecerat certiorem ut caveret insidias.
24
That same Bibulus warned Pompey to beware danger.
Me non nominavit.
He didn't name me.
salutem et dignitatem nostram
our safety and dignity
re publica nihil desperatius
country desperate
25
consilium totius rei capiemus
weíll form a full plan
III.2 Utinam illum diem videam cum tibi agam gratias quod vivere
coegisti!
3
Hope the day comes that I will thank you for convincing me to live!
valde paenitet vivere
greatly regret I live
4
Terentia tibi et saepe et maximas agit gratias.
Terentia thanks you.
5
Ego enim idem sum.
I am the same man.
Quod me ad vitam vocas, unum efficis
plea not to die partly useful
7
neminem umquam tanta calamitate esse adfectum no one suffered worse
non iam ad medicinam sed ad finem doloris
not remedy but end of sorrow
spem mutandarum rerum
hope of change
in maximis meis aerumnis et luctibus
in greatest woes and grief
8
scelere..proditi simus
By crime we were betrayed.
ei crediderim quem esse nefarium non putarim
trusted one I didn't regard as evil
Itaque mei peccati luo poenas.
I'm paying for my mistake..
9
nos non inimici sed invidi perdiderunt
not enemies but jealous
ruined me
animo infirmo esse dicis
You say I have weak mind.
10
Itaque siletur.
Thus all are silent.
12
Spem ostendis secundum comitia.
You give hope after elections.
cum ita me adflictum videas
You see how tired I am.
13
me ita dolore ut non modo a mente non deserar
Pain has not maddened me.
15
exspectationem Caesaris
hope of Caesar
In me enim ipsum peccavi vehementius.
I have treated myself worse.
aut honeste occubuissemus aut victores hodie viveremus honorable death or winning
life
neglegenda neglegere
to neglect when could
Quid de bonis? Quid de domo?
What about property and house?
proditus, inductus, coniectus
betrayed, misled, trapped
pro amicitia confirmasse causam nostram Pompeium certe suscepturum
18
that for friendship Pompey would take up our cause
me perfidia hominum spoliatum
spoiled by others' treachery
19
rem sibi magno honori sperat fore
hopes it will be great honor
22
nihil restituitur praeter civitatem et ordinem
only citizen and rank
23
Terentiam, unam omnium aerumnossimama
Terentia, most suffering
in hac calamitate tabescendam
pine away in disaster
25
legum lationem exspectare
to wait passage of law
26
potius vita quam patria carebo
lack life over country
Ex tuis litteris et ex re ipsa nos funditus perisse video.
totally ruined
27
splendorem nostrum illum forensem et in senatu auctoritatem et apud viros bonos gratiam
IV.1
public presence, influence in senate, respect among the good
Ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto.
My little Tullia was there.
Ad urbem veni.
I came to the city.
in re familiari valde sumus perturbati
finances poor
qui mihi pinnas inciderant nolunt easdem renasci ego clipped me not want me to grow
Amamur a fratre et a filia.
loved by brother and daughter
2
clamor, lapides, fustes, gladii
noise, stones, clubs, swords
3
ignari quantum in illo heroe esset animi
what a resourceful person
Si se in turba ei iam obrulerit, occisum iri ab ipso Milone video. If he gets in that kind
of scuffle, Milo will kill him.
demus operam ut ab iis qui possunt diligamur.
I try to be loved by powerful.
5
Nam quid foedius nostra vita?
what more foul than our life
6
Nos hic cum Pompeio fuimus. Multum mecum de re publica.
9
I have been with Pompey. We talked much about the country.
insanus si loquor...opus est...servus
crazy if speak, slave if expedient
nos vero ferrei
We are made of iron.
Ptolemaeum esse in regno
that Ptolemy is restored
10
litteris sustentor et recreor
by literature sustained and revived

to know all sweetest
11
Si quid novi forte habes, scribas ad me.
write anything new
14
Ardet ambitus.
Bribery is rampant.
15
Is tamen et mecum et cum Milone in gratiam rediit. returned to our favor
16
Nulla est es publica quae delectat.
No government I can delight.
18
quam bella paulisper nobis gubernantibus civitas great state I guided
ad litteras et studia nostra
to literature and our studies
V.1
litteras datas a litoribus Britanniae
letters from shores of Britain
cum Caesare suavissimam coniunctionem
sweet unity with Caesar
me esse legatum Pompeio
I am an assistant to Pompey.
Habuimus in Cumano quasi pusillam Romam.
Cumae small Rome
2
cum Pompeio  de re publica
my dialogue. on government with
Pompey
adhuc sumptus nec in me aut publice aut privatim nec in quemquam comitium.
10
no public or private expense by staff or me
Athenae delectarunt.
Athens delighted me.
Maecellus foede de Comensi.
Mís evil act at Como
11
Pompeius...in Hispaniam certe iturus.
Pompey will go to Spain.
Omia perspicere poteris: de Caesare, de Pompeio. understand all re them
13
Nos Asia accepit admirabiliter.
Asia greeted me well.
14
Non desidero: lucem, forum, urbem, domum.
not want forum, city, home
15
in perditam et plane eversam in perpetuum provinciam
ruined province
16
monstra quaedam non hominis sed ferae
excesses of not
human, but monster
De Partho silentium est.
nothing about the Parthians
ut nullus terruncius insumatur in quemquam
not a penny spent on anyone
inter caesa et porrecta
between the cup and the lip
18
...item
hear of panics and nerve war
20
iucunda de Caesare et quae senatus decrevit
pleasant about Caesar and senate
decree
Deiotarus...cum omibus copiis ipse prima aestate Euphraten transiturus sit.
21
Deiotarus will cross the Euphrates with all his troops at the beginning of summer.
cum Pompeius propter metum rerum novarum nusquam dimittatur, Caesari nullus honos a
senatu habeatur
Pompey not sent out and Caesar not honored
Quid multa?
to cut the story short
Brutum, quem ego omni studio te auctore sum complexus Brutus I embraced.
VI.1
In Pompeio te spem omnem oti ponere non miror. all peace in Pompey
Parthicum bellum inpendet.
Parthian war looms.
Magnus enim praetextatus illo die fui.
Pompey was in citizen's garb.
non  


not gold for bronze
Laetari te nostra moderatione et continetia video. You like my restraint.
2
aere alieno liberandos aut levandos dedi
freed them from debt
advenientem non esse peregrinum atque hospitem arrive not as stranger
3
P. Clodi canis
a dog of Clodius
non contemnere se et reges odisse superbos
not despise self but hate kings
magnum in Syria bellum
great war in Syria
nec mihi coniunctio cum Pompeio fore necesse peccare in re publica nec cum Pompeio
sentienti pugnandum esse cum
Caesare
join
with Pompey stay on Caesar's side
VII.1
cum altero vinci satius esse quam cum altero vincere
loss with one > win win
w/other
ut stultus primus suam sententiam dicat
Let the dunce speak first.
germanus Lartidius
a real Lartidius
Valetudo tua me valde conturbat.
Your health worries me.
2
Sin vincuntur boni, ubicumque essem, una cum iis victus essem. If the good lose, I lose
all with them.
3
De sua potentia dimicant homines hoc tempore periculo civitatis. struggle for power
Mihi  unum erit quod a Pompeio gubernabitur.
only Pompey's ship
Ipsum tamen Pompeium separatim ad concoediam hortabor.
urge Pompey
to peace
ab honestissima sententia digitum nusquam
stray from honor not an inch
Pompeium vidi IIII Id Dec.
saw Pompey December 10
4
Fortuna summam potentiam dederit, non arbitror fore tam amentem ut haec in discrimen
adducat.
Given greatest power, Caesar not mad enough to throw it all away.
De re publica cottidie magis timeo. Non enim boni...consentiunt.
5
I hear more about the state every day. The good are not united.
De re publica valde timeo, nec adhuc fere inveni qui non concedendum putaret
6
Caesari quod postularet quam depugnandum.
I fear for
country; most will concede to Caesar.
Utar ea porta quam primam videro.
I'll take the first gate I see.
7
annorum decem imperium et ita latum placet
approve ten year command?
aut depugnandum est aut habenda e lege ratio
either fight or permit him to
run
si ille vel dimisso exercitu consul factus sit, 
8
If Caesar is made consul, even giving up his army, the country is subverted.


Mars on both sides
(long analysis of all the options re Caesar and Civil War)
9
Quaeso, quid est hoc? Aut quid agitur? Mihi enim tenebrae sunt.
11
Please, what is this? Or what is happening? I am lost in the shadows.
Ubi est autem dignitas nisi ubi honestas?
Where is dignity without honesty?
ne ipsum quidem scire puto; nostrum quidem nemo Nobody knows what Pompey does.
12
si Pompeius Italia cedit
if Pompey leaves Italy
Labienum ab illo discessisse
Labienus has left Caesar
civile...ex unius perditi civis audacia
civil war from one bad man
13
Labienus, vir mea sententia magnus
Labienus, a great man in my opinion
13.a
Cato enim ipse iam servire quam pugnare mavult. Cato prefers slavery to war.
15
Sumus enim flagitiose imparati cum a militibus tum a pecunia. few soldiers, little money
Pacem enim desperavi.
I've given up on peace.
20
non animus est, non consilium, non copiae, non diligentia no spirit, no resources
21
Italia..in istius potestate
Italy is in his
possession.
22
Qua aut terra aut mari persequar eum qui ubi sit nescio?
how follow aimless man
Victi, oppressi, capti plane sumus.
We're beaten, crushed, captured.
Non dubito quin Gnaeus in fuga sit.
I'm sure Pompey has fled.
24
Malas causas semper obtinuit, in optima concidit.
25
wins in bad, loses in best
semper flagitiosae et calamitosae fugae
disgraceful, disastrous flight
VIII.1
nemo stultior quam L. Domitius
none dumber than Lucius.Domitius.
Unus Pompeius me movet.
Pompey alone moves me.
urbem reliquit, id est patriam
abandoned Rome, his home
2
Poterisne igitur videre tyrannum?
You can endure seeing tyrant?
si Pompeius Italia excedat
If Pompey leaves Italy
3
incredibiliter pertimuit, nihil spectat nisi fugam
fearfully seeks flight
7
Aluerat Caesarem, eundem repente timere coeperat, condicionem pacis nullam probaret,
nihil ad bellum pararat,
urbem reliquerat.
8
nursed Caesar, suddenly feared him, made no peace, ill-prepared a war, left the city
amemus Gnaeum nostram...laudare non possum
love hom, but not praise him
9a
nihil malle Caesarem quam ut Pompeium adsequeretur
Caesar hopes to fight for
Pompey
moderatori rei publicae beata civium vita
goal of politician good life
11
nihil fieri potest miserius
nothing could be worse
navem paratam haberemus
we have ship prepared
11b
Recognovi tuam pristinam virtutem in salute communi.
your old spirit
11c
rei publicae causa mare transiturum
You cross sea
for country.
11d
primum de pace vel iniqua condicione retinenda
peace on any terms
omnia officio metior
I measure all by duty.
12
Quod veritus sum facrum est.
What I feared happened.
12a
ut Brundisium ducerem
order me to go to Brundisium
Valde miror te ad me nihil scribere.
I wonder that you write nothing.
12b
ne distracti pares esse adversario non possimus
can't split forces
12c
Hortor ut quam primum hoc venias.
I urge you to come here.
Si nactus hic esset Gnaeum nostrum, spes dubia pacis.
slight chance if...
13
quam acutum, quam vigilantem, quam paratum
how sharp,
watchful, ready
ut timeam ne citius ad Brundisium quam opus sit accesserit.
may get here soon
14
Ego tecum tamquam mecum loquor.
talk with you as self
periculum in utriusque iracundia
danger in either's anger
15
Pompeium ad nullam condicionem accessuram
Pompey will agree to no terms.
Caesarem et Pompeium in pristinam concordiam (put) Pompey and Caesar in past
unity
15a
sine sanguine
without blood
omnia praeter occultum et tutum iter ad mare superum
all except safe escape
16
Tamen angebar singularum horarum exspectatione. tortured with waiting
IX.1
uni, ne id quidem roganti
for one not even asking
Gnaeus bene comitatus conscendisset et consules transissent
2
Pompey has fled and the consuls have crossed.
impetrabis a Caesare ut tibi abesse liceat et esse otioso
beg from Caesar
2a
Ingrati animi crimen horreo.
I dread charge
of ingratitude.
Quem habebunt exitum? Omittam causam rei publicae...de Pompeio quid agam?
5
What escape will I have? I omit the duty to country. What shall I do about Pompey?
Adde tali viro talem causam agenti.
such a man, such a cause
Postquam Pompeius et consules ex italia exierunt, non angor sed ardeo dolore.
6
After Pompey and consuls have left Italy, I burn with sorrow.
acta ne agamus
Let bygones be bygones.
praeterire tmen non potui quin et scriberem ad te
(JC) had to write you
6a
non videri eam tuam esse dignitatem neque fidem to oppose unworthy (Balbus)
7a
ut malit mihi esse amicus quam iis
that I be friend first
7c
perire melius esset in patria quam patriam servando evertere
9
better to die in country than save country by overturning it
Nunc mihi libri nihil, nihil litterae...prodest.
books and literature useless
10
sol excidisse e mundo
sun has fallen out of sky
Experiar certe ut hinc avolem.
I shall try to flee.
dum anima est spes
while life there is hope
consilio meo se uti velle
11
Pompeio reconciliando
(JC) wishes to use my advice
C to JC: I can reconcile P
11a
ut aliqua inimici misericordia liberemur
12
ego ei prodesse quam mihi ille
13
ne bis eadem legas
13a
Pompeius se oppido tenet.
14
Nihil a me abesse lingius crudelitate.
16
Tu velim mihi ad urbem praesto sis.
Veni igitur et age de pace.
18
Credo igitur hunc non amare. At ego me amavi.
enemy free me from misery
if I had helped as he did
not to read twice
Pompey shuts self in town.
(JC) I am not cruel.
I wish you be at Rome.
(JC) Come and seek peace.
He disliked me, I liked myself.
bellum non iniustum sed pium et necessarium
just and necessary war
X.4
Quis enim potest aut deserta per se patria aut oppressa beatus esse?
What happiness can there be for an oppressed deserter?
Sed nulla nostra culpa est, natura metuenda est.
not my fault; nature is to be feared
Renandi contentio est.
fight for power
7
Beneficio vinctus ingratus esse non possum.
bound by favor must favor him
Non esse iudicium de tota contentione in Hispania. Spain will not end conflict.
8
Non medios esse iam non licebit.
can't be a neutral
Pacem putavi fore.
I thought there would be peace.
Quod ne facias pro iure nostrae amicitiae a te peto. (JC) By friendship don't!
8b
Nihil nisi atrox et saevum cogitat.
(Caelius): he plots evil.
9a
Me caecum qui haec ante non vierim!
blind not to see
10
luntriculo...eripiam me ex istorum parricidio
by raft to escape murderers
Iuvenem nostrum non possum non amare. Sed ab eo nos non amari plane intellego.
(of MA): I can't help but like him, but he doesn't like me.
De eius filio, indulsit illi quidem suus pater semper. spoiled brat (Q.Cicero jr)
11
Nos iam nihil nisi occulte.
I do all by stealth.
Concursus Siculorum ad Catonem dicitur factus.
report of support for Cato
12
Iubes enim de profectione me providere.
You bid me prepare flight.
12.a
Trahimur, nec fugiendum si quid violentius.
Pulled, I may use force.
nihil inimicius quam sibi ipse
his own worst enemy
13
illum sibi iratum, hunc non amicum
14
hominem infeliciorem
18
Ne discessisse ab armis numquam paenituit.
XI.6
de conservanda sed etiam augenda mea dignitate
De Pompei exitu mihi dubium numquam fuit.
neither friendly
unluckiest man
never regret quitting war
to save and raise my dignity
I never doubted Pompey's
end.
Dicebar debuisse cum Pompeio proficisci.
said I should have fled w/P
7
ad illum contra me
to him (JC) against me
9
Ita omnibus rebus urgeor.
beset in all ways (sides)
ne spes ulla ostendatur fore melius
no hope for better
12
Plura ne scribam dolore impedior.
can't write more in grief
13
non quo ab isto salus data...firmitudinis
can't rely on him for safety
14
neque ad illos reditus...neque ab his ipsis...ad spem no return, no hope
15
de illius Alexandria discessu nihil adhuc rumoris he hasn't left Alexandria
18
a domino
from the master
20
mihi... irasci gravissima iniuria accepta
can't relieve anger
24
omnia fecimus iis erroribus et miseriis et animi et corporis our doing
25
Unum te puto minus blandum esse quam me.
We can't be bamboozled.
XII.3
Quod scribis Terentiam de obsignatroibus mei testamenti loqui.
18a
You write that Terentia is speaking about witnesses to my will.
optimum consulem
Cato re Cicero: best consul
21
mihi omne onus imponis
put entire burden on me
22
De Attica molestum, sed quoniam leviter, recte esse confido. hope
Attica OK
23
rem publicam lugere
to bewail the country
28
Mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo.
true to self
Hirtius ad me scripsit Sex. Pompeium Corduba esisse.
Sextus Pompey has fled
37a
Neque enim curo.
Indeed I don't
care.
nec Carteia Pompeium teneri
44
 sunt, minore labore fiunt.
52
Pompey not shut in at Carteia
easy transcripts
Brutus heri venit in Tusculanum post horam decimam. Brutus arrived.
XIII7a.
Minime miror te et graviter ferre de amarcello.
You take M's
death hard.
10
Brutus si quid egerit, curabis ut sciam.
let know of Brutus
quam maturum sit
how time presses (?)
11
flumina et solitudines
streams and solitude
16
Vides propinquitas quid habet.
You see nearness as a gain.
18
A Caesare litteras accepi consolatorias.
consoling
letter from Julius Caesar
20
De fama nihil sane laboro.
don't work for reputation.
21
vita fert
'that's life'
22
Libri ad Varronem non morabuntur.
Book on Varo out soon.
23
possum falli ut homo
as a man can
be deceived
23a
toto bello confecto nihil scripturum
Until war ends write nothing.
27
quam enim turpis est adsentatio
servility vile
28
Mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo.
conscience more than words
si scias quanto periculo tuo!
If you knew how dangerous!
35
Balbus minor mecum. Nihil novi sane.
B jr here with no news
37
Brutus illum ad bonos viros? Sed ubi nos? Nisi forte se suspendit.
40
Brutus joining the good? But where? Unless he hangs himself!
Me hortaris ut eos dies consummam in philosophia spend time on philosophy
45
o magistrum molestum!
bothersome schoolmaster
47
si ille tali ingenio exitum non reperiebat
XIV.1
sed quicquid vult valde vult
Tamen non dubito quin me male oderit.
Tument negotia.
if JC can't find answer
What he wants he greatly wants.
(JC re Cicero): no doubt hates me
Things are cooking.
4
mutationem consili inconstantiam
change of mind not inconsistency
7
o di boni! Vivit tyrannis, tyrannus occidit!
Tyrant fell; tyranny endures.
9
Omnia plena pacis.
all full of peace
te clamare causam perisse si funere elatus esset
cause lost if funeral
10
 storum scribis.
You tell of people's looseness.
11
Hic mecum Balbus, Hirtius, Pansa. Modo venit Octavius. Balbus, Hirtius, Pansa and
now Octavian with me
 

fine deed, but half done
Nobiscum hic perhonorifice et peramice Octavius. Octavian is here in friendship.
12
Si est bellum civile futurum, quid nobis faiendum sit ignoro.
13
If there is a civil war, I do not know what to do.
Sed haec fors venerit.
This must be left to chance.
Sin autem mansero, fore me quidem video in discrimine. stay in danger
quam dissolute, quam turpiter, quam...perniciose how wantonly, basely, viciously
Nostras certationes res publica diiudicavit.
State judged our dispute.
13b
Ita Brutos Cassiumque defendis quasi eos ego reprehendam.
14
You defend the Bruti and Cassius as if I attack them.
praeterita omittamus
let bygones be bygones
Spero meliora.
I hope for better things.
16
Idibus Martiis accessit ad amorem
3/15 added to my love for him
17a
Dolabella...me sibi inimicissimum reddidit.
Dolabella has
made me his enemy.
18
Nos autem alium portum propriorem huic aetati videbamus.
19
We see a different port more appropriate to our age.
suam quoique sponsam, mihi meam
to each his bride, mine to me
20
gratas fuisse meas litteras Bruto et Cassio gaudeo. glad they liked my letter
timere otium
to fear leisure
21
Amariorem enim me senectus facit.
crabby in old age
Me Idus Martiae non tam consolantur quam antea. 3/15 not console as before
22
ubivis tutius quam in senatu
safer elsewhere than in senate
cur ego personatus ambulem
why walk in a mask
XV.1
scripsissem ardentius
1a
Quod scribis te nescire quid nostris faciendum sit.
4
Me Idus Martiae non delectant.
Plane non habeo quid scribam.
5
Haec enim, quae fluunt per se, diuturna non sunt.
6
Sed auctor non sum ut te urbis committas.
11
negabam oportere praeterita
Contrahi mihi negotium videtur.
in Octaviano satis ingeni, satis animi
12
Qua de re enim potius pater filio?
13a
superbiam ipsius reginae
15
non ad fugam sed ad spem mortis melioris
20
illa infirma, haec nefaria
certiorem nebulonem
21
Ego propero ne ante Sextus, quem adventare aiunt.
needs more fire
You don't know what to do.
3/15 not please me
I have nothing to write.
present in flux
can't advise you come to Rome
don't cry over split milk
sands are running out
Octavian has right attitude.
what better father to son?
the arrogance of the queen
not flight but better death
weakness or disgrace
worthless good-for-nothing
hurry to forestall Sextus (Pompey)
in vino et in somno animi istorum
in wine and sleep for them
XVI.1
Bruto tuae litterae gratae erant.
Your letter pleased Brutus.
2
ut omnes exercitus dimittantur
all armies be dismissed
4
nostri Romam redirent
ours return to Rome
7
Tu mihi, sicut esse soles, fuisses Cato.
As always be my Cato.
Magna molitur.
great schemes afoot
8
Suasi ut Romam pergeret.
I urge him to go to Rome.
ut negotium susciperet
to take up the work
11
an veniam Romam
Should
I come to Rome?
12
si multum possit Octavianus, multo firmius acta tyranni comprobatum
14
If Octavian gains power, the tyrant's acts will be approved.
non sane movet res publica
country does not move me
15
in ipsam flammam
into the very fire
Mihi nemo est amicior nec iucundior nec carior Attico.
Atticus best friend
16
from Cicero's Epistulae ad Familiares:
Pompeius cum pro Milone diceret
Pompey spoke for Milo
I.vb
imaginem video in rebus tuis
I see copy in your situation.
vi
non modo dignitatis, sed ne libertatis quidem
not of dignity nor freedom
ix
ego maximo dolore cognoram
I learned by bitter pain
non solum beneficio, sed amore (re Pompey)
not by favor, but by love
fortuna et felicitate C. Caesaris commotum
dazzled by Caesar's luck
Pompeius...Lucam ad Caedsarem venit.
Pompey went to Caesar at Luca.
semperque sensisset
opinions I always held
cum Cn. Pompeius princeps esset
when Pompey was first man
in coniuncta et causa et dignitate
in friendship, cause, and dignity
non mihi exercitum sed duces defuisse
leaders failed me
suam auctoritatem simul cum salute mea recuperassent
their influence, my safety
qui non pluris fecerat Bonam Deam quam tres sorores
tainted goddess and sisters
desciscere me a pristina causa
to depart from past views
cognosce de Crasso
learn abour Crassus
ut cum Crasso redirem in gratiam
to regain Crassus' favor
apertius ac saepius
more openly and more wisely
cum dignitate otium
leisure with dignity
Nam illo si veneris tam Ulixes, cognosces tuorum neminem.
x
If you arrive very late, you will recognize not one friend.
vel animi vel ingeni tui
of your courage or capacity
II.i
Sed spero nostram amicitiam non egere testibus.
no witnesses needed
ii
in veterem dignitatem ac libertatem
to former dignity and freedom
v
mentem omnem in Milonis consulatu fixi
fixed
mind on Milo's race
vi
bonorum studium conciliatum
support of loyalists
maioris animi, gravitatis, constantiae benevolentiae great mind and will
Audio sero.
I hear late.
vii
Novi animum, novi consilium tuum.
I know your spirit, your advice.
cum Pompeio complures dies
several days with Pompey
viii
et animo et consilio paratum
prepared in heart and mind
sus Minervam
to compare a pig to Minerva
ix
Parthos times, quia diffidis copiis nostris.
x
Mirum me desiderium Urbis.
xi
Faveo Curioni; Caesarem honestum esse cupio.
honored
xv
quam mhi ipsi socero non honestos
xvi
mihi quidem turbulenta videntur fore
xviii
non invita Minerva
III.i
addo urbanitatem
vii
ut adversus magistrum morum, modestior
xiii
You fear the Parthians.
I miss the city much.
favor Curio, want Julius Caesar
not proper to father in law
things seem disturbed
with Minerva willing
I add your urbanity.
more modest to meet censor
opis occidenti rei publicae
help to sinking state
IV.i
defensor pacis
defender of peace
maiorem ex pernicie et peste reopublicae molestiam more sorrow from public bad
iii
omnem meam curam atque operam ad philosophiamall on philosophy
intra modum
with moderation
a studio te abduci negotiis intelligo
you are withdrawn from such
iv
de obitu Tulliae...graviter molesteque tuli
suffer her death
v
nos homunculi indignamur
we petty mortals resent
hominem te esse natum
been born human
Cum respublica occideret, vita excessisse.
She died with state.
Nullus dolor est quem non longinquitas temporis minuat ac molliat.
Every sorrow is diminished with the passage of time.
malorum initia
beginnings of evils
vii
Victi sumus.
We were defeated.
initia belli civilis invitum suscipere
unwilling to begin in civil war
oppetenda mors esset, domi atque in patria mallem prefer death at home
Si enim libertatem sequimur, qui locus hoc dominatu vacat?
viii
If we follow liberty, where can we escape such rule?
primum tempori cedere, id est necessitati parere
yield to time and necessity
ix
Nec locus tibi ullus dulcior esse debet patria...quod deformior est, sed miserari potius.
You ought to love your homeland even with its faults.
Omnia sunt misera in bellis civilibus.
all misery in civil wars
nec eam diligere minus debes, quod deformior est love even deformed country
in urbe modo gratia, auctoritate, gloria floruimus We flowered in influence.
xiii
pacis spe, non belli cupiditate
hope of peace, not lust for war
xiv
In magno omnes, sed tamen in communi sumus.
great, but common danger
xv
hominem gravem et civem egregium
V.ii
hominis importunissimi contumeliae
iii
mihi tua clementia opem tuleris
iv
bonum nomen
vi
tuos veteres hostes, novos amicos
vii
cum consulibus...tanta contentione decertavi
viii
veteri nostrae necessitudini iamdiu debitum
operam, curam, diligentiam, auctoritatem meam
o hominem nequam
grave man and citizen
insults of very troublesome man
help me with usual clemency
good name (debt)
past enemies, now friends
I fought the consuls.
long-standing debt
all my powers (for Crassus)
worthless man (Crassus)
A: IV 13
sicut alterum parentem
as if I were a second parent
viii
Faciam omnia sedulo.
I shall do all things carefully.
xa
nives, frigora, imbres detruserunt
weather dislodged me
xb
non laboriosa mihi et honesta
not a bother and honorable
xi
Epistula non enim erubescit.
'A letter does not blush.'
xii
Habet enim praeteriti doloris secura recordatio delectationem.
The report of
past sorrow brings delight.
ancipites variique casus habent admirationem
change of fortune delights
laudari se a laudato viro
to be praised by a praised man
Scribam ipse de me.
I shall write about myself.
non aliunde pendere
to depend on nothing else
xiii
nos autem erimus etiam in omnium desperatione fortes
brave in desperation
solitudine...nihil isto potest esse iucundius
solitude sweetest
xiv
Ad amicosne confugiam? Quam multi sunt?
flee to friends; how many
xv
Litterae, credo, quibus utor assidue.
literature, which I do
omnibus telis fortunae proposita sit vita nostra
life subject to slings of luck
xvi
prolatio temporum perditorum
run of bad days
libertati ac saluti loci
place of freedom and safety
simplex illa cura doloris tui
simple care for own sorrow
viri benevolentissimi atque amicissimi
most kind and friendly
hominem te et virum esse
that you are a man
xvii
Plus tibi virtus tua dedit quam fortuna abstulit.
xviii Virtue has given more to you than fortune has taken from you
quam levissime ferre
endure with light heart.
mihi consilium captum iamdiu est
long laid plans
xix
Quid rectum sit apparet.
right path is clear
Omnes non solum probant, sed etiam laudant.
All approve amd applaud.
xx
alii interierunt, alii absint
Some died, some are away.
xxi
inter victorias non multum interfuturum
not much difference between them
praeter peccatum ac culpam
besides fault and wrong
nec habet exploratam rationem salutis suae
no plan of own safety
VI.i
Non ego causam nostram, sed consilium improbabam.
rejected plan, not cause
Usu autem armorum et militum robore inferiores sumus. weaker in arms
togati potius potentiam quam armati victoriam
peace to power, war to victory
armis urgeri rempublicam sempiternis
country beset by lasting arms
ii

coals to Newcastle
iii
Moderate quod evenit feramus.
Let's endure what happened.
iv
cursu suo bene confecto delectatur
delighted by life lived well
quantum valeam quantumque possim
so much as I can
v
ne coniungeret se cum Caesare...ne seiungeret
not to ally, then not to break
vi
clarus in toga et princeps
leading man in Rome
plus pudor mesu quam timor
sense of shame more than fear
paene refugiens
almost turning tail
vii
quid amiseris oblivisci
forget what you have lost
xi
unum perfugium doctrina ac litterae
one escape: learning and lit.
xii
Epistula..non erubescit.
A letter does not blush.
Habet enim praeteriti doloris secura recordatio delectationem.
nothing more delightful than safe recollection of past sadness
timidus...is ego sum
I am a coward.
xiv
Tibi gratulor, mihi gaudeo.
I greet you and am delighted.
xv
De Hispaniis novi nihil.
nothing about Spain
xviii
Me Romae tenuit omnino Tulliae meae partus.
Tullia keeps me here.
Itaque ne litterae quidem meae impediuntur.
my works not stalled
appropinquare exitus huius calamitosissimi belli
end of disastrous war coming
xxi
timebam ne evenirent ea quae acciderunt
I feared what did happen.
nihilo meliora sunt nunc
no better now
xxii
salvum conserves
watch for own safety
ad ludos...ceteri mirantur, contemnenda duxisti
VII.i
Quid enim delectationis habent sexcenti muli?
operam et oleum perdidisse
homo imecillus a valentissima bestia laniatur
You hate games others like.
600 mules what delight?
'wasted oil and toil'
weak man torn by strong
beast
hoc tempore vita nulla est
at this time life nothing
iudicio malo quam gladio
prefer judgment to sword
ii
tantum studium bonorum in me
the good stood with me
suis militibus confidere
to trust in his troops
iii
Victus solus fugit.
Defeated, he fled alone.
Veni domum.
I returned home.
Ubi non sis qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere?
Weakened, why wish to live?
Sumus enim putidiusculi.
We are a bit fulsome.
v
In Britannia nihil esse audio neque auri neque argenti.
no metal in Britain
vii
potius ad nos serius, dum plenior
return late, but
wealthy
ix
terrae filius
son of the earth
neque spectare essedarios...ne andabata quidem
neither charioters nor blindfolded
gladiatora
Fac ut quam primum sciam.
Inform me quickly.
Aut consolando aut consilio aut re iuvero. Ter.HT86 all yours
ut inter bonos bene agier oportet
honestly among the good
xii
puto te malle a Caesare quam inaurati
'consulted rather than gilded'
non ex iure
not by law
xiii
quam sint morosi qui amant
those loved hard to please
xiv
sero sapiunt
wise too late
xvi
amicitiae confirmandae clarissimi ac liberalissimi viri
to form friendship
manum de tabula, magister adest citius
stop writing, teacher here
xxv
cetera labuntur
'all else passes away'
Estne? Vici?
(Caelius to Cicero)
Have I won?
VIII.iii
cuus locum C. Curio petiit.
Curio a candidate
iv
Omnes oportere senatui dicto audientes esse.
all obliged to follow senate
Transfugit ad populum et pro Caesare loqui coepit. now popular for Caesar
vi
Curio se contra eum totum parat.
Curio plans to attack him.
viii
Pompeius tuus aperte Caesarem vetat et provinciam tenere cum exercitu et consulem esse.
Pompey forbids Caesar to hold province with army and be consul.
ix
omnis contentio coniecta est de provinciis
all argument about provinces
xi
illius simiae vultum subire
endure monkey faces
xii
homo taeter et ferus
loathsome and brutal
QF ii 11
qui neque exercitum neque provincias tradere vellet Let him run with army .
VIIIxiii
ex partium sensu
by party lines
xiv
me ad annum pacem videre
peace can't last a year
sunt dimicaturi
will be fought
Cn. Pompeius constituit non pati C. Caesarem consulem aliter fieri, nisi exercitum et
provincias tradiderit.
Pompey has decided not to permit Caesar to run for consul unless he gives up his province
and army.
Caesari autem persuasum est se salvum esse non posse, si ab exercitu recesserit.
Caesar is convinced he would be unsafe to give up his army.
qui cum timore aut mala spe vivant accessuros
all living in fear or hope to Caesar
Si alter uter eorum ad Parthicum bellum non est, video magnas impendere discordias.
If neither fights the Parthians, I see great disputes.
hominem ineptiorem quam tuum Cn. Pompeium
man more inept than Pompey
xv
malis orbiculatis esse pasti
Venere prognatus
atrox et saevum
xvi
quas tibi nuntio adventu Caesaris fore nostras
insolentiam et iactationem
eligas censeo aliquod oppidum vacuum a bello
in Hispania fuisse
xvii
nec homo nec ordo quisquam est nisi Pompeianus
feeding on fancy apples
offspring of Venus
fierce and wild
Spain will be ours
insolence and insults
choose a town unaffected by war
I was in Spain.
all people and order for Pompey
redisse cum veteribus amicis, id est cum libris nostris
with friends: books
IX.i ut vitemus oculos hominum, si linguas minus facile
possimus
Avoid the eyes and tongues of men.
ii
sive quod gravitas morbi facit ut medicinae egeamus
iii
or because the severity of the disease compels us to take medicine
illorum timebam ad quos veneramus
feared even our victory
vi
At in perturbata republica vivimus.
We live in disturbed country.
quid hic mihi faciet patri
what for me if father so done
vii
ut te aut cum Caesare nobiscumque coniungere aut certe in otium referres.
ix
(Dolabella to Cicero): I urged you to join Caesar or seek neutrality.
pulso Italia, amissis Hispaniis, capto exercitu veterano
defeated everywhere
se abdiderit in classem
hide in fleet
firmitatem et constantiam
strength and persistence
xi
fortuna quam vitare nemo potest
fortune which none avoid
xiii
Semper amavi M. Brutum...Idibus Martiis...ad amorem
admire Brutus more
xiv
Romani veteres atque urbani sales
city wit of Rome
xv
infusa peregrinatas...bracatis nationibus
foreigners..trousered tribes
Ne mihi quidem ipsi tunc placebat diutius abesse ab reipublicae custodia. Sedebamus enim
in puppi et clavum
tenebamus.
wanted to
guide state as captain
quos ego non modo reges appellatos, sed omnino natos nesciebam from unknown kings
parebo auctoritati tuae
I will take your advice.
quasi aurum igni, sic benevolentia periculo
gold by fire, amity by danger
xvi
nihil video quod timeam
I see nothing to fear.
Salis enim satis est, saniorum parum.
witty non smart enough
Nos enim illi servimus, ipse temporibus.
xvii
Munio me ad haec tempora.
xviii
Plures pavones confeci quam tu pullos columbinos.
sus Minervam
Nonne plebeio sermone agere tecum?
xxi
At hodie penis est in obscenis.
xxii
ut cum viris bonis...vivas. Nihil aptius vitae.
xxiv
hominem non sapientem
xxv
Habeo, non habeor a Laide
xxvi
we his slave, he time's
I protect myself in danger.
I ate more peacocks than you doves.
as a pig teaches Minerva
Do I use plebeian talk?
Today pen's is an obscenity.
live with good men: best life
not wise man
I have her. not she me.
non insolentia sed immanitas
not arrogance but brutality
X.i
in re publica hominis intemperatissimi oppressa
in state crushed by bad man
in summa impunitate gladiorum
high licence of the sword
ii
tua consilia mihi plena fidelitatis (Plancus to C)
high fidelity in advice
iv
Omnino patriae caritas meo quidem iudicio maxima.
love of country highest
v
Pacis enim auctor eras.
You sought peace.
vi
Copias adduco et numero et genere et fidelitate firmissimas. my troops solid
ix
Subveni patriae.
Help your
country.
x
Iovi ipsi iniquus
unfriendly to Jove himself
xii
Homerus non Aiacem, non Achillem, sed Ulixem appellavit xiii
Homer called not Ajax nor Achilles, but rather Odysseus sacker of cities.
Ipse tibi sis senatus.
Be yourself a senate.
xvi
Incumbe ut belli extrema perficias.
Put an end to the war.
xix
Qui enim Antonium oppresserit, is bellum confecerit.
beat Anthony, end
the war
Quis enim id effugerit?
Who is infallible?
xx
bis ad eundem (lapidem)
twice against same (stone)
Non licuit diutius bene de eo sperare. (of Lepidus) can't hope good from him
xxi
perditis hominibus
desperadoes
se cum Antonio coniuxit
(Lepidus)
joined with Antony
xxiii
vili munere orationis
'cheap currency of words'
xxiv
moderatissimi atque humanissimi (of Octavian)
reasonable and humane
Pacis inter cives conciliandae te cupidum esse laetor.
You seek peace.
xxvii ad illas pulcherrimas epulas Idibus Martiis
splendid banquet on 3/15
xxviii
praeclarus D. Brutus; puer egregius Caesar
Brutus and Octavian good
Natura autem mea et studia trahunt me ad pacis et libertatis cupiditatem.
xxxi
My nature and inclination pull me toward an eagerness for peace and freedom.
in potestate unius..ei me inimicum
hostile to any sole ruler
plane bene peculiatus
loaded with dough
xxxii
bestiis cives Romanos...obiecit (of Balbus)
thrown citizens to beasts
dici etiam Octavianum cecidisse...dii prohibeant
Octavian killed...God forbid
xxxiii
nihil in Lepido spei sit
no hope in Lepidus
communi salute ac libertate
common safety and liberty
xxxv
pessima scilicet et infidelissima
XI.i
nullae partes sibi
inolsentia et nostri insectatio
ut hostes indicemur aut aqua et igni interdicamur
Dandus est locus fortunae.
ut liceret nobis esse Romae publico praesidio
otium...libertate communi
ii
contumeliosas, minaces, minime dignas
iii
pluris nostram libertatem quam tuam amicitiam
post hominum memoriam maxima
v
si enim iste provinciam nactus erit
rempublicam dominatu regio liberes
ne auctoritatem senatus exspectes
vii
adulescentem Caesarem
ut antea rege, sic hoc tempore regno
viii
Sequar eum confestim.
him at once.
ix
ad hominem ventosissimam
Multae et bonae et firmae sunt legiones Lepidi.
worst and unfaithful
no part for him
insolent and persecuting
declared enemy and interdicted
must yield to fortune
to have public bodyguards
leisure with freedom
insulting, threatening, vile
more our liberty than your amity
greatest in human memory
if he gains the province
free country from kingly rule
don't wait for senate
the young Caesar
as from king, so now from kingdom
I shall follow
to a windblown man
Lepidus' legions are rock-solid.
aut ad Lepidum ut se conferat, si recipitur
go to Lepidus, if he takes him
x
Sed neque Caesari imperari potest nec Caesar exercitu suo. O nor army controlled.
Alere iam milites non possum.
I can't pay my soldiers.
non modo non restinctum bellum, sed etiam inflammatum war inflamed
xii
cum paucis inermis...fugisse Antonium
Antonyfled
with a few unarmed men.
Parmenses miserrimos
people of Parma wrteched
xiiia
de ornando adulescente
about honoring the youth
xiv
non recipi Antonium a Lepido
Antony not received by
Lepidus
Senatus fortis est et habet fortes duces.
Brave senate has brave leaders.
xviii laudandum adulescentem, orandum, tollendum
youth praised,
honored, raised xx
Nihil enim tua mihi vita potest esse iucundius neque carius. your life first
Cavebo omnia.
I shall beware of all.
xxi
Omni timore deposito, debenus libere reipublicae consulere. fearlessly plan
xxiii frenum momorderis
bite the
rein
Deliberent utrum traiciant legiones ex Africa necne. whether to move legions
xxvi
quod parum valedtudini parceret
unsparing of health
xxvii
laudandam esse fidem et humanitatem tuam
praise your loyalty
boni cuiusquam offenderet animum
nothng to offend good person
xxviii
motrem hominis...graviter fero
I take his death hard.
Neque enim Caesarem in dissensione civili sum secutus. I was not in civil war.
Tamen non deserui.
I did not desert him.
omnes voluerim incolumes
I wished all safe.
Sed nihil agunt.
But they do nothing.
ab officio aut ab humanitate desciscam
not depart from duty or humanity
rem potiorem verbis
situation rather than words
in peccando improbus
evil in error
munus hominis amicissimi memoriae
duty to memory of staunch friend
ut recte fieri semper cupiam
to wish for the right
de hoc toto consilio profectionis
about my policy of flight
xxix
eundemne ad Pompeium an manendum in Italia
Pompey or Italy
non regno, sed rege liberati
XII.i
in lustris et in vino
freed only from king
in parties and wine
ii
Quid dico, iudicemini?
What I say, you condemned?
iii
contra vim sine vi
against force without force
ut mortem Caesaris persequantur
to avenge Caesar's death
Dominum ferre non potuimus; conservo servimus. no master, slave to slave
credo, quod volebant
I believe, because they wish.
v
totius belli omne discrimen in D. Bruto
all depends on D. Brutus
summam levitatem et inconstantiam
fickleness and inconstancy
viii
Lepidus...hostis a senatu iudicatus est.
Lepidus. declared public enemy
x
bellum snae magnum erat
war now serious
Est enim tua toga omnium armis felicior.
your toga over other's arms
xiii
Vidi filium tuum, deditum optimis studiis.
I saw your dedicated son.
xvi
otiosa libertate
leisurely liberty
Ignosces etiam iracunduae nostrae.
pardon my irritation
istic bellum est exortum, hic pax consecuta
there war, here peace
xviii
contra arma verbis
words versus arms
xxii
populum Romanum maiorum similem
may Rp be like ancestors
ut in pecuniam adulescentis impetum faceret
Antony seeks Octavian's property
xxiii
Magna spes est in eo. (Octavian)
great hope in him
me principem senatui
I am leader of the senate.
xxiv
offensione Minotauri
offensive to the Minotaur
xxva
ructantem et nauseantem
belching and vomiting
Una navis est iam bonorum omnium.
one ship for all good men
Sed nulla lassitudo impedire officium et fidem debet. weariness should not stop
xxva Ego sum spe bona.
I am full of
hope.
xxviii
profligato bello ac paene sublato, renovatum bellum war over, now renewed
xxx
Post mortem eius quid fieri posset non videbamus. What can we
do with him dead?
Nam constituendi municipi causa hoc anno aedilem filium meum fieri volui.
XIII.xi
I wsh that tou elect my son aedile for directing our town.
P. Crassm ex omni nobilitate adulescentem dilexi plurimum.
xvi
Of all nobles I hold in highest regard the youth Publius Crassus.
Doctum igitur hominum cognovi et studiis optimis deditum.
learned and devoted
Ipse Caesar esse optimus iudex potest.
Caesar can be best judge.
xxix
Gratulor tibi quod ex provincia salvum te.
thanks for safe return
lxxiii
Me miserum! Te...in tantas aerumnas propter me incidisee.
You suffer for me.
XIV.i
Fato facta putarem, ferrem pauo facilius.
I destiny, I'd endure it better.
Si vero etiam Pompeium et Caesarem, non est desperandum.
no fear if Pompey and
Caesar help
Sed crassum tamen metuo.
But I fear Crassus.
ii
Si ille Romam modeste venturus sit, recte in presentia domi esse potestis.
xiv
If Caesar enters Rome in orderly manner, you can stay in our house.
Pudet enim servire.
shameful to be a slave
XVxviii
Aliter enim scribimus, quod eos solos, quibus mittimus, aliter, quod multos lecturos
putamus.
Write one way in confidence, another for general public.
xxi
Multae erant et reconditae litterae; vis non erat.
wide learning, no force
Magnae nobis est sollicitudini valetudo tua.
XVI.viii
Numquam maiore in periculo civitas fuit.
xi
Caesar amentia quadam raperetur.
xii
T. Labienus socius sceleris esse noluit.
Sollicitat tua, mi Tiro, valetudo.
xx
from Cicero's Letters to his brother Quintus:
Rempublicam funditus amisimus.
I.ii
Pompeium etiam simulatorem puto.
iii
subito defectio Pompei,alienatio consulum
iv
life
insidias vitae suae fieri
II.iii
Your health concerns me.
never state in greater danger
Caesar was seized by a fit.
L did not wish to be fellow-criminal.
Tiro, your health worries me.
We have lost totally country.
I think Pompey is pretending.
Pompey's defection, consuls' dislike
plots against his (Pompey's)
plena dignitatis et gratiae
full of dignity and influence
Lucreti poemata...multis luminibus ingeni, multae tamen artis
xi
poems of Lucretius: flashes of talent, much skill
pipulo
chirping of chickens
xii
deinde Caesaris tantum in me amorem
Caesar's overwhleming
affection
xva
Messala flaccet.
Messala has no guts.
xvb
Timebam Oceanum, timebam litus insulae.
I feared ocean and coast.
xvi
Pompeius a me valde contendit de reditu in gratiam. Pompey seeks reconciliation with me.
III.i
maxime testibus laeditur
He is hurt by witnesses.
iii
Gabinius absolutus est.
Gabinius has been acquitted.
iv
Caesaris amore...unice delector.
especially delight in Caesar's love.
vi
plena stomachi et querellarum
full of bile and quarrels
viii
Reliqua ad iacturam struantur.
rest to be thrown overboard
Ubi enim isti sint Nervii...nescio.
I don't know where those Nervii are.
Pompeius plane se negat velle.
Pompey says he doesn't want
(dictatorship)
motu temporum
'vicissitudes of fortune'
ix
from the Letters to Brutus:
Puto etiam prudentiam esse praestandam.
I
animum semper inimicum rei publicae
III
non rege solum, sed regno liberari
V
omnia ad pacem
res a te gesta memorabilis et paene caelestis
Cui parcimus aut quid agimus?
Mihi quidem aetas acta ferme est. (Pl.Trin.1, 219)
VII
Consules duos...amisimus.
VIII
calentissimum Antonium
XVII
prudence essential
mind hostile to country
to be freed of monarchy
all for peace
deed memorable and heavenly
Whom do we spare, what do we do?
My life is almost finished.
We have lost two consuls.
powerful Antony
Vivat hercle Cicero.
Let Cicero live.
huius belli fortuna
fortune of this war
XVIII
Caesarem meis consiliis adhuc gubernatum
Caesar governed by my plans
non ratio, non modus, non lex, non mos, non officium valet no quality prevails
omnium civium ac paene gentium oculi
eyes of all citizens and nations
XIX
De M. Lepido vereri me cogit reliquorum timor.
fear of Lepidus for future
XXI
Maximo in discrimine res publica versatur.
state in great crisis
XXII
causa Lepidi (non) distingui ab Antonio
Antony and Lepidus interconnected
quam sit acerbum parentum scelera filiorum poenis lui
sins of fathers on sons
tantam omnium laudum excellentiam non queo silentio praeterire
XXIV
Nor can I pass by in silence his great excellence.
quantam impendere rei publicae tempestatem
storm hanging over state
Huic habiti a me honores, nulli nisi debiti.
honors for him owed
ingenia quae gloria invitantur
talents which invite glory
Dixi igitur sentewntias in Antonium.
I spoke against Antony.
leniores esse in hostes
more lenient toward enemies
Caesaris nomen incitare videtur in Caesaris interfectores name against killers
XXV
An tu Romae habitare, id putas incolumem esse? safe in Rome?
Si Octavius tibi placet, amiciorem dominum quaesisse videberis. friendly master
Te rogo et hortor ne defatigere neu diffidas.
I beg don't flag or despair.
resistere Antonio Ciceronem
Cicero resists Antony
labenti et inclinatae paene rei publicae
collapsing republic
XXVI
pro adulescentulo ac paene puero
for youth even boy
videtur enim esse in eo indoles
seems to have natural talent
ut omnes adhibeam machinas
bring all machines to bear
from the Commentariolum Petitionis:
Civitas quae sit cogita, quid petas, qui sis.
Consider state, race, person.
2
dicendi gloria
glory of speaking
omnis publicanos, totum fere equestrem ordinem all tax collectors and knights
3
hominum nobilium voluntas
good will of all nobles
4
homini navo, industrio, innocenti, diserto, gratiosos hard working and influential
8
Antonius umbram suam metuit, hic ne leges quidem.
A fears shadow, C not
laws.
9
cum histrionibus et cum gladiatoribus
with actors and gladiators
10
non erit difficile certamen cum iis competitoribus easy contest with them
11
multi qui invideant
many who envy
13
non nullos tibi iratos ex iis causis
angry at you for cases
14
altera in amicorum studiis, altera in populari voluntate
friends/popular
16
nomen amicorum in petione latius
more friends in campaign
beneficio, spe, adiunctione
by favor, hope, alliance
21
homo nequam, iners, sine officio, sine ingenio
useless man, w/o office
28
non temere credere
don't trust rashly
40
in populari ratione
in popular will
41
si promittas, et incertum est et in diem et in paucioribus
promise indefinite
48
plures multo sunt qui rogant quam qui utuntur
many more ask
than use
senatus...equites...multitudo (all think on their side) senate, knights, mob
53
Tertium restat: Roma est.
last point: this is Rome
54
multae insidiae, multa fallacia...multa vitia
many plots, deceits, vices
multorum adrogantia, contumacia, malevolentia
arrogance, insults, bad will of many
from the Epistula ad Octavianum:
in servitute videre non potero
2
fortuna non anmus mihi defuisse
civis hostis loco
5
fabulae similia
7
una cum istis vitam simul fugere decrevi
10
From De Finibus of Cicero:
nec modus ullus investigandi veri
I.1
non ab industria sed ab illiberali labore
3
ferreum scriptorem
5
in primis familiarem nostrum Posidonium
can't see (Rome) in slavery
fortune not spirit failed me
citizen in enemy's place
like stories
to flee life with them
no end of investigating truth
not from work but menial
an iron writer
especially our friend Posidonius
6
quid extremum, quid ultimum
what is the final end
11
Doloris omnis privatio recte nominata est voluptas. Absence of pain is pleasure.
illa (law) vendibilia, haec (philosophy) uberiora
those saleable, these rich
12
de finibus bonorum et malorum
'ends of goods and evils'
Verum enim invenire volumus, non..aliquem convincere. find truth, not crush
de voluptate
about pleasure
ad me in Cumanum salutandi causa
to greet me at Cumae
14
quot homines, tot sententiae: falli igitur possumus. many opinions; be tricked
15
cum Attico nostro
with our (friend) Atticus
16
Ille atomas...censet in infinito inani.
atoms in infinite space
17
motum atomorum nullo a principio
motion of atoms without beginning
Vim et caisam efficiendi reliquerunt.
reject force and efficent cause
18
Declinare dixit atomum perpaulum.
atom swerves a little bit
19
ipsa declinatio ad libidinem
swerve at own will
Eadem illa atomorum turbulenta concursio hunc mundi ornatum efficere non poterit.
20
That wild gathering of atoms cannot create this orderly world.
credere aliquid esse minimum
to believe a smallest
Iudicia rerum in sensibus ponit.
senses judge all things
22
ut aliquam ex eo perciperet corpore voluptatem.
(not) to
gain bodily pleasure
23
et in conspectum suum venire vetuit
forbade him to come in sight
24
sed etiam praeterat omnes voluptates
to renounce all pleasures
quid sit extremum et ultimum bonorum
what final end is
29
Hoc Epicurus in voluptate ponit.
This Epicrus places in pleasure.
calere ignem, nivem albam, mel dulce
fire hot, snow white, honey
sweet
30
voluptatem accusantium, dolorem laudantium
attack pleasure, favor pain
32
laudem et caritatem
honor and respect
35
ut voluptates ommitantur maiorum voluptatum adipiscendarum causa
36
to forgo pleasures to gain greater pleasures
maximam voluptatem...omni dolore detracto
greatest pleasure if pain gone
37
Hoc ne statuam quidem dicturam pater aiebat.
not even statue would use
39
omnes metus et aegritudines ad dolorem referuntur all fears from pain
41
medicorum scientiae...bonae valetudinis
medicine for good health
42
sapientia...expetitur comparandae voluptatis
wisdom sought to get pleasure
Cum ignoratione rerum bonarum et malarum maxime hominum vita vexetur.
43
Human life is greatly disturbed by ignorance of good and evil.
pacem animis afferat
(temperance) brings calm
47
temperantiam exspectandam quia maiores voluptates consequatur
48
temperance sought because it brings greater pleasures (than those it routed)
mortis metu omnis quietae vitae status perturbatur fear of death distrurbs calm
49
a dis immortalibus supplici causa
sent by gods to punish them
51
Nullus in ipsis error est finiibus bonorum et malorum.
no error in ends
55
nihil melius esse quam vacare omni dolore
best to be free of pain
57
neque enim civitas in seditione beata esse potest. city in conflict not blessed
58
animus a se ipse dissidens secumque discordans
(nor) mind split within
quasi saxum Tantalo
as Tantalus' stone
60
Igitur neque stultorum quisquam beatus neque sapientium non beatus.
61
No stupid person can be blessed nor any wise man fail to be blessed.
exiguam fortunam intervenire sapienti
Fortune affects wise little.
62
gravissimas res consilio ipsius et rationi administrari
reason governs greatest
things
63
vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena
life without friends full of plots
66
si loca...consuetudine adamare solemus
if habit accustoms us to place
69
quanto in hominum consuetudine facilius
how much easier with men
a falsis initiis profecta vera esse non possunt
derived from false, hence false
72
Teneo finem illi videri mihi dolere.
II.8
end to be free from pain
idem voluptas est quod indolentia
pleasure (not) lack of pain
11
laetitiam in animo, commtionem suavem iucunditatis in corpore
13
happiness in mind, pleasant movement of sweetness in body
summum bonum esse sine ulla molestia vivere
best to live without bother
16
qui ipse sibi notus sit ()
who knows self
vacuitas doloris et voluptas idem
pleasure is lack of pain
ultima iuncta bonorum
highest a mixture
19
unum est sine dolore esse, alterum cum voluptate. without pain not equal pleasure
20

Authoritative Doctrines
Si gravis, brevis; si longus, levis.
If hard, short; if long, light.
22
Offici fructus sit ipsum officium.
Let the reward of duty be duty.
o gurges
o bottomless gulf of gluttony
24
cibi condimentum esse famem
hunger the best appetizer
28
iucundi acti labores
pleasant past labors
32
aliud inflexum de industria, aliud natum
bent by purpose or by nature
33
honstatis expers
lacking moral worth
38
ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem animal purpose
40
hominem...ad intellegendum et ad agendum
human to think and do
per se ipsum possit iure laudari
can be praised for self alone
45
sapientiae, fortitudinis, iustitiae, temperantiae
51
four cardinal virtues: wisdom, fortitude, justice, temperance
Ad honestatem enim illum omnem conatum suum referebat.
for honor
56
de maioribus tuis
about your ancestors
74
individua et intermundia, quae nec sunt illa
atom and void do not exist
75
de ingenio non de moribus
about his doctrine, not habits
80
Atque ut ceteri dicere existimantur melius quam facere, sic hi mihi videntur facere melius
quam dicere. 81
Most speak better than act; Epicureans act better than speak.
omnis summa philosophiae ad beate vivendum
purpose of philosophy to live well
86
quod externum id in casu est
external rests on chance
89
Ita fit beatae vivae domina fortuna.
chance master of good life
Fortitudinis quaedam praecepta sunt.
There are rules of bravery.
94
Virtutis, magnitudinis animi, patientiae, fortitudinis fomentis dolor mitigari solet.
95
Virtue, generosity, patience, courage are able to lighten pain.
Praeclarae mortes sunt imperatoriae.
Commanders die famous.
97
Suavis laborum est praeteritorum memoria.
sweet memory of past sorrow
105
Desine, Roma, tuos hostes-Rome, cease thy enemies.
106
bene laudata virtus voluptatibus aditus intercludat virtue keeps away pleasure
118
Herculis perpeti aerumnas
to endure the labors of Hercules
Brute, qui in optimo genere philosophiae tantum processeris. Brutus so skilled
III.6
M. Catonem...aviditas legendi
Cato has eagerness to read
7
nihil praeter virtutem in bonis
only virtue a good
10
id solum bonum esse quod honestum sit
only good the honest
11
Stoicorum ratio difficilius quiddam et obscurius
Stoic teaching rather obscure
15
Sed. fortuna fortes
But fortune favors the brave.
16
a se diligendo
from loving self
omne quod de re bona dilucide dicitur
good topic, clear speech
19
quasi deligendum, non expetendum
chosen, not sought
22
Tarquinius, qui nec se nec suos regere potuit
could rule neither self nor people
Ita fit ut quod bonum sit id etiam honestum sit.
good is honest
27
iudicia levitatis...itaque his sapiens semper vacabit. wise free of frivolous opinion
35
offunditur luce solis lumen lacernae
light of sun eclipses lantern
45
omnis ista rerum corporearum aestimatio splendore virtutis obscuretur
body by virtue
alium alio etiam sapientiorem
one wiser than another
48
Multo haec coniunctius homines.
humans more unified
63
mundum autem censent regi numine deorum
universe governed by divine
64
communem urbem et civitatem hominum et deorum common city of human and divine
ad servandum genus hominum natura incitantur
incited to save human race
66
in urbe communi non adversatur ius quo minus suum quidve cuiusque sit
67
in common city each may possess his own (as private seat in public theater)
nec vero pietas adversus deos...sine explicatione naturae nature explains piety
73
incredibilis ordo rerum
marvelous order of things
74
nec obediens cupiditate
obedient to no lust
75
Ita multa dicunt quae vix intellegam.
Much I scarcely understand.
IV.2
Sed inest in rebus ipsis obscuritas.
The obscurity is within subject.
Ut placet, etsi enim illud erat aptius, aequum cuique concedere.
Let each do his way.
qua mores confirmari putantur
science of moral habits
5
polite apteque dixerunt
spoke neatly and fittingly
sed vos squalidius
but you rather squalidly
si quis obmutescere concupierit
if anyone wished not to speak
7
Ille incendat? Restinguet citius.
he inspire: rather exstinguish
quasi aculeis...qui assentiuntur nihil commutantur animo pinpricks: agree not inspire
thesauris argumenta depromerentur
storehouse filled with arguments
10
deos esse et quattuor ex rebus omnia constare
gods exist, four elements
12
divina mente...universum...administrari
universe governed by divine mind
secundum naturam vivere
to live in accord with nature
14
excitaret omnes rationes fortitudinis ac patientiae rouse all stores of courage
31
Omnis enim estnatura diligens sui.
Each cares for own species.
32
in hominis cultu
in perfecting man
36
quasi curta sententia
as if one-sided
Stoici finem bonorum in una virtute ponunt.
Stoics make virtue highest.
43
optatius quam cum Catone...de virtutibus disputare wish dispute
virtue with Cato
44
antiqui illi quasi barbati
ancient bearded relics
62
circumventus morbo, exsilio atque inopia
beset with illness, exile, poverty
illi antiqui non tam acute
oldsters with dulled wits
63
nec snim ille respirat antequam emersit
man breathes when he rises
65
progressionem ad virtutem...levationem vitiorum negant progress to virtue
67
dubiis perspicua tolluntur
clarity from doubt?
portenta haec esse dicit
says they are portents
70
valere, non dolere bona non dico
I don't call health a good.
72
nec honesto quidquam honestius
nothing better than good
75
omnibus artibus...prudentia
prudence for all arts
76
in Epicuri hortis
in the gardens of Epicurus
V.3
ad imitandos summos viros
to imitate great men
6
una pars est naturae, disserendi altera, vivendi tertia nature, discourse, conduct
9
multum fortunae datur
much given to fortune
12
cognitis rerum finibus...inventa vitae via est
ends found, map of life here
15
voluptatis causa...non dolendi...secundum naturam adipiscendi
19
(end of life) for sake of pleasure or not feeling pain or gaining according to nature
nec voluptatem requirentes nec fugientes laborem not avoid fun nor flee work
20
animi tranquillitas ea est ipsa beata vita
calm mind is blessed life
23
Omne animal se ipsum diligit.
each loves itself
24
secundum naturam vivere
to live according to nature
Mihi sic est usus; tibi ut opus est facto, face. TerHT my way; do as you wish
29
inimicus esse atque hostis
one's own worst enemy
quae sit hominis natura
what man's nature is
34
hominem ex corpore animoque constare
human is body and mind
rationis absolutio
perfect reasoning
38
ex integritate corporis et ex mentis ratione
developed body and reasoning mind
40
non explet bona naturae voluptas
pleasure adds nothing
45
ut pulsi recurrant
driven away they return
48
multa se scire profitebantur
that they knew much
49
doctior ad patrias
to homeland wiser
scientiam pollicentur
they promised knowledge
Endymionis somnium...mortis instar
Endymion's fate like death
55
circulos aliquos et sessiunculas
clubs and chitchat
56
sapientiam verasque opiniones assequi
to attain wisdom
58
in speculis natura cernitur
nature seen in a mirror
61
Ambo ergo una necarier precamur.
We ask you kill us both.
63
coniunctio inter homines hominum
unity of mankind
65
fortitudo in laboribus...
courage in struggle etc.
67
nihil sciat
he know nothing
76
sapientes omnes esse semper beatos
wise always blessed
77
qui numquam philosophum pictum...viderunt
never saw p even in picture
80
alium alio beatiorem
one wiser than another
83
in beata vita comparanda
in attaining a happy life
86
dum res maneant, verba fingunt
point same, new words
89
Qua in vita est aliquid mali, ea beata esse non potest any evil prevents happy life
91
virtutis amplitudinem in altera librae lance ponere weighty virtue on opposite scale
ea mala virtutis magnitudine obruebantur
virtue outweighed evils
92
omnes sapientes semper esse beatos
all wise are happy
95
pergrata mihi fuit oratio tua
96
et recta quidem ad me
your speech pleased me
'make straight for my quarters'
from De Officiis of Cicero:
Marce fili
my son Marcus
I.1
propter summam et doctoris auctoritatem et urbis influence of teacher and city
alter scientia...alter exemplis
one by knowledge, other by examples
utere tuo iudicio
use your judgment
2
apte, distinete, ornate dicere
to speak fitly, clearly, elegantly
aequabile et temperatum
calm and restrained
3
latissime patere videntur
have widest use
4
non ut interpres
not as translator
6
triplex est consilii capiendi deliberatio
threefold task to find conduct
9
honestumne factu sit...deliberatio
thought whether right
ad vitae commoditatem
to comfortable life
utile cum pugnare videtur cum honesto
conflict of good and useful
belua...quod adest quodque praesens est
beast cares only for now
11
natura vi rationis hominem conciliat homini
men united by reason
12
In primisque hominis est propria veri inquisitio.
search for truth human
13
Omnes enim trahimur et ducimur ad cognitionis et scientiae cupiditatem.
18
All humans are driven to a desire for knowledge and understanding.
Virtutis enim laus omnis in actione consistit.
action defines virtue
19
communitatis...iustitia...beneficentia
bonds: justice and charity
20
ut ne cui quis noceat
that one not harm another
quia suum cuiusque fit eorum, quae natura fuerant communia
21
Each should keep own from an originally common supply.
non nobis solum nati sumus
not born for self alone
22
cuius fructibus exercitum alere non posset
supply an army from interest
25
rei familiaris amplificatio
increase in property
infinita pecuniae cupiditas
infinite lust for money
ne maior poena quam culpa sit
that the punishment not
exceed the crime
humani nihil a se alienum putat
Ter HT 77
nothing human alien to me
30
primum ut ne cui noceatur
no one be harmed
31
deinde communi utilitati serviatur
'common interests be conserved'
invita Minerva
against the will of Minerva
Suum quisque igitur noscat ingenium.
Each should know his
character.
summum ius summa iniuria
highest law highest harm
33
Est enim ulciscendi et puniendi modus.
limit to avenge and punish
gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum
glory of courage and deeds
conservanda sunt iura belli
right of war to be preserved
34
ut sine iniuria in pace vivatur
to live without insult in peace
35
Dono, ducite, doque volentibus cum magnis dis.
Take them with gods' will.
38
Nec domo dominus, sed domino domus honestana est.
master should honor house
39
appetitus rationi pareat
appetite should obey reason
Et erat verbis, re non erat.
Consider matter, not word.
40
servorum...operam exigendam, iusta praebenda.
slaves: work and treat fairly
41
de beneficentia ac de liberalitate
'of kindness amd generosity'
42
ne maior benignitas sit quam facultates
no charity beyond means
unum dandi beneficii, alterum trddendi
giving and returning favors
48
vento impetu animi
'sudden impulse of heart'
49
amicorum esse communia omnia
among friends all in common
51
non prohibere aqua profluente
deny no one free water
52
Nihilo minus ipsi lucet.
no less shines his
viri boni moribus similes
good men with same habits
55
ut unus fiat ex pluribus
one from many
56
principes sint patria et parentes
first country and parents
58
proximi liberi totaque domus
next children and household
deinceps bene convenientes propinqui
last kinsmen
ipse populus Romanus animi magnitudine excellit R p known for great spirit
61
fortitudo: virtutem propugnantem pro aequitate
courage: virtue fight for fair
62
alteri, si contenti sint et suo et parvo.
others content with own
70
Cedant arma togae.
Let arms yield to the toga.
77
Sunt igitur domesticae fortitudines non inferiores militaribus.
civil/military
78
animi efficitur, non corporis viribus
by mental strength, not body
79
Decertandum manu est et mors servituti anteponenda
use sword to death
81
multitudinem conservare
to save the many
82
in tranquillo tempestatem optare
wish for storm in calm
83
Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem.
saved country by delay
84
tradet se totum rei publicae
give self totally for country
86
miserrima ambitio honorumque contentio
wretched drive for office
87
nautae certarent quis eorum potissimum gubernaret sailors fight to pilot
ut adhibeatur rei publicae causa severitas
strict for country
88
prohibenda ira in puniendo
anger forbidden in punishing
89
in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus superbiam magnopere
90
in good times when everything flows to our will
praeclara est aequabilitas in omni vita
calm in all life good
facilitate et humanitate superiorem
better in affability
Quanto superiores simus, tanto nos geramus summissius. higher must be humble
quo nascuntur innumerabilia peccata
many sins arise
91
augeatur ratione, diligentia, parsimonia
rise from plan. effort, thrift
92
ornatus vitae
polish to life
93
oderint, dum metuant
let them hate, if they fear
97
natis sepulvhro ipse est parens
parent tomb for sons
duplex animorum natura...in appetitu...in ratione
two spirit: appetite/reason
101
Elucebit omnis constantia omnisque moderatio.
character and control shine
102
elegans, urbanum, ingeniosum, facetum
elegant, urbane, ingenious
104
semper aliquid aut anquirit aut agit
always searching or doing
105
furere se simulavit
feigned insanity
108
moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus die before face tyrant
112
cum et mulieribus...inserviret
submitted to women
113
domi contumelias servorum ancillarum pertulit
bore slaves' insults
non decore, at quam minime indecore
with little impropriety
114
unam Voluptatis, alteram Virtutis
one of pleasure, other virtue
118
ornati spatium etiam deliberandi habuerunt
have time to decide
maximam vim natura habet, fortuna proximam
nature first, fortune second
120
senibus labores corporis minuendi, exercitationes animi augendae mind does more
languori se desidiaeque dedat
surrender to idelness
aequo et pari cum civibus iure vivere
live equal to others
121
venustatem muliebrem, dignitatem virilem
feminine charm, manly dignity
130
vocem...ut clara sit, ut suavis
voice be clear and musical
133
imitari militem gloriosum
to imitate braggart warrior
137
appetitum optemperare rationi
subject desire to reason
141
scientia oportunitatis idoneorum ad agendum temporum
right deed, right time
142
omnia apta inter se et convenientia
all suited and fitting
144
non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes
chaste hands and eyes
magna saepe intellegemus ex parvis
conclude much from little
146
quisque loquatur, quid quisque sentiat
what he thinks and does
147
aliorum iudicio permulta nobis facienda
much by other's decision
communem totius generis hominum conciliationem et consociationem colere, tueri,
servare
149
to guard and save unity and association of human race
ut medicina, ut architectura
as medicine and architecture
151
nihil est agri cultura melius
nothing better than farming
ut apium exanima non fingendorum favorum causa congregantur
157
as bees do not gather to make honey (but make honey to gather)
virgula divina
magic wand
158
communitas moderationi modestiaeque anteponenda
sociability first
159
prima dis immortalibus, secunda patriae, tertia parentibus, deinceps gradatim reliquis
(duty) first to gods, second to country, third to parents, then others
160
ad legendi, sed etiam ad scribendi studium
eagerness to read and write
II.2
dominatu unius omnia tenerentur
all under rule of one man
alia probabilia, contra alia
some probable, others not
omne comsumebatur in legendo, scribendi otium non erat
3
all time spent in reading, no leisure for writing
philosphia...studium sapientiae
philosophy...love of wisdom
5
Iustitia sine prudentia multum poterit.
Justice without prudence can
do well.
9
qui nec sibi nec alteri
good for neither self nor other
10
Deos placatos pietas efficiet sanctitas.
Piety and holiness move gods.
11
Maximeque admirantur eum qui pecunia non movetur.
They greatly admire the man who is not motivated by money.
Largitionem fundum non habere.
charity bag bottomless
15
homines plurimum hominibus et prosint et obsint man aid and harm men
17
prospero flatu
favoring breeze
19
procellas, tempestates, naufragia, ruinas, incendia (various disasters)
a bestiis ictus, morsus, impetus
from beasts kicks, bites, attacks
quem metuunt, oderunt (Ennius)
whom they fear, they hate
23
Acriores autem morsus sunt intermissae libertatis quam retentae. lost freedom bites
more fiercely 24
ut metus absit, caritas retineatur
banish fear, hold to love
Etenim qui se metui volent, a quibus metuentur eosdem metuant ipsi necesse est.
Those who wish to be feared must beware those whom they wish fear them.
patrocinium orbis terrae quam imperium
protectorate, not power
27
Iure igitur plectimur.
We are punshed justly.
28
talibus praemiis propositis numquam defutura bella wars because reward
29
cum honore et fide
with honor and faith
familiaritates habere fidas amantium nos amicorum friendly love of friends
30
iustitia, ex qua virtute ciri boni appellantur
justice mark of good men
38
omnis ratio atque institutio vitae adiumenta hominum desiderat
39
Every human project requires human help.
premeretur inops multitudo ab iis, qui maiores opes habebant rich crush poor
41
adulescenti commendatio ad gloriam...ex bellicis rebus
war first for glory
45
altera pars sceleris nimium, altera felicitatis parum too evil or too unfortunate
maiora opera sunt animi quam corporis
mind's works greater
46
ne quem umquam innocentem iudicio capitis arcessae
no capital charge
against possibly innocent
51
potentis alicuius opibus circumveniri urguerique
to one beset by powerful
contra L. Sullae dominantis opes
against the power of Sulla
de beneficentia ac de liberalitate
about kindness and generosity
52
Atque etiam sequuntur largitionem rapine.
bribery causes robbery
54
largitionem dundum non habere
no limit to bribery
55
nostri Pompei
our (friend) Pompey
57
nostro Miloni
our (friend) Milo
58
mediocritatis regula optima est
restraint best
59
sane exiguus sumptus aedilitatis fuit
my inexpensive aedileship
Bene favta male locata male facta arbitror. (Ennius) good deeds misplaced are bad
62
in beneficiis conlocandis mores hominum
give favors by character
69
melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos
better to good than lucky
71
malo virum qui pecunia egeat quam pecuniam quae viro
better man without money than money without man
non quam locuples, sed qualis quisque sit
character not wealth
non esse in civitate duo milia hominum qui rem haberent only two thousand with
property
73
capitalis oratio est, ad aequitationem bonorum
condemn for equal
distribution
quando Romani dona accipere coepissent
until Romans took bribes
75
nihil domum praeter memoriam nominis
nothing home except name
76
Italiam prnare quam domum suam maluit
to decorate Italy not his own home
concordiam primum...deinde aequitatem
unity then fairness
78
ut omnes concordia constituta sine querella discederent
82
with unity preserved all left without complaint
Tabulae vero novae quid habent argumenti, nisi ut emas mea pecunia fundum, cum tu
habeas, ego non habeam
pecuniam?
Abolition of debts means you buy a
farm with my money.
84
nec enim ulla res vehementius rem publicam continet quam fides credit holds govern.
utilitatum comparatio
balance expediencies
88
bene pascere...Quidfaenari?...Quid hominem occidere? (Cato)
89
to pasture well...to lend money?...to kill
a re publica forensibusque negotiis armis impiis vique prohibiti
III.1
driven from government and public life by impious arms and force
uno honestumne id esset
first whether right
7
altero utilene esset an inutile
second whether useful or not
tertio...honesti...utile
third the right (vs.) the useful
oris enim pulchritudo reliqui corporis imitandi spem auferebat
10
The beauty of the face made futile any attempt to represent the rest of the body.
quicquid honestum esset, id utile esse
right is useful
11
vel voluptate vem indolentia
by pleasure or lack of pain
12
convenienter naturae vivere
living according to nature
13
omnes numeros habet
has all the numbers
14
non sapientium modo propria, sed cum omni hominum genere communia
15
shared not only by the wise, but also the entire human race
honestum cum eo quod utile putant comparare
to weigh right with useful
18
Quod potest maius esse scelus quam non modo hominem, sed etiam familiarem hominem
occidere? Num igitur se
astrinxit scelere, si qui tyrannum occidit quamvis familiarem?
19
What worse than to kill a fellow man, even a friend? But it is no crime to kill a tyrant even
though a friend.
illud natura non patitur ut aliorum spoliis nostras facultates, copias, opes augeamus
22
Nature does not allow us to increase our resources and property by the spoils of others.
ut non liceat sui commodi causa nocere alteri
not injure other for own gain
23
hominem naturae oboedientem homini nocere non posse
25
man obedient to nature cannot harm another
ut eadem sit utilitates unius cuiusque et universorum
can all have same interest
26
qui multam utilitatem rei publixa atque hominum societate aid country and man
30
Nulla est enim societas nobis cum tyrannis
no association with tyrants
32
nihil praeter id quod honestum sit propter id exceptnum
only right worth asking
Aqua haeret.
The water sticks.
33
cum his viris equisque
with men and horses
quod utile visum est arripuit
seize what seems useful
36
ipsius turpituinis
own demoralization
in ipsa enim dubitatione facinus in est
guilt in planning
37
Ibi cum palam eius anuli ad palmam converterat, a nullo videbatur, ipse autem omnia
videbat.
38
He turned the ring in his hand and was seen by no one while seeing all.
reginae stuprum intulit...regem dominum interemit
assault queen and kill king
suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est look for self fairly
42
utilia amiitiae numquam anteponenda sunt
friendship before advantage
43
sed nihil quod crudele utile
nothing vicious useful
46
Cyrsilum suadentem ut Xerxem reciperent lapiibus obruernut
48
stone Crysilius for aid Xerxes
qui piratas immunes, socios vectigales habemus
free pirates tax allies
49
cum esset aliud simulatum, aliud actum
pretend one, do another
60
singulorum enim facultates et copiae divitiae sunt civitatis one's own property state's
63
numquam igitur est utile peccare
not useful to do wrong
64
non placuisse maioribus nostris astutos
ancestors reject cleverness
68
societas omnium inter omnes
unity joining all
69
ex fide bona
in good faith
70
simulatio intelligentiae
fake intelligence
72
quicum in tenebris mices
totally honest
77
summum virum et civem...apud populum Romanum criminatus est bellum illum ducere
denounced fine man and citizen for prolonging war
79
quo utile videtur turpe ne sit
useful may not be wrong
81
in virum bonum...criminari, praeripere, fallere?
to good man to lie and do evil
in beluam an immanitatm beluae
beast or appearance of one
82
regnandi gratia violandum est
wrong only for power
qui rex populi Romani concupiverit idque perfecerit wish and be king of Rome
83
ab opprssis civibus parnes nominatur
called father by crushed citizens
Multi iniqui atque infideles regno, pauci benivoli few good assist throne
84
de imperio certamen
fight for power
86
eum non virtute, sed scelere superatum
defeat by crime not valor
piratarum enim melior fides quam senatus
pirates' honor over senate
87
ordinum coniunctio ad salutem rei publia pertinebat unity of orders for govern.
88
non domini est navis, sed navigantium
passengers own ship
89
patriae salutem anteponet saluti patris
country before father
90
in mancipio vendendo dicenda vitia
faults should be declared
91
nec vi nec dolo malo
not by force or fraud
92
ut in currum patris tolleretur
to take father's chariot
94
pulherrimam natum illo anno immolavit
sacrifice most beautiful
95
promissa non facienda non numquam
simulatione insaniae militiam subterfugere
97
reddi captivos negavit esse utile
100
ad crudelissimum hostem et ad exquisita suppliia
numquam nec irasci deum nec nocere
102
primum minima malis
neque do infideli cuiquam
iuravi lingua, mentem iniuratam gero.
108
dediti sunt iis; iniussu populi senatuque fecerant
109
captivi profecto Poenis redditi essent
110
aut vinere aut emori
114
fortitudo...dolorum laborumque contemptio
117
aqua haeret
voluptati...condimenti
120
quantum voles
121
Vale igitur, mi Cicero
sometimes promises to be bro ken
by fake insanity avoid war
not useful to return captives
to cruel enemy and vicious torture
gods never angry nor hurtful
from evils choose least
don't give pledge to such
swore with tongue, not mind
given over for own peace
captives would be returned
to win or die
courage...despise pain
water will not run
pleasure a spice
as much (time) as you wish
Good by, my Cicero
from the De Senectute of Cicero:
afarri te, Atti
to address you, my Atticus
I.1
novi enim moderationm animi tui et aequitatem
your fair calmness
de senectute aliquid a te consribere
to write about old age to you
2
M. Catoni seni
to old Cato
3
litteris Graecis...studiosum fuisse in senectute
eager
to learn Greek at old age
numquam tibi senectutem gravem
to you old age never a bother
4
si octingesimum annum agerent
if eight hundred years old
naturam optimam um tamquam um
nature a guide like God
5
bellare cum dis nisi naturae repugnare
to challenge nature to fight
gods
pares cum paribus faillim congregantur
similars gather
7
libidinum vinculis
chains of lust
Nemo enim est tam senex qui se annum non putet posse vivere.
There is no one who does not think tht he will live another year.
multorum bene factorum recordatio iucunussima
most sweet to recall good deeds
9
bella gerebat ut adulescens
wage war like a youth
10
non omnes possunt...triumphos recordarentur
not all may recall triumphs
13
paupertatem et senectutem
poverty and old age
14
quattuor reperio causas cur senectus misera videretur
15
I find four reasons why old age seems wretched..
unam, quod avocet a rebus gerendis
first: calls us from activities
alteram, quod corpus faciat infirmius
second, body becomes weaker
tertiam, quod privet omnibus fere voluptatibus
third, deprives us of most pleasures
quartam, quod haud procul absit a morte
fourth, it is near death
gubernatorem in naviagando nihil agrere
pilot does nothing in sailing
17
apex senectutis auctoritas
peak of old age authority
quo minus via restat , eo plus viatici
less left, more piled on
18
non omne vinum...non omnis aetas vetustate coacescit.
not every wine to vinegar
non gladiis uteretur, sed consilio ratione sententia use not sword
but mind
19
Satis longum est ad bene et honesteque vivendum. Life long enough to live well.
nec senem oblitum quo loco thesaurum obruisset
21
No old man forgets where he has buried a treasure .
nemo est tam senex qui se annum non putet posse vivere
24
There is no one so old that he does not think he will live another year.
serit arbors quae alteri saeclo prosint
plant trees for next generation
quod diu vivendo multa quae non volt videt
live long so much wish hadn't
25
sentire ea aetate eumpse esse odiosum alteri
old men feel age a bore to young
qui litteras Graecas senex didici
learned Greek in old age
26
hi mortui iam sunt...quam tu ipse, nugator
dead as you yourself are
27
laterum et virium
on strength and power
28
ex eius lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio.
speech sweeter than honey
31
mature fieri senem, si diu velis senex esse
old young if old long
32
cursus est certus aetatis
Race of life fixed.
33
nisi tamquam lumini oleum instilles, exstinguuntur senectut
36
Unless you pour oil on the light, they are dimmed by age.
intentum animum tamquam arcum
mind tight like bow
37
non corporis viribus
not by strength
38
aufert a nobis quo est in adulescentia vitiossimum frees us from worst in youth
39
libido voluptatis impelleret
lust for pleasure drives us
40
omne animi lumen exstingureret
to put out all light of mind
41
Impedit enim onsilium voluptas.
Pleasure obstructs justice.
42
caret epulis exstructisque mensis et frequentibus poculis
lacks banquets, tables, and
cups
escam malorum
'bait of sin'
44
convivium...compotationem
share life, share drink
45
At non est voluptatum tanta quasi titillatio in senibus. Pleasure tickles less with age.
47
quam Truculento Plautus, quam Pseudolo.
Plautus revel in Truculentus and
Pseudolus
50
senectus est natura loquacior
Old age tends to talk.
55
se agri cultione oblectabant
who enjoy cultivation
56
virtuti tuae fortunae coniuncta est
fortune joined with virtue
59
Apex est autem senectutis auctoritas.
top of old age is influence
61
fabulam aetatis peregisse
played part well
64
At sunt morosi et anxii et iracundi et difficiles senes
old bitter, anxious, angry
65
avaritia...eo plus viatici quaerere
greed....add baggage at end
66
mortem contemnendam
death to be despised
ad vesperum esse victurum
to live to evening
67
Horae quidem ceunt et dies et menses et anni nec praeteritum tempus umquam revertitur.
Hours, days, months, years pass by and time which has passed never returns.
69
ad plaudite
to the end
70
breve enim tempus aetatis satis longum est ad bene honesteque vivendum
short time long enough to live well
adulescntes mori...cum aquae multitudine flammae vis opprimitur
71
Young die like water quenches flame.
in portum ex longa navigatione esse venturus
like voyager reaching home
port
navem destruit qui construxit, si hominum natura dissolvit builder fit to destroy
vetat Pythagoras iniussu imperatoris, id est dei, de praesidio et statione vitae decedere
73
Pythagoras forbids us to depart life without commander's (God's) order..
Moriendum enim certe est et incertum an hoc ipso die. death sure, day uncertain
74
satietas vitae tempus maturum mortis affert
time for him to go
76
vivere arbitror, et eam quidem vitam quae est sola vita
They live only real life.
77
est enim animus caelestis ex altissimo domicilio depressus soul immortal and from high
non posse eam naturam esse mortalem
soul can't be mortal
78
corporis vinculis
chains of body
81
memoriam nostri pie et inviolate servabitis
You will preserve memory.
ad meliora proficisci
to go to better place
83
tamquam Pelian recoxerit
as if boil Pelias
ad carceres a calce
from finish to start
ex hac turba et qolluvione discedam
I shall eave world mob and filth.
84
non longinquum inter nos digressum fore
separation not long
senectus...non molesta, sed etiam iucunda
old age not bother but pleasant
85
habet natura vivendi modum
nature has fixed term of life
From De Amicitia of Cicero:
duabus urbibus eversis inimiissimis huic imperio non modo praesentia, verum clam futura
bella delevit. 11
destroy all wars by overturning two cities in great wars
animos hominum esse divinos
that souls are divine
13
nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse
friendship only among good
18
pingui Minreva
'with own dull wits'
19
intr omnes esse societas quaedam
society among us all
Maxima est enim vis vetustatis et consuetudinis.
Great is the force of custom.
multos modios salis simul edendos
eat pounds of salt together
est amiitia omnium divinarum humanarumque rerum cum benevolentia et caritate
consensio.
20
Friendship is unity of all human and divine qualities in good will.
Quidquam bonum norunt nisi quod fructuosum sit. nothing good unless profitable
21
non aqua non igni
not water, not fire
22
bonam spem praelucet in posterum
shines brightly to future
23
Pylades Oresten se esse diceret ut pro illo necaretur Pylades says he is Orestes to die for
him
24
in amicitia autem nihil fictum, nihil simulatum
in friendship nothing false
26
ex ea caritate quae est inter natos et parentis
love between child and parent
27
Pyrrho propter probitatem...Hannibal propter crudelitatem
28
to Pyrrhus for honor, to Hannibal for cruelty
Africanus indigens mei?
what Africanus need from me?
30
ut neque rogemus res turpis nec faciamus rogati
do and ask no wrong
40
proclivis ad perniciem labitur
rolls to destruction
41
multitudinis arbitrio
by judgment of mob
solem enim a mundo tollere
take sun from world
47
numquam opera nostra nec domi nec militiae Scipio eguisst if Scipio had never needed my
advice
51
homines deliciis diffluentes
men besot with pleasure
52
istorum quidque qui vicit viribus
prey of stronger
55
amicus certus in re incerta cernitur
sure friend in shaky time
64
firmamntum stabilitatis est fides
faith is base of stability
65
amici novi digni amicitia
new friend deserve friendship
67
multos modios salis simul edendos esse
eat much salt togther
superiorem parem esse inferiori
both equal
69
eodem studio praeditos dilexerunt
have same pursuits
74
ne intemperata benevolentia impediat magnas utilitates amicorum
75
Rash good will should not harm advantages of friendship.
de communibus amicitiis
about common friendships
77
ut ne nimis cito diligere incipiant neve non dignos Choose slowly and well.
79
ut se ipsae diligant
that they love selves
81
honstum et rectum ab altero postulabit
demand only right from other
82
cum iudicaris, diligere oportet
judge then cherish
85
sine amicitia vitam esse nullam
without friendship no life
86
evomat virus acerbitatis suae
vomit forth own venom
87
monendi amici saepe sunt et obiurgandi
friends must be warned
89
obsquium amicos veritas odium parit (Ter Andria) flattery makes friends, criticism hate
ut monitio acerbitate..careat
warning lacks bitterness
acerbos inimicos mereri quam amicos dulces
bitter enemy better than sweet friend
90
monere et moneri
to warn and to be warned
91
ducem populi Romani, non comitem
leader, not comrade
96
non de virtute nunc loquor, sed de virtutis opinione not virtue but reputation
98
satis erat respondere magnas. ingentis inquit.
enough to say many, says
millions
improvidorum et credulorum senem
of unaware old men
exardescit sive amor sive amicitia
love or friendship burns
100
res humanae fragiles caducaque sunt
human things fragile and temporary
102
una domus erat
was one home (for both)
103
studiis cognosni atque discendi
eagerness to discover and learn
104
from De Divinatione of Cicero:
vetus opinio...versari quandam divinationem
old opinion divination exists
I.1
Nec vero habere virtutem...nisi utare.
not enough to have virtue, must use it
2
neque tam humanam atque doctam neque tam immanem atque barbaram
neither humane and learned nor savage and barbarous
tractiones motusque stellarum
paths and motions of stars
diuturna observatione siderum scientiam effecisse formed science by star observing
Romulus...ipse optimus augur
Romulus was the best augur.
3
omnem hanc ex Eturia scientiam
whole field from Eturia
Xenophanes...divinationem funditus sustulit
Xenophanes totally rejected
divination
5
solis luce clarius
clearer than the light of day
6
si di sint esse sui divinent
if gods, then forseers
9
alterum artis est, alterum naturae
(divination) of skill or nature
14
ut numquam perfecte veritatem casus imitetur
no perfect imitation by luck
23
M. Crasso, quid acciderit videmus, dirarum obnuntiatione neglecta
29
We see what happened to Crassus, when he ignored warnings of the fates.
non enim me deus ista scire, sedhis tantum modo uti voluit. use not know
35
Veniamus ad somnia.
Let's consider dreams.
39
Haec de Indis et magis.
Enough of India and magi.
47
elatum cupiditate respexisse
moved by greed he looked
49
At multa falso. Immo obscura fortasse nobis.
many dreams false--obscure
60
ne faba vescerentur quod habet inflationem magnamnot eat beans: fart
62
semel...nihil fortuito...divinationem confitendum
predict without chance proof
71
illa concitatio declarat vim in animis esse divinam poetic force proves divine souls
80
Si sunt di neque ante declarant hominibus ...non diligunt homines.
82
If gods exist and do not fortell future for men, they don't love men.
Cur fiat quidque quaeris.
You ask why and what occurs.
86
nec vero umquam animus hominis naturaliter divinat soul not predict naturally
113
temperatis escis modicisque potionibus
moderate food and drink
115
esse deos...mundum administrari
gods exist and rule world
117
eosdem consulere rebus humanis...universis...singulis
rule all and each human
vim divinam hominum vitam continentem
divine power affects humans
118
ut videret interitum, non ut caveret
see, but not avoid death
119
esse divinum quiddam, quod  appellat is a divinty called daemon
122
a deo, a natura, deinde a fato
from God, nature, fate
125
nihil est factum quod non futurum fuerit
nothing happened not bound to
docemus atque erudimus iuventutem
II.4
casus gravis civitatis...in armis civilibus
6
esset in unius potestate res publica
conversationes rerum publicarum
7
nihil affirmem quaeram omnia
8
ad aegros non vates...sed medicus
9
cum quaeritur...res publica...haruspicesne
11
Vide ne nulla sit divinatio.
12
quae nihil habent ratione...esse praesensio
15
praesensionem esse rerum fortuitarum
19
non utilitatem nobis futuarum rerum scientiam
22
totum omnino fatum Atellanio versu iure
25
physiologiam totam pervertitis
37
deos iocandi causa perlucidos et perflabilis
40
si nulla sit divinatio, nulli sint di
41
facile princeps
teach and polish youth
crisis of state in civil war
state in one man's power
revolutions
Affirm none, question all.
doctor, not prophet for ill
soothsayers for best state
I think divination isn't.
presentiment for chance
foreknowledge of chance
foreknowledge not useful
full fate a farce
You overturn all physiology.
ridiculous gods transparent
no divination, no gods
easily first
42
quicquam certi singificari rebus incertis
sure event from unsure sign
43
Non enim omnis eror stultitia est dicenda.
Not every error is stupid.
non rideret haruspex haruspicem cum vidisset
prophets laugh at each other
51
omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse
results opposite prophecy
53
Quid est tamen incertum quam talorum iactus?
throw of dice most uncertain
59
te nec...terrebunt
no (natural event) frighten
60
nihil enim fieri sine causa potest
nothing happens without cause
61
ad coniecturam aliqua interpretatione
to prophecy by interpretation
66
cur divinitus ea potius quam casu
why divinely rather than by chance
67
furum id magis factum quam deorum
work of thieves, not gods
68
parendum enim fuit religioni
should have obeyed religion
71
apud maiores...peritus, nunc quilibet
then skilled, now anyone
Nec vero superstitone tollenda religio tollitur.
Destroy superstition, not
religion
72
rei publicae causa conservatum ac retentum
kept for expediency
75
vendens cauneas...caveret ne iret
selling figs...don't go
84
a sole ad Martis...inde ad caelum ipsum
from sun to Mars to sky
91
omnes ne qui Cannensi pugna ceciderint uno astro under one star all who fell?
97
nisi senectute, nisi domi, nisi cum claritate
die at home, old, in glory
99
mea sponte nimis superstitiosam de divinatione Stoicorum sententiam
100
I think Stoic view of divination too superstitious.
id esse alienum maiestate deorum
foreign to nature of gods
105
innumerabiles praesensiones non fortuitae
many non lucky predictions
109
Croesus...magnam pervertet opum vim.
overturn great kingdom
aio te...Romanos vincere posse
you the Roman army defeat
116
hanc amphiboliam versus
verse with double meaning
divinos animos censent esse nostros
souls divine
119
eo cibo mens, non venter infletur
as if fill mind, not belly
ex insanorum aut ebriorum visis
from the dreams of the mad
121
insanorum visis...somniantium visis
dreams of insane or sleepers
122
ita gubernem ut somniaverim?
pilot as dreams?
divina vis consulens nobis
divine force watching over us
124
non vigilantibus potius det quam dormientibus?
why dreams to sleepers?
126
somnia divina putanda non est
dreams are not divine
audeat vera omnia esse somnia
dare to say all dreams true
127
mentes mortalium falsis ac mendacibus visis concitare
stir souls falsely
vim cognoscentem...signa, quae a dis hominibus portendantur
130
power of recognizing signs, which the gods have sent us
obscuritates et aenigmata somniorum
darkness and riddle of dream
132
terrigenam, herbigradam, domiportans...cocleam
earthborn, grasseating...snail
133
Ergo obscura somnia minime consentanea maiestati deorum
dark dreams not
worthy of gods
135
Ex eo quod fuerat.
from the him he had been
137
membris et corpore et sensibus
by limbs, body, and senses
139
reliquiae rerum earum moventur in animis
remnants move the soul
140
Sed nihil est magnum somnianti.
nothing great to dreamer
141
praeter hoc Marianum nihil sane
recall only Marian dream
somnia observari possunt?
dreams can be watched?
146
haec infinita complecti
these many observed?
distingui vera somnia a falsis
separate true from false
ex uno inumerabilia confirment
prove many from one
ut nhil prorsus somniis tribuendum sit
dreams worthless
147
explodatur haec somniorum divinatio
Let predictions of dreams end.
148
nec superstitione tollenda religio tollitur
end superstition, keep religion
pulchritudo mundi ordoque rerum caelestium
beauty of universe and order
of sky
Perfugium videtur omnium laborum et sollicitudinum esse somnus.
150
Sleep is regarded as the refuge of our works and concerns.
from the De Natura Deorum of Cicero:
tum perdifficilis, Brutus
I.1
plerique deos esse dixerunt
2
in varietate et dissensione
utrum nihil agant, nihil moliantur
in specie fictae simulationis
3
deorum mente atque ratione omnem mundum administrari
4
ad veri investigandi cupiditatem
find truth
non solum indocti sed etiam docti dissentiant
5
non tam auctoritas quam rationis
lucem eriperet
6
unius consilio atque cura gubernari
7
res gravis tamque praeclaras Latinis litteris contineri
in Latin
a Graecis ne verborum quidem copia vnceremur
8
non enim tam auctoritatis quam rationis
10
Ipse dixit. ( )
tarditate hominum
11
nulla certa iudicandi et adsentiendi nota
12
ab amico amante argentum accipere meretrix non vult
13
quasi gradibus, non genere
by degree not type
16
Velleius fidenter sane
18
ne dubitare akiqua de re videretur
anum fatidicam Stoicorum  


parere voluntati architecti aer ignis aqua terra
19
principium...nihil extremum
20
concupisceret deus mundum signis...tamquam aedilis
22
very difficult, Brutus
Most say gods exist.
in variety and dispute
whether they do anything
in appearance of false show
gods rule world
lust to
all types of men differ
by reasoning not authority
'robs of daylight'
ruled by one's plan and care
serious things written
our vocabulary as good
more reason than name
He himself said.
'dullness of man'
no fixed marks of judgment
declines pay
Veleius fully confident
to seem sure of all
old hag providence
how elements obey
beginning...no end
gods paint as aedile
Thales...aquam dixit esse initium rerum
Thales: water first
25
discriptionem ...mentis infinitae vi et ratione dissignari
mind orders universe
26
animum esse per naturam rerum omnem intentum
one universal soul
27
sine corpore ullo deum vult esse
God without body
30
sine corpoe idem vult esse deum, omni illum sensu privat without body, without sense
33
rationem per omnem naturam rerum pertinentem vi divina esse adfectam putat
36
(Zeno) thinks that there is a divine will through all nature.
non philosophorum iudicia sed delirantium somnia
not decision but mad
42
discordias, querellas...libidines, adulteria, vincula
disputes...lusts...chains
venerari Epicurum
to worship Epicurus
43
insitas eorum vel potius innatas cognitationes habemus
fixed innate concepts
44
beatum aeternumque sit id nec habere ipsum negotii
eternal
has no care
45
ut deos pie coleremus et ut superstitone liberaremur
to worship without
superstition
metus omnis a vi atque ira deorum pulsus esset
all fear of gods banished
partim natura admonet, partim ratio docet.
nature hints, reason tells
46
nec tamen ea species corpus est, sed quasi corpus.
form quasi-corporeal
49
...id est aequabilem tributionem
uniform distribution
50
nihil beatius, nihil omnibus bonis affluentius
nothing more blessed
51
nihil enim agit, nulis occupationibus est inplicatus
does nthing, tied to nothing
sua sapientia et virtute gaudet
rejoices in own wisdom
Hunc deum rite beatum dixerimus, vestrum vero laboriosissimum.
52
This god we ought to call blessed; yours (Stoic) is overworked.
in animi securitate et in omnium vacatione munerum
in secureness and rest
53
imposuistis in cervicibus nostris sempiternum dominum
put eternal boss on us
54
necessitas
necessity
55
tamquam aniculis...indoctis
like rude old women
Cotta comiter
Cotta kindly
57
quare verum sit aliquid quam quare falsum
easier to disprove
quid non sit citius quam quid sit
what is not easier to say
60
mihi ipsi in orimis deos esse
I
believe gods exist.
62
Concedo esse deos.
I grant there are gods
65
doce me unde sint, ubi sint, quales sint.
from where, what form
plane otio langueat
bored with idleness
67
in dumeta concrepitis
hide in verbal thicket
68
concedere quam tam imprudenter resistere
better yield
69
suo quasque generi plurimum tributuras
each rate own first
78
ut homo nemo velit nisi hominis similis esse
each
wishes to be man
et quidem formica formicae
and each ant an ant
79
An tu mei similem putas esse aut tui deum?
god resembles us?
84
Quod beatum et immortale est, id nec habet nec exhibet cuiquam negotium.
85
What is blessed and eternal neither has nor shows any work.
mortem dico et deos
of death and gods
86
Ne sit igitur sol ne luna ne stellae, quoniam nihil esse potest nisi quod attingimus aut
vidimus.
Deny sun, moon, stars, since only what we touch exists.
88
deos hominum similes quam homines deorum
gods like men
90
Utinam tam facile vera invenire possum quam falsa convincere.
91
Would that I were as easily to find the truth as to expose falsehood.
vix digna lucubratione anicularum
not worthy of old women
94
Cur igitur cum ceteris rebus inferiores simus forma pares sumus?
96
If inferior in all other respects, why are we equal in form?
simia quam similis turpissuma bestia nobis
ugly brute like us
97
Habemus in animo insitam informationem quandam dei. have idea of gods
100
et barbati quidem Iovis, galeatae Minervae.
bearded Jove, helmeted
Minerva
Nihil habet negotii.
He has no work.
102
quasi pueri delicati nihil cessatione melius
like spoiled boys thinks
idleness best
homines inertis efficit, si quidem agens aliquid ne deus quidem beatus potest.
makes men lazy, if gods are happy doing nothing
tota res nugatoria est
whole matter useless
108
ais quoniam sit natura mortalis immortalem esse oportet
mortal, thus immortal
109
virtus autem actuosa et deus vester nihil agens
virtue active, your god not
110
locupletior hominum natura quam deorum
humans richer
112
deos vestros esse voluptatis expertes...ne beaos quidem
lack pleasure, unhappy
113
omni aeternitate nisi ëmihi pulchre estí
forever how happy
114
nec actura sit umquam neque agat neque egerit
never does anything
116
Est enim pietas iustitia adversum deos.
Piety justice to gods.
neminem deo nec deum nec hominem carum
caring of none
121
homines a deis sed ipsi dei inter se neglegantur
care not for human or others
Ludimur ab homine. (Epicurus)
mocked by the man
123
ut homunculi similem deum fingeret...non habitu solido
gods like unsolid men
nihil gratificantem, nihil curantem nhil agentem
caring or doing nothing
propitius nemini quoniam omnis in inbecillitate
can't be kind, since weak
124
praesentem ac praepotentem deum
omnipresent, omnipotent
deity
II.4
anus excors apud inferos portenta extimescat
Mad old woman fears underworld.
5
pulli non pascerentur mergi eos in aquam iussit
chickens to water
7
rem publicam amplificatam qui religionibus paruissent
pious men won for us
8
Ne aegri quidem quia non omnes convalescunt idcirco ars nulla medicina est.
12
Some patients do not recover: no proof that medicine does not exist.
Omnibus enim innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deos. All believe in gods.
aequabilitatem motus conversionumque caeli
steady motion of sky
15
esse aliquem intellegat qui praesit et cui parcatur
someone in charge
muribus illam et mustelis aedificatam
built by mice and
weasels
17
superstitones aniles
old women's tales
28
hunc motum in solis animis
motion only in soul
32
a primis...ad ultimas...ad deorum naturam perveniamus
least to best: gods
33
mundi divinitate...sideribus
divine world and stars
39
qui nihil agit esse omnino non videtur
inactive not exist
44
nisi figuris hominum de dis immortalibus cogitare
gods as only human
45
Mundo autem certe nihil est melius.
world best
46
deum esse mundum concluditur
world is a god
47
eruditum illum pulverem attigistis
never used learned dust
48
Hanc igitur in stellis constantiam...non possum intellegere sine mente ratione consilio.
54
This regularity in stars I can only understand from a mind, a reason, a plan.
Nulla igitur in caelo nec fortuna nec temeritas nec erratio nec vanitas inest.
56
In the sky there is no fortune or chance or wandering or frustration.
ignem artificiosum ad gignendum progredientem via
nature: fire with plan
57
Multitudo nec cessantium deorum nec ea quae agant molientium cum labore operoso.
59
There is a multitude of active gods who perform non-irksome work.
deorum cupiditates aegritudines iracundias
gods' lusts, ills, angers
70
deorum providentia mundum administrari
world run by gods
73
providentia deorum mundum...et omni tempore administrari
all run by gods
75
ex admiratione rerum caelstium atque terrestrium.
admiration of world
eadem...humano in genere ratio
same mind as human
78
partes natura admonostrantur...mundum administrari
parts and whole ruled
86
ne natura quidem rationis expers est habenda
parts directed, so whole
87
ex corpusculis...concurrentibus temere
from atoms thrown together
91
ne in uno quidem versu possit tantum valere fortuna
chance not make one verse
93
caelum totum astris distinctum et ornatum
sky decorated with stars
95
haec tanta opera deorum
this is his handiwork
stabilis est mundus
world is fixed
115
a caelestibus rebus ad terrestres...naturae ratio
order in our world
120
conservandi sui
self-preservation
124
perpetuus mundi ornatus
long-lasting world
127
aliae mares, aliae feminae ...perpetuitatis causa
some of each
128
Cuiusnam causa tantarum rerum molitio facta sit?
for whose sake?
133
Eorum scilicet animantium quae ratione utuntur.
for reasoning creatures
Omnes sensus hominum multo antecellunt sensibus bestiarum.
our senses greater
145
maris atque ventorum
control sea and winds
152
animus accedit ad cognitionem deorum, e qua oritur pietas. mind finds gods
153
hominum causa facta esse et parata
prepared for men
154
Ipse mundus deorum hminumque causa facta est.
world made for gods and men
nihil tam inridet Epicurus quam praedictionem
Epicurus mocked foretelling
162
universo generi hominum sed singulis
care by race and individual.
164
Magna di curant, parva neglegunt.
Gods care for great.
167
suo cuique iudicio
III.1
deos nihil agere nihil curare
3
fabellas aniles
5
praesentis videmus deos
11
ostendere velles quales di essent, ostenderes nullos esse
20
de convenientia consensuque naturae
28
cohaeret et permanet naturae viribus, non deorum
Omne corpus aut aqua aut aer aut ignis aut terra est.
elements
30
each own judgment
gods not do or care
old wives' tales
see gods in person
show they are not
re nature's order
nature holds things together
body composed of four
Qualem autem deum intellegere nos possumus nulla virtute praeditum?
38
What sort of deity is endowed with no virtue?
nec ratione igitur utentem nec ulla virtute praeditum
deity without reason?
39
sit sane deus ipse mundus
world a deity!
40
pro aris et focis
for altars and homes
Ergo hi dei sunt habendi mortalibus nati matribus?
deity with mortal mother
45
aut in immensum serpet aut nihil recipiemus
very many or none
52
ex vetere Graeciae fama
from old Greek story
60
vim habere videmus, non deorum
abstractions, not gods
61
aliunde...esse deos et quales sint di
what gods there are
64
summa improbitate non sine summa ratione
with full evil and plan
69
non placet paucis a dis immortalibus esse consultum...nemini
care for none
70
Multi enim cum obesse vellent profuerunt.
intend bad, do good
a dis immortalibus malorum sementem esse
such bad from gods
75
innumerabiles autem improbe utuntur (reason)
many use badly
76
Deus falli qui potuit?
How God deceived?
rerum auctores, non fabularum
of facts not fables
77
nam si curent, bene bonis sit, male malis
gods care, good win
79
omnis bonos efficere
to make all good
bonis male evenerit
many bad to the good
81
in ipso Graeciae flore
in flower of Greece
82
nec recte factis praemia extent
nor rewards for good
85
minora di neglegunt
gods ignore little
86
Num quis quod bonus vir esset gratias dis egit umquam? thanks because good
87
fortunam a deo...a se ipso sapientiam
luck from god, wise by self
88
improborum prosperitates...vim omnem deorum.
success wicked disprove gods
in portumque salvi
89
num etiam in iis navibus Diadoram vehi
prosperam adversamve fortunam qualis sit...nihil intersit
O miram aequitatem deorum! (punish four generations)
90
hi duo...non deus
81
Non curat singulos homines.
93
safe to port
all carried a Diagoras?
good not decide profit
O wondrous equity!
these two, not a deity
no concern for one
from the Academica of Cicero:
Cicero Varroni.
Cicero to Varro
Ad Fam
Cumano cum esset una Pomponius
at
Cumae with Pomponius
lcutos esse inter nos quod numquam locuti sumus
at nonexistant conversation
hominem nobiscum et studiis eisdem et vetustate amicitiae coniunctum
I.1
a man joined to us by same interests and a charm of friendship
habeo opus magnum in manibus
have great work here
2
non haesitans respondebo
At once I'll answer.
4
sus Minervam
to compare a pig to Minerva
5
de corpusculorum concursione fortuita
from chance collision
6
pecudis et hominis idem bonum esse
same good for cattle and men
ut possemus aliquando qui et ubi essemus agnoscere
can discover who are
9
dicam enim ut res est
call a spade a spade
11
ad nostros cives erudiendos
to educate citizens
avocavisse philosophiam et as vitam communem adduxisse led philosophy to common
15
nihil adfirmet ipse, refellat alios
affirm nothing, challenge
others
16
non arbitrari se scire quod nesciat
not to claim to know what you
don't
quod minime probabat, ars quaedam philosophiae
what he opposed, an art of
philosophy
17
abundantia ingenii praestabat...Aristoteles
great in talent
18
non sus Minervam docet
not pig teach Minerva
partem bene vivendi a natura
nature show good life
19
in una virtute beatam vitam
happiness in virtue
22
variae et quasi multiformes
varied and mixed
26
quae infinite secari et dividi possunt
infinitely divisible
27
fatalem et immutabilem continuationem ordinis sempiternal
unchanging order
29
id quod semper esset simplex et unius modi et tale quale esset
saw basic
30
 appellant
call the idea
scientiam...in animi rationibus
knowledge in mind
31
simplex quoddam et solum et unum bonum
one simple good
35
inter recte factum atque peccatum
between good and evil
37
earum rerum obscuritate
obscurity of facts
44
sic omnia latere censebat in occulto
all
hidden in dark
45
homini soli cupiditas ingeneraretur cognitionis et scientiae inborn urge to learn
frag
cum Varrone homine omnium facile acutissimo
Varro most sharp
frag
magnum ingenium L. Luculli
Lucullus
II.1
cum fratre pari pietate et industria praedito
ut diligentiam admirarentur omnes, ingenium agnoscerent
percontando a peritis
non desideravit indocilem usus disciplinam
2
verborum maiorem Hortensius
totiusque belli instrumento
3
vis virtutis atque ingeni peregrinata afuit
nisi ne quid privatis studiis de opera publica detrahamus
6
Nos probabilia multa habemus.
8
seditiosi cives
13
Saturninus...nostrum inimicum potentissimum
14
mente incitati
great talent of Lucius
talented with brother
admire effort and talent
questioning the skilled
not need experience
Hortensius better at words
in every type of war
powers abroad
lest private edge public
We judge probable.
revolutionary citizens
Saturninus' powerful enemy
with roused mind
quasi modo nascentes haesitaverunt
15
Ordiamur igitur a sensibus.
19
de remo inflexo aut de collo columbae
stop as newly born
begin from senses
bent oar or dove's
neck
ex rebus perceptis ad id quod non percipiebatur adducit
from seen to unseen
26
iudicium veri et finem bonorum
judge truth, final good
29
ut inter rectum et pravum sic inter verum et falsum
right and true found
33
visus Homerus adesse poeta
Homer poet here
51
ut experrecti sumus visa illa contemnimus
awake despise dreams
Ne vinulenti quidem quae faciunt eadem adprobatione faciunt qua sobrii.
52
Those under influence of wine do not act same as when sober.
singularum rerum singulas proprietates esse
objects have qualities
56
ovorum inter se similitudo
egg like egg
57
nihil interesse inter species
no difference between species
58
te hominem amicissimum
a very dear friend
61
nihil esse quod percipi possit
nothing can be noted
68
sub Novis solem non ferunt
not bear sun under new
70
nivem nigram
that snow is black
72
At quis est hic? num sophistes
who is he; not sophist
aliquam vim quae finxerit vel fabricata sit hominem?
some force made man
87
Qualis? Quando? Cur? Quo modo?
What sort? When?
Why? How?
Quid est quod ratione percipi possit?
What can reason grasp?
91
in acervo tritici
in heap of wheat
92
utrum tacentem inritiat te an loquentem
traps you whether you talk
94
Si te mentire dicis idque verum dicis, mentiris.
If say truly you lie, you lie.
95
Tribunem aliquem censeo videant.
go to tribune
97
consilia capiet et agendi et non agendi
plans of (in)action
100
Non enim est e saxo sculptus aut e robore dolatus; habet corpus, habet animum.
101
He is not sculpted from stone nor hewn from wood; he has body and mind.
sint falsa sane, invidiosa certe non sunt
perhaps false, not vicious
105
Non enim lucem eripimus.
not steal daylight
Thales ex aqua dixit constare omnia.
Thales: water base
118
infinitatem naturae esse e qua omnia gignerentur
infinite stuff from which all
formed
Anaximenes aera infinitum
unum esse omnia neque id esse mutabile
mundum fctum esse a deo sempiternum
ex numeris...proficisci omnia
hunc mundum esse sapientem, habere mentem
119
flumen orationis aureum
Anaximenes: air infinite
one unchanging thing
eternal made by a god
all from numbers
world wise with mind
golden stream of oratory
mortifera tam multa ac perniciosa terra marique
many deadly on land
120
et dies et noctes divinum numen horrere
dread divinity
121
(non) penetrare in caelum, terram intrare
enter sky and earth
122
Tenemusne quid sit animus, ubi sit.
grasp what/where mind is
124
inane quicquam putes esse, cum ita completa et conferta sint omnia
125
Do you think void exists, when all is packed so tightly?
Veniamus nunc ad bonorum malorumque notionem.
of good and evil
128
nihil esse bonum nisi virtutem
only good virtue
130
honeste vivere fruentem rebus
live honorably
131
finem esse honorum
end of goods moral life
considerare utram sententiam sequar
which to follow?
133
in quibus consentiunt num pro veris probare
they agree on false
135
praeter honestum nihil est in bonis
only honorable in good
utiliter a natura permotiones istas animis nostris datas
useful disturbances
sapientes solos reges
only wise are kings
136
haec tam sunt defendenda quam moenia
defend as walls
137
aut enim honestatum esse finem aut voluptatem
honor or pleasure
138
quam suaviter voluptas sensibus nostris blandiatur
sweetly tickles
139
virtus...hominem iungit deo.
Virtue joins man to divine.
Honesatum cum voluptate tamquam hominem cum belua copulabis?
Will you couple honor with pleasure as man with beast?
id cuique verum esse quod cuique videatur
what seems true is
142
veritatem abductam ab opinionibus et a sensibus
truth separate from senses
opiniosissimi homines
stubborn men
143
exsules servos insanos
exiles, slaves, madmen
144
Si comprehendi nihil posset, artificia concidere dicebas.
nothing understood, building
falls
146
nauta significat sed etiam Favonius ipse insurrat navigandi nobis time over
147
ut percipi putem posse
nothing can be
grasped
148
adsensurum non percepto sapientem
wise will assent to opinion
nihil esse quod comprehendi et percipi possit
nothing perceived
from the De Re Publica of Cicero:
M. Catoni, homini ignoto et novo
man
I.1
homo demens
in his undis et tempestatibus
Nec vero habere virtutem satis est quasi artem nisi utare.
2
usus autem eius est maximus cvitatis gubernatio
unde ius gentium
ut id sua sponte facerent quod cogerentur facere legibus
3
bene constitutae civitati publico iure et moribus
nostro consilio sese in illa vita conservatos putant
6
si eum tempus et necessitas cogerit
10
tranquillo mari gubernare se negent posse
11
rerum civilium minime neglegendam scientiam
M. Cato, unknown and new
madman
in waves and storms
must use virtue
best use in givernment
from where law of nations
do willingly
well-established state
saved by our plan
if emergency compels
deny pilot calm sea
pursue civil studies
proprius ad deorum numen virtus accedat humana
human approaches divine
12
cui nihil desit quod quidem natura desideret
lacks nothing he properly
wants
17
militiae propter eximiam belli gloriam Africanum ut deum coleret Laelius, domi
18
vicissim Laelius, quod aetate antecedebat
Each
placed other first in proper sphere.
mundus hic totus...di nobis communem secum dederunt
world common with gods
19
errantes et quasi vagae
wanderers as if rovers
22
certis temporibus esse semper futurum
at fixed times
23
cum tota se luna sub orbem solis subiecisset
moon at sun's orbit
25
quam parva sit terra
how
small the earth
26
non muneris fungendi gratia
not for own reward
27
e naufragio possit ecferre
to carry from shipwreck
28
ut bono essent animo; videre enim se hominum vestigia
Be of good spirit; I see the
footsteps of men.
29
ante pedes nemo spectat
none see before foot
30
duo senatus et duo paene iam populi
two senates and people
31
bonis viris perutrbatis his tam periculosis rebus subvenire patiuntur
The good are in despair because there are dangerous plots against the country.
Iura certe paria debent esse eorum inter se.
laws ought to be equal for all
32
optimum longe statum civitatia esse eum quem maiores nostri nobis reliquissent
34
best government by far that which our ancestors handed over to us
est res publica res populi
commonwealth ours
39
omnis populus...consilio quodam regenda est ut diuturna sit to last be governed
41
rex aequus...principes cives vel ipse populus...statu
king etc. form state
42
dominatus unius proclivi cursu et facile delabitur
king often rules wrongly
44
moderatum et permixtum tribus
balance of power
45
nulla sancta societas nec fides est
no unity or honor
49
Quid est enim civitas nisi iuris societas?
city civil unity
navis, si e vectoribus sorte ductus ad gubernacula accesserit like random captain
51
(not necessarily) genere nobili natos esse optimos
best born from best
inter infirmitatem unius temeritatemque multorum
between two bads
52
sive regi sive optimatibus serviant
slave to king or good
55
unum...regem esse omnes consentiunt
one highest being
56
ad utilitatem vitae
for use of their own life
senserunt omnem hunc mundum mente
all ruled by mind
Quem necassem iam verberibus, nisi iratus essem.
if not angry, flog
59
singulorum dominatus...esse optimos
rule of one best
61
uni gubernatori, uni medico
to one pilot or doctor
62
mira quaedam exultasse populum insolentia libertatis
strange display of
freedom
licet enim lascivire, dum nihil metuas
licence if no fear
63
magistrum populi appellari
title: master of people
tyrannus deteriorem genus et finitimum optimo
worst next to best
65
servos voluntarios
willing slaves
67
in eius modi re publica plena libertatis esse omnia ut et privata domus vacet dominatione
In this kind of state all is full of liberty so that house lacks master.
civis sit an peregrinus, magister ut discipulos metuat
no proper distinctions
ut, si minima vis adhibeatur imperii, irascantur
angry at any restraint
hunc nimis liberum populum libertas ipsa servitute adficit licence to slavery
68
ex hoc populo immani deligitur dux contra principes
from rabble new
leader
aequatum et temperatum ex tribus
mix of three best
69
in suo quisque es gradu firmiter collocatus
each fixed in proper place
ad exemplum nosra re publica...de optimo civitatis statu
from ours the best state
70
tu duobus huius urbis terroribus depulsis
you freed city twice
71
patria est antiquior parens
country is older parent
frag
Catonis hoc senis est
II.1
from old Cato
et domi et militiae cum optime, tum etiam diutissime
home and war well
and for long
summum vel discendi studium vel docendi
zeal to learn and to teach
nostra res publica non unius esset ingenio, sed multorum our state based on many
2
sine rerum usu ac vetustate
without experience and time
rem publicam nascentem et crescentem et adultam
our state in stages
3
aliquam ipse finxero
make up ideal state
aequo animo illi libenterque parerent (Romulus)
obey calmly
4
urbem condere et firmare rem publicam urbi
found city and state
5
est maritimis urbibus quaedam corruptela ac demutatio morum
sea city fall
7
barbarorum agris adtexta ora Graeciae
Greek edge
9
ubique genitum est ad eam urbem possit adnare
all products arrive
rapi iussit easque in familiarum amplissimarum matrominiis
seize and marry
12
regnum suum cum illorum rege sociavit
allied kingdom
13
patrum auctoritate consilioque regnavit
ruled with fathers
14
senatu fultus et munitus
guided by senate
15
praeclaram fortasse, sed a vita hominum abhorrentem
ideal, but unsuited
21
eos patres nominari patriciosque eorum liberos
fathers and patricians
23
Sabinum hominem Romam Curibus accivit
Sabine called to Rome
25
amorem eis otii et pacis
love of peace and leisure
26
religione atque clementia
religion and mercy
27
non esse nos inportatis artibus...sed domesticis virtutibus homegrown state
29
naturali itinere
Nature road
30
non fortuito se consilio et disciplina
not chance but plan
a populo est Ancus Marcius constitutus
AM chosen by people
33
Demaratam Corinthum fugisse cum magna pecunia
D fled Corinth with money
34
Postea bello subegit Aequorum magnam gentem.
defeated Aequi
36
ex serva Tarquiniense
from slave girl
37
obaeratosque pecunia sua liberavisset
freed debtors
38
nec valeret nimis, ne esset periculosum
not too powerful
39
assiduos appellasset ab asse dando
named money giver
40
proletarios...ex iis quasi proles
masses named for kids
rem publicam ex tribus generibus illis
country from 3 types
41
L. Brutus depulit a civibus suis iniustum durae servitutis iugum. B rutus freed citizens.
46
de rege dominus extiterit
from king to tyrant
47
dominus populi, quem graeci tyrannum vocant
ruler of people, tyrant
regnum occupare voluisse
wished to seize power
49
Est igitur fragilis ea fortuna populi.
fortune fragile
50
consilio et opera civitatem tueri potest
guard by plan and
work
51
in umbra et imagine civitatis
in shadow city
52
odium populum Romanum regalis nominis tenuit
hated title king
magistratus civem Romanum adversus provocationem necaret
kill citizen
53
in statu senatus rem publicam...in populo libero
senate over free people
56
aequabilis compensatio et iuris et officii et muneris
equal work and duty
57
contra consulare imperium tribuni plebis
tribunes check consul
58
propter unius libidinem omnia nexa civium libertata
one's lust frees debt
59
ut decemviri maxima potestate sine provocatione crearentur
ten given power
61
ut ne plebei cum patribus essent
no intermarriage
63
definieram genera civitatum tria probabilia.
defined three states
65
immani et vastae insidens beluae
sit on large beast
67
sicut speculum praebeat civibus
show citizens with mirror
69
moderata ratione civitas consensu dissimillimorum
balanced state
magni homines, eruditi, veritatis et virtutis magistri
great men and teachers
III.4
haec civili laudabilior est certe et inlustrior
civil life best
6
exemplum antiquae probitatis et fidei
old propriety and faith
8
aurum quaerunt
seek gold
Ius civile est aliquod.
justice civil duty
14
Cretes et Aetoli latrocinari honestum putent
piracy honorable
15
discrepare ab aequitate sapientiam
equity and justice not match
16
iusti homines parere legibus
just man to obey laws
18
tribuere id cuique quod sit quoque dignum
give each his due
propter divitias rem publicam tenent...illi optimates
by riches the best
23
populus plurimum potest...dicitur illa libertas, est vero licentia
licence if people rule
eodem quo tu orbem terrae (pirate compared to gov.)
same as you rule
world
24
imperio iam orbis terrae tenetur
We rule world.
se de terra tamquam hos ex arvis musculos exstitisse
from earth as mouse
25
si duo sint (godd harrassed and wicked prosper)...utrum se esse malit
27
if there be two...which would you prefer to be
(Cicero says the bad man)
iniuste imperare malit quam servire iuste
unjust boss, not just slave
28
Est quidem vera lex recta ratio naturae congruens.
law right reason
33
Huic legi nec obrogati fas est.
wrong to repeal this law
nullum bellum suscipi a civitate optima nisi aut pro fide aut pro salute
34
no war to be fought except for honor or safety (St. Augustine quoting Cicero)
nullus interitus est rei publicae naturalis
state should not die
Noster populus defendendis sociis terrarum omnium potitus est. (Nonius)
35
By defending allies we have gained control of the whole world.
optimo cuique dominatum ab ipsa natura (St. Augustine) power from nature
37
deus homini, animus imperat corpori, ratio libidini
God over man, mind over
body, reason over lust.
iniustae servitutis: cum ii sunt alterius, qui possunt esse
slavery wrong for capable
38
quorum non corpora sunt in caelum elata
40
tota sit in factionis potestate...(non) dici rem publicam
44
(non) rem publicam...in multitudinis potestate
45
furiosorum bona legibus in adsignaturum potestate sint
sapientia quar gubernet rem publicam...uno an in pluribus
matter
47
bodies not to heaven
one party rule not state
people's rule not state
mad rabble should not rule
wisdom rules: number not
ipsa mens ea quae futura videt praeterita meminit
see future, recall past
IV.1
quam commode ordines discripti...in quo suffragia sunt
how careful order for vote
2
Plato omnia iubet esse communia.
Plato: common property.
6
nisi ruborem
except a blush
sit censor qui viros doceat moderari uxoribus
rule women indirectly
nolo eundem populum imperatorem et portitorem
same not rule and tax
7
tenebras...metus...cupiditates (comedies inflame)
ghosts, fears, lusts
9
eius modi cives a censore melius est quam a poeta notari better censor than poet
disceptationibus legitimis propositam vitam, non poetarum ingeniis by court, not poet
11
Moribus antiquis res stat Romana virisque (Ennius)
V.1
sicut picturam egregiam, sed iam evanescentem
2
notris viris non casu rem publicam verbo retinemus
by habits and men
like fading picture
our fault government only
word
radicum seminumque
5
ut astrorum gubernator, physicorum medicus
nec metu et poena terrentur quam vercundia
6
ut omnes et communibus commodis et suis uterentur
own
7
beata vita...copiis locupleta, gloria ampla, virtute honesta
virtue
8
principem civitatis gloria esse alendum
9
first principles
like pilot or doctor
shame not fear deter
all use common and
blessed life: with glory and
glory spurs leader
Graves dominae cogitationum lubidines infinita quaedam cogunt atque imperant.
VI.1
Our desires are harsh masters over our thoughts.
illum tristem et plenum dignitatis sonum
resounding echo of dignity
2
firmiter maiores nostri stabilita matrimonia esse voluerunt. wanted stable marriages
de animae immortalitate (Myth of Er)
immortal soul
3
sapientibus conscientia ipsa factorum egregiorum
knowing deeds
8
The conclusion of the De Re Publica is called the Somnium Scipionis.
ut Masinissam convenirem regem...amicissimum
meeet King Massinissa
9
ex imgine eius
from his image
10
omitte timorem
put aside fear
11
offendes rem publicam consiliis perturbatam nepotis mei state disturbed by grandson
in te unum atque in tuum nomen se tota convertt civitas
state will turn to you
12
omnibus qui patriam conservaverint...in caelo locum
place for guides
13
nihil illi principi deo in terris acceptius quam concilia
assembly best act on
earth
viveretne ipse et Paulus
whether they live
14
vestra vita mors est
your life is death
nisi enim deus istis te corporis custodiis liberaverit, huc tibi aditus patere non potest.
15
Unless God frees you from body, no approach is possible.
tibi et piis omnibus retinendus est animus est in custodiis corporis soul must stay in body
nec iniussu eius ex hominum vita migrandum est ne munus humanum adsignatum a deo
defugisse videamini.
Only by God's permission may we leave earth lest we fail our task.
Iustitiam cole et pietatem.
Follow justice and piety.
16
ea vita via est in caelum
that is road to heaven
erant autem eae stellae quas numquam vidimus
stars we never saw
Quousque humi defixa tua mens erit?
how long look at earth
17
praeter animos munere deorum datos (immortal)
except souls given by gods
supra lunam sunt aeterna omnia
all above moon eternal
ea media et nona tellus neque movetur et infima est
bottom unmoving earth
Hoc sonitu oppletae aures hominum obsurduerunt.
By sound ears numbed.
19
Haec caelestia semper spectato, illa humana contemnito. Look to heaven, despise low.
20
Alte spectare si voles aeternum domum contueri.
Look high for home.
25
non esse te mortalem, sed corpus hoc
body not you is mortal
26
deum te igitur scito esse
Know that you are a god.
ut mundum deus, sic fragile corpus animus sempiternus movet.
god:world::soul:body
Nam quod semper movetur aeternum est.
always moves means eternal
27
Principii autem nulla est origo.
first cause has no beginning
quae se moveat...aeterna est
moves self = eternal
28
Hanc tu exerce optimis in rebus!
move soul at best
29
(animus) velocius in domum suam pervolabit
swiftly to real home
nunc hunc in locum nisi multis exagitati saeculis revertuntur
long torture
difficilis laudare puerum...non res sed spes
hard to praise boy (hope)
frag
from the De Legibus of Cicero:
non a poeta sed a teste
I.4
in historia ad veritatem, in poema delectationem
poetry
5
patriae quae salva per te est, per te eundem sit ornata
decorated
tam exile quam isti omnes
6
hominis amicissimi Cn Pompei laudes inlustrabit
8
de Remo et Romulo
plura quam quisquam e nostris
9
subsiciva
aetatis vacationi
10
quantum ius civitatis
14
de optimo rei publicae statu, de legibus
15
neque a duodecim tabulis, sed ex intima philosophia
Tables
17
tota causa est universi iuris ac legum
ab hominis repetenda natura
ignoratio iuris litigiosa est
18
lex est ratio summa insita in natura
not from poet but witness
truth in history, delight in
country saved and
lifeless
glorify Pompey
about Remus and Romulus
more than others
trifles
leisure of age
great state law
state, now laws
from philosophy not Twelve
whole sphere of law
in human nature
ignorance causes suits
law reason by nature
man
mens eatioque prudentis
19
deorum immortalium vi...naturam omnem regi
21
nihil curare deum nec sui nec alieni
rationi...in homine et in deo
23
animum esse ingeneratam a deo
24
nullum animal praeter hominem quod habeat notitiam dei
virtus eadem in homine ac deo
25
solum hominem erexit
26
nos ad iustitiam esse natos
28
socitatem coniunctionemque
qui ducem nactus ad virtutem pervenire
30
voluptate capiuntur omnes
31
dolor in maximis malis
recta ratio in iubendo et vetando
33
primus utilitatem a iure seiunxiiset
ut nihilo seipse plus quam alterum diligat
34
omnes inter se indulgentia et benivolentia
35
ad res publicas firmandas
37
in hortulis suis
39
Itaque poenas luunt
40
angore conscientiae
nihil alterius causa facit
41
est enim unum ius
42
natura propensi sumus ad diligendos homines
43
ius sua sponte esse expetendum
48
de modestia (and synonyms!)
50
mind of prudent man
gods' power rules all
god cares for nil
reason for man and god
soul formed by god
only man notes god
same virtue in god and
raised man alone
born for justice
society and unity
with leader reach virtue
pleasure takes all
pain great evil
right order and forbid
split use and law
love self no more than other
joined by good will
to strengthen state
in their little gardens
men pay penalty
pain of conscience
nothing for others
There is one law.
naturally love others
seek law of own
about modesty
corporis pravitates, animi deformitas
51
ad finem bonorum
52
secundum naturam
54
non rerum sed verborum controversia
55
ex natura vivere summum bonum
56
ut nosmet ipsos nosceremus
58
divinum ingenium
59
bonum virum beatum fore
warp body or mind
civem totius mundi
61
se ipsi velint nosse
62
citizen of whole world
to highest good
according to nature
dispute of only words
by nature high good
to know ourselves
divine skill
good will be happy
wish to know self
ille sapientissimus vir ut Ithacam videret immortlitem repudiasse
II. 3
That very wise man declined immortality to see Ithaca again.
Duas esse censeo patrias.
have two countries
5
pro qua mori et cui nos totos dedere
die or give all for it
A Iove Musarum primordia
poet begins with Jove
7
neque enim esse mens divina sine ratione potest
mind needs reason
10
ratio profecta a rerum natura
reason from nature
11
ad salutem civium civitatiumque
for safety of citizen and city
lex iustorum iniustorumque distinctio
good and bad
different
13
neque tolli neque abrogari
not to be repealed
14
dominos esse omnium rerum ac moderatores deos
gods are masters
15
sancta sit societas civium inter ipsos diis
holy state with gods
16
nam sententias interpretari perfacile est
easy to translate
17
Ad deos adeunto caste, pietatem adhibento
go to gods in piety
19
periurii poena divina exitium, humana dedecus
perjury punished
22
omnium anmos immortalis esse, fortium bonorumque divinos
souls godly
27
divinationem () esse sento
divination exists
31
facile in animos teneros influere quam varios canendi sonos
Song affects young
mind.
38
vir nemo bonus ab improbo se donari velit
good not want gift from bad
41
poena...per se ipsa maxima est
crime own punishment
43
duplicem poenam esse divinam
double punishment
44
ut magistratibus leges, ita populo praesunt magistratus
III.3
law over magistrate, magistrate over people
omnes antiquae gentes regibus quondam paruerunt
Kings ruled early.
4
magistratibus igitur opus est
We need magistrates.
5
qui imperat, cogitare brevi tempore sibi esse parendum
ruler soon will obey
Iusta imperia sunto, isque civis parento
citizens obey just law
6
is ave sinistra doctus populi magister esto
master of people
9
exque is senatus esto (is = magistratibus)
from them the senate
10
Donum ne capiunto. (while in office)
no one get gift
11
temperationem rei publicae
balanced state
12
non tam regni tam regis vitiis
by king's faults
15
hoc enim primum minuit consulare ius
independent right
16
qui in provinciis sunt minime placet
provincials disapprove
18
tribunorum...mihi pestifera videtur
tribunes harmful
19
patribus omnem honorem eripuit
removed senate power
de Saturnino...ne depellere a se sine ferro res publica
Saturninus removed
by force.
20
tribunis plebis sua lege iniuriae faciendae potestatem ademerit
restricted power
22
nimia potestas est tribunorum plebis
tribune has excess power
23
at aliquando incenditur. et quidem saepe sedatur.
inflame or calm people
24
tenuiores cum principibus aequari se putarent
weak think equal
neque nobis cum illa tum peste certamen fuit
fight not with pest
25
Ceteris specimen esto.
example for all
30
qualescumque summi civitatis viri fuerint, talem civitatem fuisse state mirrors leaders
31
de suffragiis...nota esse optimatibus, populo libera
free supervised vote
33
clam an palam
secretly or openly
obsisti posse populo negatur
denies can oppose people
34
omnem auctoritatem optimatium tabellarium legem abstulisse
open ballot harms best
people
omnis ramusculos populari ratione aucupante
hunting
35
fluctus in simpulo
a tempest in a teapot
36
mihi nihil umquam populare placuit
popular not please me
37
in potestate optimorum
in power of best
senator...non ad auctorem referatur animus
mind not from author
40
causas populi teneto
know public business
41
in privatos homines leges ferri noluerunt
no private laws
44
tantum sapere quantum apparitores velint
know only what clerks want
48
mors aur meliorem aut non deteriorem statum
death brings better
frag
mundus omnibus partibus...cohaeret...sic omnes homines ... men like world cohere
frag
from Tusculanarum Disputationum of Cicero:
rettuli me, Brute, te hortante maxime ad ea studia
returned to studies
I.1
hoc mihi Latinis litteris illustrandum
write in Latin
mores et instituta vitae nos melius tuemur
We have best habits.
2
de re militari, in quacum virtute nostri multum valuerunt tum plus etiam disiciplina
about fighting, in which we are preeminent because of courage and disicpline
Honos alit artes omnesque incenduntur ad studia gloria.
Esteem nurses arts.
4
oratorem celeriter complexi sumus
We embraced orator.
5
suum cuique
to each his own
occupati profuimus, prosimus otiosi
busy aid, idle aid
6
recte quis sentiat, polite eloqui non possit
right needs polish
Malum mihi videtur esse mors.
death an evil
9
qui mortui sunt an iis quibus moriendum est. utrisque
to dead and to those who will
haec poetarum et pictorum portenta
fakes of painters and poets
11
quasi migrationem commutationemque vitae
migration and change of life
12
Pugnantia te loqui non vides?
self-contradictory
13
Scribunt de contemnenda gloria, sua nomina inscribunt.
deprecate glory, inscribe
name
15
ita ne moriendum quidem esse malum est
to die not evil
16
bonum esse mortem
death a good
errare male cum Platone...quam cum istis vera sentire
rather be wrong with
Plato
17
insatabilis cupiditas veri videndi
insatiable urge to see truth
19
Plato triplicem finxit animum.
Plato's three-part soul
20
quattuor nota illa genera principiorum
four basic elements
22
liberari mortis metu
freed from fear of death
23
animos in caelum quasi in domicilium suum pervenire
souls to home in sky
24
fateri nescire quod nesiam
to admit my ignorance
25
migrationem commutationemque vitae
change of life
27
nulla gens tam fera...deorum opinio
all races believe
30
cum cantu et voluntate moriantur
They die with song and will.
Arbores seret diligens agricola, quarum aspiciet bacam ipse numquam.
31
The diligent farmer plants trees, whose berries he will never see. (so politician)
specimen naturae capi deceat ex optima natura
best provide model
32
Nemo umquam sine magna spe immortalitatis se pro patria offerret ad mortem.


No one would offer self for death without promise of immortality.
Hic vestrum panxit maxuma facta patrum. (Ennius)
told fathers' story
34
Homeri tota  




Homer's



sustentantur iisdem rebus quibus astra aluntur
by same food as stars
43
insatiabilis cupiditas veri videndi
lust to see truth
44
Quo terrore? Quo metu?
From what fear?
48
non nasci...quam primum mori
not to be born, die quick
Nosce te = Nosce animum tuum.
Know self, own soul.
52
Quod semper movetur, aeternum est.
always moves, eternal
53
discere est recordari
learning is recalling
57


appellat ille, nos speciem
idea
58
errantium stellarum cursus, praegressiones notavit
noted path of planets
62
Quae autem divina? Vigere, sapere, invenire, meminisse.
65
divine qualities: be strong, be wise, discover, remember
candorem caeli
splendor of sky
68
in eodem orbe in duodecim partes distributo quinque stellas ferri orb divided into
twelve parts: zodiac
cum cantu et voluptate moriantur
die with happy song
73
tamquam in rate in mari immenso
as if skiff in vast sea
ille in nobis deus iniussu hinc nos suo demigrare
God forbids suicide.
74
tamquam cornicibus...diu mansuros aiunt animos
long souls as crows
77
ingeniosos melancolios
talented morose
80
Fac enim si animum interire ut corpus.
If soul dies, no harm.
82
tanta caritas patriae est...salute ipsius metiamur.
measure love by it
90
ortus noster...sic exitium mors
so our death an end
91
somni simillimam
death like sleep
92
usuram vitae
use of life
93
multo saepius lacrimasse Priamum quam Troilum
Priam shed more tears.
Confer nostram longissimam aetatem cum aeternitate.
long life versus
eternity
94
Sed tempus est iam hinc abire me ut moriar, vos ut vitam agatis. time for me to die, you
to live
99
undique enim ad inferos tantumdem viae est
same road from any
104
Nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis perfectae perfecto functus est munere.
109
no life too short to accomplish virtue
post epulatos cum matre adolescentes somno se dedisse
fell asleep dead with mother
113
supremus ille dies...commutationem adfert loci
last day brings change
117
philosophari
play the philosopher
II.1
non paucis
not a liitle bit
ad animum metu liberandum
to free mind from fear
2
ad beatam vitam
to the blessed life
multitudinis iudicio
approval of many
3
Atque oratorum quidem laus ita ducti ab humili venit ad summum.
5
In oratory our fame has arisen from the lowest position.
commendari omnium eruditorum
taste of all educated
8
finem huius lucis et amissionem omnium vitae commodrum
loss of life
10
disciplinam suam non ostentationem scientiae, sed legem vitae
control
11
pecuniae cupidus, gloriae non nullus, multos libidinum servos
greedy
12
falsa gloria
'borrowed plumes'
agri non omnes frugiferi
not all fields fertile
13
non omnes culti fructum ferunt
not all trained minds bear
fruit
ager quamvis fertilis sine cultura fructuosus esse non potest field needs tilling
Dolorem existimo maximum malorum omnium.
pain greatest evil
14
dedcore, flagitio, turpitudine
worse than disgrace?
ne sit sane summum malum dolor, malum certe est
at least an evil
ignominiam...turpitudinem non pertulerit ut effugiat dolorem
pain over
disgrace
16
Ita fit ut omnino nemo esse possit beatus.
no one totally happy
Epicurus...risus captare videatur.
Epicurus causes laughter.
17
Quam suave est, quam hoc non curo!
I don't care.
Consuetudinis magna vis est.
Great is the power of habit.
Epicurus...voluptarius
Epicurus the voluptuary.
18
Sed videsne poetae quid mali adferant?
harm poets do
27
Lamentantes inducunt fortissimos viros, molliunt animos nostros. Brave weep, soft
minds.
haec a pueritia et legimus et discimus
learn from childhood
maius tibi videri malum dedecus quam dolorem
disgrace worse than pain
28
firmandus animus ad dolorem ferendum
harden soul to endure
nihil est malum nisi quod turpe atque vitiosum est.
omly bad base
29
est tamen reiiciendum
(pain) to be rejected
Asperum est, contra naturram, difficile perpessu, triste, durum.
harsh, bad
quae natura aspernetur, in malis esse
what nature rejects base
30
afflictus iacens
lie afficted
32
O virum fortem!
O brave man!
reliquam superllectilem salvam, virtutem si unam amiseris save trash, lose one virtue
Non ego dolorem esse neo,--cur enim fortitudo desideraretur?
33
I do not deny pain. For what else is courage needed?
exercitus primum nomen...labor
army named from work
37
Ex hoc ille animus in proeliis paratus ad vulnera.
mind ready for war
ferre non posse se clamabit
will not endure
40
Consuetudinis magna vis est.
force of habit
Olympiorum victoria consulatus ille antiquus
Olympic - consul
41
Tantum exercitatio, meditatio, consuetudo valet.
training, habit
Crudele gladiatorum spectaculum et inhumanaum
cruel gladiatorial show
contortulis et minutis conclusiumculis
by twisted argument
42
Appellata est enim ex viro virtus.
virtue from vir: man
exclamabis ut mulier
shout like woman
46
Pueri ferunt gloria ducti, ferunt pudore alii, multi metu.
glory, shame, fear
ut tute tibi imperes
master self
47
in animis omnium natura molle quiddam
weakness in all minds
ut dominus servo
as master over slave
48
videsne ut obmuterit...castigatus animi dolor
sorrow of mind silences
50
perfecta atque absoluta
perfect and absolute
51
Cave turpe quidquam, languidum, non virile.
Beware base, weak.
Valuit auctoritas.
'force of example'
53
cum ei, qui steterit, nihil tale evenerit
steady soldier OK
54
Sunt enim quaedam animi similitudines cum corpore.
soul like body
in dolore maxime est providendum
In pain one provides.
55
ut in stadio cursores exclamant
as runners shout
56
omnibus ungulis
'tooth and nail'
Ira exardescit, libido concitatur.
Anger blazes, lust rises.
58
de dignitatis gradu
from post of dignity
quid in pace, quid domi, quid in lectulo
in peace and bed at home
60
nihil esse bonum nisi quod esset honestum
only honorable good
61
omnes clari et nobilitati labores contemnendo fiunt etiam tolerabiles.
62
All become famous and tolerable.
non aeque graves esse imperatori et militi
soldier and commander differ
nullum theatrum virtuti conscientia maius est
approval of
conscience
64
Graeci..hostem aspicere non possunt.
Greeks can't look enemy in
face.
fulmina fortunae
blasts of fortune
66
cum constemus ex animo et corpore
III.1
animi autem medicina nec tam desiderata sit
Sunt enim ingeniis nostris semina innata virtutum.
2
opinionum pravitate a natura desciscimus
3
fama popularis, simulatione honstatis
made of soul and body
medicine for soul
seeds of virtue inborn
'tainted with vicious beliefs'
'popular reputation'
4
Alii everterunt suas civitates, alii ipsi pcciderunt.
country or self falls
At et morbi perniciosiores sunt animi quam corporis.
soul's disease worse
5
aegritudine et cupiditate
'distress and desire'
Non enim silice mati sumus.
not born of stone
12
omnes radicum fibras evellere
tear out the roots
13
Qui fortis est idem est fidens.
brave also trusting
14
ut fortitudini aegritudo repugnet
illness vs bravery
At nemo sapiens nisi fortis.
wise must be brave
Munus autem animi est ratione bene uti.
work of soul right use
15
frugi appellari tris virtutes: fortitudinem, iustitiam, prudentiam
17
frugal means three virtues: bravery, justice, prudence
Cum decore atque omni me orbatum laude recordor.
robbed of honor
18
aut boni aut mali opinione citetur bifariam
provoked two ways
24
quod imperare non liceat liberis
not to rule over free
26
Sciebam me genuisse mortalem.
knew I bore mortal
30
semel in omni vita risisse
laughed once
31
Quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur accumbis cedisque fortunae? why give up?
36
Quid est autem nequius aut turpius effeminato viro?
girlish man vile
senex Zeno istorum acutissimus
spitfire Zeno
38
acipenserem potius quam aliquem Socraticum libellum
fish rather than book
43
in culcita plumea, psaltriam adducamus, hedychri incendamus suctellam, dulciculae
potionis aliquid videamus et cibi
trappings of pleasure
46
de acumine eius, non de moribus
about mind. not habits
Num fingo? Num mentior? Cupio refelli.
not false, refute me
cum largitiones maximas fecisset et effuidsset aerarium
squandered treasury
48
mea bona tibi viritim dividere liceat
Don't divide my property.
patrimonium publicum dissipari
public money wasted
de honore aut de dignitate contendimus
about honor and dignity
50
actum habiturum quod egerint
what is done is done
aegritudinem...necopinato
unexepected is illness
52
maris subita tempestas terret naviantes vehementius
sudden storm frightens
haec omnia vidi
I saw all this.
53
non vulneribus mederetur, sed cicatricibus
cure for scar, not wound
54
nihil oportere inopinatum videri
nothing seems unexpected
55
Saeoe est etiam sub paliolo sordido sapientia.
wisdom in poverty
56
inglorius atque ignobilis ad supremum diem
unknown to last day
57
quasi cum deo pugnare prohibet admonetque esse hominem mortal fate
60
Ipse suum cor edens, hominum vestigia vitans.
eating own heart alone
63
Hic decernit ut miser sit.
resolves to be wretched
65
Malo quidem me quovis dignum deputem.
worthy of any evil
ad ponendum dolorem...nihil profici
Put aside useless sorrow.
66
cervis et cornicibus vitam diuturnam
long life for deer and crow
69
cum illa videre coepisset
to see those things
Ut illa ad alios dicta et praecepta excidant.
words failed self
71
Laudant enim eos, qui aequo animo moriantur; qui alterius mortem aequo animo
72
eos potant vituperandos.
Good if bear own death, bad
if bear another's.
ut me ille plus quam se, ego illum plus quam me
not love other more
73
Erat enim in tumore animus et omnis in eo temptabatur curatio.
every cure for soul
76
Sed sumendum tempus est non minus in animorum morbus quam in corporum.
Choosing right time for cure of soul's disease essential.
Cleanthes quidem sapientem consolatur, qui consolatione non eget.
77
consoles wise man who does not want to be consoled
Non tibi hoc soli.
not only one
79
si paupertas momordit
if poverty bites
82
aegritudinem omnem procul abesse a sapiente
wise lack distress
ratio omnium est aegritudinem
distress
83
sunt illae fibrae stirpium
Quid autem praeclarum non idem arduum?
one principle of
roots of distress
famous act must be hard
Pythagoras, qui fuit in Italia
Pythagoras in Italy
IV.2
cum floreret in Italia Graecis potentissimis et maximis urbibus magna Graecia
vita magis quam litteris
by life than words
5
illecrebris blandae voluptatis
by lures of sweet pleasure
6
Sunt enim iudicia libera.
judgment free
7
nos vela facere
spread our sails
9
perturbationem esse appetitum vehementiorem
disturbance rough appetite
11
nam et imitatio virtutis aemulatio dicitur
rivalry imitates virtue
17
ut sunt alii ad alios morbos
more prone to some
27
animi naturam corporis similitudo
body and soul similar
30
constantia cum firmitate et stabilitate
consistency with strength
31
ex scrupulosis cotibus
from rock points
33
ut nihil ei constete
no rule
35
voluptatem animi nimium summum esse errorem
soul's pleasure error
hominem frugi omnia recte facere
frugal does all right
36
modum igitur vitio quaerit
seeks limit to vice
41
in altum provehitur
carried out to sea
42
nullam habere vim nisi ira excanduerit fortitudo
bravery makes words
43
sine summo cupiditatis ardore
without burning
desire
44
Dum modo doleat aliquis, doleat quidlubet.
Let whatever pain come.
45
collocuti inter se, prius quam manum conserent, leniter
polite before battle
49
Neque enim est ulla fortitudo quae rationis expers.
all bravery with reason
50
negligenda mors est, patibiles et dolores et labores putandi
51
de sapiente
55
humanos superiores quam suos animos
61
quod non natura humana patiendo ecferat
63
omnes eas in nostra potestate
65
cum fruuntur Veneriis voluptatibus
68
amorem ipsum conatum amicitiae faiendae
72
sed ratione a se deiecta
80
me fortuna vehementer exercuit
V.3
humani genris imbellicitatem fragilitatemque
death despised, toil taken
about the wise man
rate human things over soul
human nature not endure
all within our power
who enjoy sex
love a forming of friendship
cast out by reason
fortune treat me badly
weakness of human
race
sapientiam ipsam antiquam
wisdom is ancient
7
illum artem non scire, sed esse philiosphiam
know only philosophy
8
Socrates primus philosophiam devocavit e caelo.
Socrates took philosophy.
from sky.
10
non ad beate vivendum satis virtutem
virtue not enough
12
Ut maris igitur tranquillitas inteligitur nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus
16
commovene, sic animi quietus et placatus status cernitur, cum perturbatio nulla est qua
moveri queat.
Sea at rest without storms; so souls when undisturbed.
Neque enim umquam finem inveniet libido.
lust without limit
20
Vitam regit fortuna, non sapientia.
fortune rules
25
Negant ab ullo philosopho quidquam dictum esse languidius. spiritless comment
Occupavi te, fortuna.
I caught you, fortune.
27
omnes bonos semper beatos volumus esse
wish good be blessed
28
Quid est enim dulcius otio litterato?
leaisured letters sweetest
36
a communi parente natura
nature common parent
37
Non esse optabilis quidem ista, rudentibus apta fortuna.
useless: depends on ropes
40
fortitudo: animi adefectio in adeundo periculo
disposition to take on
danger
41
in vulgi opinione stultorumque turba
by common opinion
46
bonorum beatam vitam esse
life of good blessed
47
semper in animo eius placidissimam pacem
calm peace in soul
48
Nam eum accipere quam facere praestat iniuriam.
endure not do wrong
56
distrahuntur in contrarias partes impotentiam cupiditates contrary urges
60
hominem in aureo lecto...
man on gold couch
61
In hoc medio apparatu fulgentem gladium e lacunari saeta equina aptum demitti iussit.
In midst of trappings he ordered a gleaming sword hung by horse's hair.
Hominem homunculum a pulvere et radio excitabo, Archimedem.
64
I shall call from dust and rod a lowly man, Archimedes.
ut virtus ad beate vivendum sit se ipsa contenta.
virtue sufficient
71
in viola aut in rosa
on flower beds
73
Quam pro nihilo puto!
count as nothing
finem bonorum...congruere naturae
best to match nature
82
nihil bonum nisi honestum (Stoics)
only good the honest
84
nihil bonum nisi voluptatem (Epicureans)
only good pleasure
Hic vero ipse quam parvo est contentus.(Epicurus)
content with little
89
Nunc quidem paullulum a sole.
stand away from sun
92
exsilium in maximis malis ducitur
exile an evil
106
a perpetua peregrinatione
from permanent travel
107
totius mundi se incolam et civem
citizen of whole world
108
exsilii libertatem domesticae servituti
free exile to home
slavery
109
non alba atra sed bona mala
not white from black but good
from evil
114
qui secum loqui poterit
117
mortem minitanti...cantharidis vim
beetle
ne sobrius in violentiam vinolentorum incidat
118
can talk with self
threaten death is power of
sober not fall to drunk
from Cicero's Pro Lege Manilia:
Dicendum est enim de Cn. Pompei singulari eximique virtute.
3
We must speak about the unique and outstanding virtue of Pompey.
Bellum grave et periculosum vestris vectigalibus ac sociis a dobus potentissimis regibus
infertur.
4
By two very powerful kings a war dangerous to our allies and revenues is being waged.
L. Luculum magnis rebus gestis ab eo bello discedere.
Lucullus leaving war
5
unum ab omnibus sociis et civibus ad id bellum imperatorem deposci atque expeti
one man is being demanded as commander by our allies and citizens for this war
de genere belli, deinde de magnitudine, tum de imperatore deligendo esse dicendum
6
First about the kind of war, then the extent, then about choosing the commander I speak..
in quo agitur gloria populi Romani
our glory at stake
animos excitare ad persequendi studium debeat
inflame minds to fight it
agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum
safety of allies and
friends at stake
is uno die tota in Asia cives Romanos necandos denotavit lusted to kill many Romans
7
vos eum regem inultum esse patiemini
You allow the king unavenged
.11
illi libertatem imminutam Romanorum non tulerunt
They did not allow reduced
liberty.
genus esse ita necessarium ut sit gerendum
must be fought
20
L. Lucullo tantum impertire laudis
that I praise Lucullus
de imperatore ad id bellum deligendo
about choosing the
commander
27
in summo imperatore quattuor has res inesse oportere: scientiam, virtutem, auctoritatem,
feleicitatem. 20
The greatest commander should have four qualities: knowledge, courage, influence, luck,
Testis est Italia...testis est Siilia...testis est Africa...testis est Gallia...testis est
30
Hispania...testis est Italia.
The witnxss is ...
Siciliam aiit Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam um lass venit Pompey visited Sixily, Africa,
Sardinia
34
innocentia...temperantia
integrity...self-control
36
non avaritia ab instituto cursu ad pravam vocavit
greed not call him from duty
40
unum bellum Cn. Pompeium imperatorem depoposcit
Pompey alone sought for war
44
ad unum tamen omnia deferri non oportere
wrong
for one man to lead
52
nullo in loco iam praedonibus pares esse
not equal to pirates
55
una lex, unus vir, unus annus nos illa miseria liberavit
one law, one man, one year
for you
56
ne qui novi fiat contra exempla atque insituta maiorum
no deviation from past custom
60
aliae quoque virtutes requiruntur
other virtues needed
64
istam tuam et legem et voluntatem et sententiam comprobo I approve of your law, will,
and opinion. 69
quidquid est in me studii, consilii, laboris, ingenii
any effort, plan, work, talent
rei publicae dignitatem meis omnibus praeferre
place country over self
71
from Cicero's Pro A. Caecina:
audacia atque impudentia
daring...recklessness
1
more instituto omnium
in usual way
2
res turpissima...maturissime vindicanda est
punish worse offense fastest
7
voluntarius amicus mulieris
self-chosen friend of lady
14
se castello sescensunt, in funum proficiscuntur
think safe, go to death
21
ut ex causatione summae stultitiae summae improbitatis odium deprecatur
30
Avoid claim of highest wrong by claiming highest stupidity.
ubi minae, pericula terroresque mortis, ibi vim
where threats, there force
41
sauciatio quaeretur, quum fugam fatam esse
wounds when flight fated
43
non fuerunt armati; cum fustibus et cum saxis fuerunt
not arm only clubs and rocks
64
summo
highest
65
verbis oppugnare aequitatem
to fight spirit with words
67
nihil est quod aequabile inter omnes
no universal standard
70
neque inlecti gratia, eque perfringi potentia
not bent by influence
73
in bonis a iure et a legibus
property from law
74
quo consilio et qua sententia non quibus verbis
spirit not letterof law
81
tuo gladio aut nostro
by your or our sword
82
non vestigium eius qui seiectus sit
not footsteps of expelled
83
in hoc Caecinam non defendo
not defending him
94
ius commune
public rights
nihil de calamitate rei publicae
nothing about disaster
to country
95
civitas adimi, retineri libertas non potest
citizenship removed, liberty
not safe
96
ut religione civitas solvatur civis Romanus situr
citizen surrendered to save
state
98
exsilium enim non suppliium est sed perfugium portusque supplicii.
exile not a
punishment, but a refuge
100
confugiunt quasi ad aram in exsilium
flee to exile as if altar
non prius civitatem quam vitam amitterent
lose citizenship with life
ex nostro iure suarum civitatum nemo esse possit
can't be citizen of two states
spectatissimum pudentissimum hominem
most estimable and
respectable
102
singulari pudore, virtute cognita, et spectata fide
moral, virtuous, faithful
104
from Cicero's Pro Cluentio:
invidia iam inveterata
time-honored prejudice
I.1
invidiae et criminum
of prejudice and charges
contionibus seditiose concitatis
rabble-rousing assembly
2
diligentia...fides
attention...trust
3
in hac calmaitate fama quasi in flamma
in
disaster as if flame
4
sine invidia culpa pletatur
Without prejudice guilt
punishes.
5
facile princeps
easily first
per annos continuas
through eight long years
7
eius fortunae miserae multumque iactatae portum ac perfugium
to his wretched
fortune a harbor and a refuge
contra damnatum et mortuum pro incolumi et pro vivo
10
against dead and damned for safe and living
mulieris importunae nefaria libido
wicked lust of evil woman
12
de suo scelere et immanitate
of her crime and inhumanity
mater generi suo amore apta
taken by immoral love of
son-in-law
vitrix filiae, non libidinis
victor over daughter, not lust
14
Nubit genero sorus.
mother-in-law marries
son-in-law
o libidinem effrenatam et indomitam
o unrestrained lust
15
retinere homines parentum, aequo animo ferre
bear parents' fault
17
Larino Romam advolavit
flew from Larinum to Rome
18
audax, pecuniosa, crudelis
bold, wealthy, fierce
Larinas quaedam fuit Sinea
was lady Sinea at Larinum
21
Oppianicus singulari sceleri
O with unique crime
23
animi omnium odio Oppianici commoventur
all minds against Oppianicus
per illam L. Sullae vim
through force of Sulla
25
mortis metu
in fear of death
illam Oppianici domum viri sui sanguine redundantem
house dripping with blood
27
propter pecuniam liberos amittere iucundum
pleasant to lose kids for
money
28
clamavit se maximo cum dolore emori
was dying with great
pain
30
exhausto illo poculo mortis
drank cup of death
31
sceleris societate coniunctae
joined in society of crime
35
conviviis...flagitiis...profusis sumptibus
banquets, disgrace, money
36
ex petulanti atque improbo scurra in discordiis
reprobate in disputes
39
nemo illum aditu, nemo sermone, nemo convivio signum iudicavit
not worthy
41
aut iuste pieque accusaret aut acerbe indigneque moreretur
accuse or die
42
non suis commodis sed suorum municipum
not own but city interest
43
venenum esse deprehensum
poison siezed
50
ita sum perturbatus ut omnia timerem
all
51
Scamander prima actione condemnatus est
55
respicite, iudices
58
nihil reperietis
62
aut ab Habito aut ab Oppianico
64
eloquentia...pietate
65
perditum et duobus iugulatum praeiudiciis
68
egens, sumptuosus, audax, callidus, perfidiosus
71
quaerunt a me ubi sit pecunia
72
homo popularis...omnium rumorum ventos
winds
77
homines totius ignari negotii
summam invidiam infamiamque
79
ab accusatore an ab reo
81
non Archimedes melius potuit inscribere
87
quaestio aut sisptatio aut iusicium
90
homo sanctus et siligens
91
praeter invisiam, errorem, suspicione
suspicion
93
acerbus crininosus, popularis homo a turbulentus
94
nec vim tribuniciam sustinere
95
homo neqam, turpis, improbus
97
illum maiestatis esse conemnatum
99
more maiorum
104
animos eius ac spiritus tribunicios
109
so frightened I feared
condemned on first trial
look back, judges
You will find nothing.
by Habitus or Oppianicus
eloquence or piety
destroyed by past convictions
needy, daring, treacherous
ask where money is
demagogue all rumor on
men not knowing matter
envy and hate
from prosecutor or cause
A not written better
three possibilities
holy and scrupulous man
except hatred, wrong,
bitter, popular, disturbing
not hold off tribune's power
man worthless: base and evil
condemned for treason
habits of elders
pride and airs
emissam purpuram
111
rem a subsellis ad Rostra detulit
cum industria cum innocentia
innocence
112
superbiam atque adrogantiam eius deridendam
mocked
iniqua, falsa, turbulenta, popularia, seditiosa iudicia
113
neque...dignitas laesa aut amicitia violata
friendship
118
numquam animaversionibus cnsoriis ut rebus iudicatis
119
not same weight to censor's as court decision
Timoris enim causam, non vitae poenam missa est.
120
in aerarios referre aut tribu movere
122
potestatem regiam
123
verum sit an falsum
124
sortito...ut metus ad omnes
128
ventum popularem
130
ex notatione tabellarium
nihil ipsos habuisse cogniti
131
equum traducere
134
senatus secreverat...referendum ad populum non
137
ut mare...sic populum Romanum
138
homine in sicenso vehementi et callido
140
omni veritate cognita
142
non isdem legibus omnes teneri
150
odio...in equestrem ordinem
151
equites ordini senatorio dignitate proximos
152
auctoritatem huius ordinis confirmari
loosen purple garb
from bench to rostrum
with hard work, and
pride and arrogance to be
unjust decisions
not harm dignity nor violate
cause fear, not punish
to degrade the man
kingly power
true or false
lot to create fear in all
breeze of popular favor
from marked ballots
know-nothings
to lead past his horse
not refer to people
as sea...so Roman people
vigorous and skilled speaker
to know whole truth
all not governed by same law
hatred of the knights
knights second only to senate
influence of order gaining
illa robora populi Romani
flower of the Roman people
153
neque sibi quodcumque concupirit licere
not free to follow own whim
159
non devinctum legibus
not tied by statute
160
de via decessisse
went out of way
163
quam falsa re quam brevia responsu
how false, easy to answer
164
Apud hunc ille Romae habitavit, apud hunc aegrotavit, huius omis est mortuus.
165
Here he lived, grew ill, died.
res enim se ipsa defendit
matter defends self
167
magnum crimen et impudens mendacium
false charge and lie
168
homines inimicos suos morte affixi volunt aut quod timent aut quod oderunt
169
Men wish enemies dead beause they either hate or fear them.
ineptis fabulis
silly stories
171
a sorus, ab uxorum, a fratris, a liberum Poenis
avenging spirits
abditum in parte panis
hidden in piece of bread
173
at repentina morte periit
He died suddenly.
174
homine valenti
lusty man
175
nefaria mulier coepit insidias filio
evil woman plot at son
176
tormentis omnibus vehementissime quaeritur
great tortures applied
armario expilato, pecunia ablata
181
illa abfuturam se filiam minaretur
non morbo, sed scelere
crime
182
mulier abundat audacia, consilio et ratione deficit
184
cotidie superioris viri mortis
death
185
huius sordium atque luctus et tanti squaloris
192
consceleratae matris
193
safe robbed, money taken
to take daughter from him
not with disease but with
much boldness, little sense
traces of former husband's
unkempt son
wicked mother
huius importunitatem matris a filii capite repellite
save son from mother
195
in morbum gravem periculosumque incidit
fell into serious illness
198
vestram mansuetudinem una mater oppugnat
mother attacks your mercy
199
vitiis animi...iura hominum convertit omnia
subverted all laws
prohibete aditum matris a filii sanguine
keep mother from son
200
mortem se filii lugere simulasst
pretend grief at son's death
201
restituite incolumen municipio
Bring him home safe.
202
ut virum optimum atque innocentissimum his calamitatibus liberetis
that you free
this best man from all disasters
in contionibus invidia, in iudiciis veritati
in meetings prejudice, in
courts truth
from Cicero's Pro Rabirio:
causa ad hunc defendendum aevum ad absolvendum
same to defend and free
1
nihil auctoritas senatus, nihil consulare imperium
negate senate and consuls
2
intercludere omnis seditionum vias
block all threats of revolution
3
nulla bonorum consensio
no agreement of good
4
hominis miserrimi atque innocentissimi
wretched and innocent man
5
ipsius vicinitatis nomen ac termini
'neighborly feeling'
8
in consulatu meo carnificem se foro sustulisse
to drive mad man from forum
10
inviolatum corpus omnium civium Romanorum
untouched body of Roman
citizen
11
i, lictor, conliga manus
Go, lictor, bind his
hands.
13
morte miliens
died a thousand deaths
15
se popularem...me alienum a commodis vestris
him popular, me foreign
Mors denique si proponitur, in libertate moriemur.
may die in freedom
16
non tribunicia actione regia
kingly not tributary at
17
confiteor interficiendi Saturnini causa Rabirium arma cepisse
19
I admit that Rabirius took up arms to kill Saturninus.
ut imperium populi Romani maiestasque conservaretur
to keep Roman power
20
arma capere et se sequi iubent
order all to take arms
inclusum atque abditum latere in occulto
to hide in shadows
21
ut aut cum Saturnino esset aut cum bonis aut lateret
one side or other
24
imprudentia laberis
you stumble in ignorance
25
custodes gubernatoresque rei publicae
guardians of state
26
hostium copias in Italia fufisset
has killed many enemies
29
pro patriis fanis atque delubris propugnandum
fight for shrines
30
exiguum nobis vitae curriculum natura circumscripsit
narrow bounds
At occidit Saturninum Rabirius. Utinam fecisset!
Rabirius kill Saturninus:
wish had
1
nullus est reliquus rex, nulla natio pertimescatis
no king, no nation to fear
frag
accusatio perniciosa, iudicium acerbum
vicious charge, harsh
judgment
neque a vobis iam bene vivendi s honeste moriendi facultatem petit Ask not to live well but
to die honorably.
ut cum qui pro patria nullum umquam mortis periculum fugit in patria mori patiamini
that you allow him to die within the country he has defended
ut hanc meam defensionem pro amici periculo fidelem, pro rei publicae salute consularem
putetis
from Cicero's In Catilinam Prima:
Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra?
1
O Catiline, how long will you abuse our patience?
Nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati...moverunt?
Has not night guard moved
you?
O tempora, o mores!
O the times, o the habits!
2
Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci iussu consulis iam pridem oportebat. I should have led you
to death long ago, Catiline.
Habemus senatus consultum in te, Catilina.
senate decree against you
3
tamquam in vagina reconditum
as if hidden in the sheath
4
Castra sunt in Italia contra populum Romanum.
In Italy there is an enemy
camp.
5
Muta iam istam mentem.
6
nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas
8
inter falcarios
Perge quo coepisti; gradere ex urbe.
10
Nunc iam aperte rem publicam universam petis.
12
exhaurietur ex urbe...pruniosa sentina
Change your mind.
nothing you do, try, think
among sythe-makers
Finish it and leave.
You now attack the country.
finally savage will
leave
nemo..qui te non metuat, nemo qui non odit
All fear and hate you.
13
patria...est parens omnium
country...parent of all
17
Refer ad senatum.
Put matter to senate.
20
Patiuntur, tacent.
They suffer, they are silent.
Cum tacent, clamant.
When they are silent, they
shout.
21
Confer te ad Manlium.
Go to Manlius.
22
Ad hanc te amentiam natura peperit, voluntas exruit, fortuna servavit.
25
To this madness your nature bore you, your will trained you, your fortune saved you.
M. Tulli, quid agis?
Marcus, ,what do you do?
27
invidiam virtute partam gloriam, non invidiam
envy from virtue not envy
29
in venis atque visceribus rei publicae
in veins and guts of country
31
Proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium.
Go to impious, wicked war.
33
hostis patriae, latrones Italiae...vivos mortuosque mactabis.
You will punish these enemies of the country, these robbers of Italy dead and alive.
from Cicero's In Catilinam Secunda:
pestem patriae nefarie molientem
pest to country threatening
evil
1
ferro flammaque minitantem
threatening with flame and
fire
Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit.
left, departed, escaped, burst
forth
non denique intra domesticos parietes
not tremble in house
Palam iam cum hoste nullo impediente bellum iustum geremus.
Soon we will wage a just war with no enemy hindering.
e suis faucibus
from our jaws
2
in praetexta
in youth
4
ex senibus desperatis, ex agresti luxuria, ex rusticis decoctoribus
5
from hopeless old men, from spendthrift peasants, from country debtors
Intus est hostis.
The enemy is within.
Catilina ipse pertimuit, profugit.
himself feared, fled
6
Non est iam lenitati locus.
not place for mercy
hanc sentinam urbis eiecerit
drove out this sewage
7
in ludo gladiatorio
in gladiatorial school
9
in scaena
in theater
frigore et fame et siti et vigiliis
cold, hunger, thirst,
watch
nihil cogitant nisi caedem, nisi incendia, nisi rapinas
plot killing, fires, plunder
10
cubantes in conviviis, complexi mulieres impudias, vino languidi
reclining in banquets, embracing whores, drunk with wine
Nulla enim est natio quam pertimescamus.
no nation we fear
11
aquilam illam argentaream
that silver eagle
13
horribilis belli ac nefarii periculum
danger of evil war
15
fugitivo alicui aut gladiatori concedi sit necesse
lose to slave or gladiator
19
proscriptiones et dictaturas
prosriptions and dictatorship
20
nudi in conviviis
naked in banquets
23
hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum, hinc fides illinc fraudatio
25
on this side chastity, on that debauchery
sine vestro metu ac sine ullo tumultu
without fear or riot
26
paucorum paene vos omnes salvi
safe by punishing few
28
from Cicero's In Catilinam Tertia:
ex faucibus fati ereptam
1
ex urbe Catilinam eiciebam
snatched from jaws of fate
I drove Catiline from city.
3
magno comitatu legati Allogobroges ingressi
with large group
Allobroges entered
6
Cimbrum Gabinium
Cimber Gabinius
tardissime autem Lentulus venit
very late arrived Lentulus
ut servorum praesidio uteretur
to use slaves as guard
8
debilitatus atque abiectus
'paralyzed and smitten'
Atque ita censuerunt ut P. Lentulus, cum se praetura abdicasset, in custodiam traderetur.
14
And they decided that, when he had given up the praetorship, he
should be handed over to custody.
quod urbem incendiis, caede ivis, Italiam bello liberassem
15
because he had saved the city from fire, the citizens from death, Italy from war
somnum...adipes...temeritatem
sleep, lethargy,
rashness
16
hanc urbem deorum immortalium metu se potestate adinistrari
21
This city is governed by the will and power of the immortal gods.
id non divinitus esse fatum putatis
happened with gods
22
L. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit
Sulla crushes Sulpicius.
24
Superavit postea Cinna cum Mario
Later Cinna and Marius
won.
Ultus est huius victoriae crudelitatem postea Sulla.
Sulla avenged the victory.
illi hostis aut interfectos aut opprssos reliquerunt
left enemy, abandon enemy to
me
27
From Cicero's In Catilinam Quarta:
non solum de vestro ac rei publicae verum etiam de meo periculo
1
about not just your and country's but my danger
non curia vacua mortis periculo atque insidiis fuit
curia not free from plots
2
conservate vos, liberos, fortunasque vestras
save selves, children, fortune
3
Nam neque turpis mors forti viro potest accidere.
death not base for brave
tenentur ei qui ad urbis incendium _Romae restiterunt
men who plan to burn
Rome
4
sollicitantur Allobroges, servitia excitantur, Catilina arcessitur
Allobroges are stirred up, slaves are called up, Catiline is summoned.
Vincula vero et ea sempiterna certe a singularem poenam nefarii sceleris inventa sunt.
7
Perpetual imprisonment is a noteworthy punishment.
popularis habetur
regarded as popular
9
Sed tamen meorum periculorum rationes utilitas rei publicae vincat.
Let the need of the country overweigh my personal advantages.
ne e capite videlicet civium Romanorum scientiam fuerat not to vote on death penalty
qui autem rei publicae sit hostis eum civem esse nullo modo posse
10
One voted an enemy can not be regarded as a citizen.
mihi salva re publica vobiscum perfrui
to enjoy country with you
11
Quis enim est me mitior?
Who is more lenient than I?
hanc urbem, lucem orbis terrarum atque arcem omnium gentium
this city, the light of the world anf citadel of all lands
vexationem virginum Vestalium perhorresco
tremble at violation of VV
12
importunus ac ferreus
heartless and wooden
plenum est forum, plena templa circum forum
crowded forum and
temples
14
dum omnibus potius quam soli perire
Die with all rather than alone.
huius ordinis ad societatem concordiamque revocatos
new unity and
harmony
15
Omnis ingenuorum adest multitudo, etiam tenuissimorum.
all here, even poorest
16
amantissimum oti
most supportive of peace
17
vos ne populo Romano deesse videamini providete
to not fail Roman people
18
Omnes ordines ad conservandam rem publicam mente, voluntate, voce consentiunt.
All orders are united in mind, will, and voice to save country.
turpem iudico et infirmam et abiedtam
judge them base and
weak
20
vitae tantam laudem quanta vos me vestris foederetis honestastis nemo est adutus
no one has been honored as greatly as I
Marius...bis Italiam obsidione et metu servitutis liberavit. .
21
Marius twice freed Italy from attack and fear of slavery.
Pompeius...solis cursus
Pompey (honored) in path of
sun
hostes oppressi serviunt aut se obligatos putant
enemies enslaved or indebted
22
cum perditis civibus aeternum bellum
eternal war vs evil
citizens
coniunctionem vestram equitumque Romanorum
unity with Roman knights
ad conservandam rem publicam
for saving Roman republic
23
haec omnia suo solius pcriculo
at risk of only self
from Cicero's Pro Murena:
pro me ipso pauca dicam
shall say a bit about myself
2
(sto) ad certam rationis normam
to a fixed plan
3
gravissimo atque integerrimo viro
man of high purpose and
integrity
natura affert ut eis faveamus
nature urges to help others
4
partis lenitatis et misericordiae
part of kindness and
mercy
6
familiaritatis necessitudinisque oblitum
forgot need of friendship
7
tertiam in criminibus ambitus
third the charge of bribery
11
Saltatorem appllat L. Murenam Cato.
Cato calls Murena a dancer.
13
ex trivio aut ex scurrarum aliquo convicio
from corner or whore's taunt
Nemo enim fere saltat sobrius.
no one dances sober
nulla fraus, nulla avaritia, nulla perfidia, nulla crudelitas
no fraud, no greed, no
treachery, no cruelty 14
hominibus litteratis et historicis est notior
better known to learned
16
virtute et industriaque perfecisti
You advanced by your own
effort.
altero improbissimo atque audacissimo
one wicked and bold
17
Nihil est incertius vulgo.
Nothing is more uncertain
than the mob.
difficultatem ecsorbuit
put up with stubborn
19
fortissimo et sapientissimo viro..L. Lucullo
to brave and wise Lucullus
20
agitat rem militarem, insectatur totam hanc legationem
21
He ridicules military service, he belittles this military assignment.
plus adferat dignitatis rei militaris quam iuris civilis gloria
22
Military service is a greater glory than civil law.
Simul atque increpuit suspicio tumultus, artes ilio nostrae conticiscunt.
As soon as war rumbles, arts become silent.
qui...comprimat tribunicios furores, qui concitatum populum flectat, qui
24
largitionem resistat to resist tribune's rage, to withstand popular breeze and bribery
cornicum oculos confixerit
peck out crow's eyes
25
Numquam sapiens irascitur.
Wise man should not become
angry.
30
bellum illud omne Mithridaticum cum mulierculis
war with Mithridates with
women
31
Mitto proelia, praetereo oppugnationes oppidorum.
I skip battles and sieges.
33
Nihil est incertius volgo.
nothing more fickle than
crowd
36
imperatores, non verborum interpretes
generals not interpreters
38
cum fortis tum etiam felix
as brave as lucky
sunt enim populi ac multitudinis comitia
people decide elections
Postremo tu in provinciam ire noluisti.
last you refused a province
42
Cui placet obliviscitur, cui dolet meminit.
We forget pleasure,
remember pain.
fortem accusatorem quam sapientem candidatum
active accuser than wise
candidate
43
Haec omnia tibi accusandi viam muniebant, adipiscendi obsaepiebant.
48
All things promote prosecution, but hinder election.
alacrem atque laetum
brisk and happy
49
cum miserorum fidelem defensorem negasset inveniri posse qui ipse miser esset
50
since only poor could help poor
duo corpora esse rei publicae
51
quia nihil timebant, partim quia omnia
others all
non latus aut ventrem sed caput collum
52
spe et cupiditate inflammatum
lust
honoris contentione
56
quasi desultorius in quadrigarum curriulum incurrere
57
auctoritatem quam criminationem pertimescam
58
iudicium vituperare non possum
60
ad honestatem, gravitatem, temperantiam
sapientem gratia numquam moveri
61
Quid accusas, Cato?
state has two heads
some feared nothing,
not at belly but at head
enflamed by hope and
by political rivalry
like jumper into chariot
fear influenced not charged
can't censure your judgment
to honor, severity, restraint
wise unmoved by favor
What charge, Cato?
67
consulatum petenti solet fieri
68
Non, sed mercede. Convince.
73
a grege delicatae iuventutis
youths
74
urbis delendae, civium trucidandorum
citizens
80
In exitu iam est meus consulatus.
nonne prospicis tempestatem anni tui?
office
81
ad amplecandum otium
83
cum suo consilio nefariorum hominum
In discrimen extremum venimus.
84
Hostis est...in urbe, in foro.
corporis morbo tum animi dolore
anguish
86
consul consulem...commendo
consul.
90
from Cicero's Pro Sulla:
boni viri lenitatem meam misericordiamque
1
de mea laude dicendi
2
non una ratio est defensionis
4
ad breve tempus severitatem postulavit
8
una bonorum est omnium causa
9
Multa de summis rei publicae periculis audivi.
14
lapidatione atque concursu
15
ille arma misit, cornua, tubas, fascis, signa
17
mollitia sum animi ac lenitate
18
regnum ferre non posse
21
non institutum a me regnum, sed repressum
kingship
usually happens to candidate
only if paid--prove it
from a pampered crowd of
to destroy city, kill
last days of my term
see the storm of your
to embrace peace
his council of evil men
come to end of road
enemy is in city, in forum
by physical ill and mental
As consul I commend a
good may see my mercy
of singing my own praise
more than one way of defense
for short time severity needed
one cause for all good men
I heard much about trouble.
by stones and riots
he sent arms and signs
I am soft-hearted.
not endure my tyranny
not start but put down
nemini cedere, multis obsistere
25
nullum praemium...nisi honestum otium
26
si animus, si aures patent omnibus
sine tumultu, sine dilectu, sine armis, sine exercitu
33
quinque hominum amentium ac perditorum poena
Ab Allogrogibus nominatum Sullam esse dicis.
36
cedo adulescentiae, cedo amicitiae, tribuo parenti
46
aculeos orationis meae
47
ut nullus amicitia ad pericula propulsanda impediremur
49
honos ad patrem, insignia honoris ad te
50
tectus praesidio firmo amicorum
51
totam per urbem caedis atque incendiorum
52
fuit Neapoli
53
gladiatores emptos
ante furorem Catilina
56
in ultimas terras
57
rei publicae tempestate
59
summa cum gravitate et dignitate
64
de vita hominis ac de moribus
character
69
in omni flagitio, stupro, caede
70
semper audax, petulans, libidinosus
71
verbis uti improbissimis...pugnis et calcibus
in illa gravi L. Sullae turbulentaque victoria
Sulla
72
dignitatem, liberalitatem, moderationem
73
magis odio quam pudore
74
yield to none, resist many
honest leisure only reward
if mind and ear open for all
without disturbance or arms
by punishing five evil men
Sulla named by Gauls
pardon youth and parent
stings of my rhetoric
friend not bar to defense
honor to father, symbol to you
protected by friends
city divided for killing
he was at Naples
gladiators were bought
before Catiline's madness
'to the ends of the earth'
storm of our country
with seriousness and dignity
about his life and
in every crime, lust, killing
always bold, mad, lustful
use bad words, fists, kicks
in grave and muddy win of
dignity, generosity, restraint
from resentment not shame
crudelis hostis patriae
cruel enemy of country
76
flectit libido, corrumpit spes, informat metus
78
twisted by lust, corrupted by hope, weakened by fear
valeat ad poenam et ad salutem vita plurimum
Let life judge
punishment.
79
nulla erat cognita coniuratio
no conspiracy detected
81
improbo homini, at supplici, fortasse audaci, at aliquando amico
a wicked man, but seeking help, perhaps bold, but once a friend
plus virtutis, plus amoris...plus gravitatis
more courage, love, severity
82
ut, quia tu defendis, innocens iudicetur
You defend, thus innocent?
84
Non in ea re publica versor
not involved in political
situation
nihil de hoc consul comperi
nothing suspicious about him
86
nihil in hoc odio dignum, misericordia digna multa
nothing for hatred, much for
pity
88
omnia generis, nominis, honoris insignia
all honor and name lost
coniurati et conscelerati et proditoris nominetur
called son of traitor
88
honoris...ad causam, non inimicitiae
rivalry not hate
90
An vero inimicum ut expellas?
exile enemy
spoliato fama, honore, fortunis
stripped of honor and fortune
91
in vestra mansuetudine atque humanitate
in your mercy and humanity
92
falsam a nobis crudelitatis famam
false reputation for cruelty
93
from Cicero's Pro Flacco:
socio atque adiutore consiliorum...L. Flacco
assistant
1
multitudinis imperitae
2
odio et furori
multa nos in nostris rebus et in re publica fefellerunt
3
de vestra re publica iudicaturi, de civitatis statu
citizens
omnia alia perfugia bonorum...ceciderunt
is qui Catilinam ex urbe expulit pertimescat
Flaccus was my ally and
of unskilled mob
to hatred and madness
many disappointments
about our country and
every refuge of good fallen
He who drove out Catiline
should fear. 5
versutissimum hominem et ... exercitissimum
well-practiced
frag
monumentum antiquitatis
ingenita levitas et erudita vanitas
idem novum bellum suscepit atque confecit
Tmolites ille vanus...ne inter suos quidem notus
8
Primam dicam...Graecos.
9
Tribuo illis litteras.
testimoniorum religionem et fidem numquam
very crafty and
monument to past age
naturally fickle
He fought and won the war.
a man unknown to his own
First I say they are Greeks.
I credit them with literature.
no reliable witnessing
se spoliatos, vexatos, fortunis eversos
driven from their
property
11
impudentissimus loquacissimusque
shameless fast-talkers
Pietas fundamentum est omnium virtutum.
Piety is basis of all virtue.
12
Sic adulescens ingeni plenus locupletis metu, tenuis praemio, stultos
errore permovit.
15
Clever youth moved, wealthy by fear, poor by
reward, stupid by trickery.
clamore multitudinis concitae
inflamed by shouting of mob
nullam...sanctissimi viri vim contionis esse voluerunt
Wisest don't want
assembly power.
libertate immoderata ac licentia contionum
unlicensed disorder at
meetings
16
sutores et zonarii
cobblers and belt-makers
17
temeritatem volgi...strepitum imperitorum
rashness of mob, din of idiots
19
Graeci statuunt aut nostri praetores
Greeks or our men to decide
27
Nulli erant praedones.
There were no pirates.
28
nihil esse unde proficiscantur, nihil quo revertantur
no base to go out nor return
30
At neminem cepisti.
But you took no prisoners.
31
casus est enim in capiendo, locus, ventus, occasio
chance, place, wind in taking
illam rationem in imperando sumptu
that method of collecting
32
omni fratris mei laude delector
delighted by brother's
praise
33
propter turpissimam obscenitatem verborum
because of foul language
34
homo impudentissimus
rascal
unus...fortuna egens, vita turpis
one man, poor and vile
35
nec...testimonio Flacci vita et dignitas nititur
36
levitatem totius Asiae
37
Bellissimum putarunt dicere amissas.
39
nemo vestrum umquam vidit
40
convictus fractusque discessit
41
homo ineptus et loquax
42
cum civitate acerrima et confidentissima
44
levissimi hominis animum
46
cornici oculum
dimidio refferet stultiores quam acceperat
47
Fecit eaem omnia quae nostri debitorws solentfif
48
homo volubis
Quae civitati facta est iniuria?
57
non civitas, sed imperiti homines
miseram crudelemque caedem
60
optimatium consilio gubernatur
64
Phrygem plagis fieri solere meliorem
65
Sequitur auri illa invidia Iudaici.
66
Pompeius...ex illo fano nihil attigit.
temple
67
istorum religio...huius imperi...abhorrebat
69
Otium te delectat; lites, turbae, praetor odio est.
71
pedibus compensari pecuniam
cheapness'
72
Num quid harum rerum a me fingitur?
73
lapidibus, fustibus, ferro
life/status not on testimony
unreliability of all Asia
thought smart to say lost
none of you has seen
He left beaten and broken..
inept and talkative man
with sharp and efficient city
anger of worthless man
crow's eye
make 1 1/2 times dumber
did what debtors do
'fluent fellow'
what injury to city
not city but rabble
awful massacre
ruled by plan of the best
rule better with rod
envy of Jewish gold
Pompey touch nothing in
religion conflict with our rule
like peace, hate strife
'distance lends
none made up
with stones, clubs, sword
ornamentum populi Romani, florem iuventutis
jewel of people, flower of
youth
75
te, inimicum paternum, in consilium vocavit
fathers' enemies, in council
77
plenissimas humanitatis et aequitatis
full of humanity and equity
78
Sed haec omitto.
But I omit these things.
80
pudentissimum hominem, nobilissima familia natum
careful man of noble
family
81
non impressio, non vis, non occasio, non tempus, non imperium, non secures
85
no pressure, no violence, no chance, no time, no power, no authority
negavit a privato pecuniam in provincia praetorem petere oportere
86
He denied that a praetor in a province should ask for money from a private person.
O confixiones miseras administrandarum provinciarum!
o bad state of ruling
87
iracundiae occultae, blanditiae apertae
hidden anger, open
smile
hominum gratiosorum splendidioremque libertis fuit Asia tradenda
88
Was Asia to be handed over to freedmen of powerful men?
Audiamus hominem. Non adest.
Let's hear man. Not here.
90
Si aram tenens iuraret, crederet nemo.
on altar no one would
believe
festivus filius
holiday son
91
Retinetur in provincia.
held in province
92
iste unus totam Asiam bibendo superavit.
alone won over Asia by
drinking
vos universam in hoc iudicio vestris umeris sustinetis
on your shoulders
94
L. Flacci sanguine illius nefarium in vos omnis odium saturaveritis
95
with blood of L. Flaccus you will sate all hatred of us
populi Romani perspiciunt eandem mentem
same spirit of Roman people
96
ferrum et flammam fe manibus
sword and flame from hands
97
cum fugitivis fortiter bellum gesserat
had fought bravely vs slaves
98
quanta rei publicae causa laetitia populi Romani
great joy of people for state
non de sociis, de vobis
not about allies but you
99
Galli ad bellum, Catilina ad urbem
102
litteris rei publicae pestem
fausta huic urbi, miserum me
103
liceat eis qui haec salva esse voluerunt ipsis esse salvis
104
Let those who wished Rome to be safe also be safe.
hoc iudicio vivendi praecepta dabitis
106
miseremini familiae, miseremini fortissimi patris
ingenita levitas et erudita vanitas
learned
frag
Gaul to war, Catiline to city
letters against state
good for city, bad for me
will give rules by decision
pity family and father
frivolity ingrown, vanity
from Cicero's Pro Sex. Roscio Amerino:
neque aetate neque ingenio neque auctoritate
neither age not influence
1
Audacissimus ego ex omnibus?
I the boldest of all?
nequaquam similiter oratio mea in volgus emanare
different speech for crowd
nondum ad rem publicam accessi
not yet entered politics
vel ignosci adulescentiae meae poterit
or my youth will be
pardoned
apud me et amicitia et beneficiis et dignitatem plurimum possunt
bona patris huiusce Sex. Rosci
property of his father
2
potentissimus...L. Cornelius Chrysogonus
very powerful L.
CorneliusChrysogonus
quod adeptus est per scelus, id per luxuriam effundere
taken by crime, wasted in
luxury
Primum a Chrysogono peto ut pecunia fortunisque nostris contentus sit,
3
sanguinem et vitam ne petat.
ask he accept money not
blood and life
in causa Sex. Rosci periculum quod in omnis intenditur propulsetis. cast aside danger
ex senatu in hoc consilium delecti estis propter severitatem chosen from senate for
severity
homines sicarios atque gladiatores
cut-throats and gladiators
Fide sapientiaque fretus plus oneris sustuli.
undertook this trusting in
your faith
4
inter sicarios
among cut-throats
5
prorumpere hominum cupiditatem et scelus et audaciam
to break lust, crime, daring of
men
pro aris et focis
for altars and hearths
pater huisce municeps Amerinus fuit cum genere et nobilitate et pecunia...gratia atque
hospitiis florens
6
His father was a noble and wealthy citizen of Amerinum...flowering in influence and
hospitality.
Itaque ex suis omnibus commodis hoc solum filio reliquit. left this alone for son
vetus ac nobilis gladiator...ad eum lanistam contulit
gladiator went to trainer
occiditur ad balneas rediens a cena Sex. Roscius
SR killed near baths from
dinner
7
Occiso Sex. Roscio primus Ameriam nuntiat Mallius Glaucia.
MG first announed
death of SR
magnitudo pecuniae demonstratur
extent of money revealed
hunc hominem incautum et rusticum et Romae ignotum
man unsure, countrified,
unknown in Rome
manceps fit Chrysogonus
Chrysogonus arranged
8
haec omnia imprudente Sulla facta esse certior scio
all done without Sulla
knowing
unus omnia gubernet
one man arranged all
hunc miserum, luctu perditum
wretch ruined by grief
mors hominis florentissimi Sex. Rosci crudelissima
cruel death of flowering man
9
decem primi proficiscantur ad L. Sullam
ten set out to Sulla
ut mori mallet quam de his rebus Sullam doceri
die before inform Sulla
insidias vitae huiusce Sex. Rosci parare
plot readied against life of SR
Romam confugit
He fled fom Rome.
10
summa diligentia vitam Sex. Rosci custodiri
life guarded carefully
ut nomen huius parricidio deferrent
to charge him with killing his
father
propter Chrysogoni gratiam
because of Chrysogonus'
influence
pater occisus nefarie, domus obsessa ab inimicis
father killed, home besieged
11
crimen incredibile confingunt
fashion incredible crime
insutus in culleum per summum dedecus vitam amittere
to lose life through crime
stitched in
occisum in proscriptorum numerum
killed in proscriptions
hominem longe audacissimum
very bold man
12
pro dignitate
for his dignity
Accusatis Sex. Roscium.
You accuse Sextius Roscius.
Totam causam, iudices, explicemus.
Jurors, we shall explain the
whole case.
Criminis confictionem accusator Erucius suscepit.
Erucius undertook a false
charge.
13
Occidisse patrem Sex. Roscius arguitur.
Sextus Roscius accused of
killing his father.
quod supplicium satis acre reperietur in eum qui mortem obtulerit parenti?
What sufficiently harsh punishment can be found for him who killed his parent?
Pro quo mori ipsum...iura divina atque humana cogebant. For this godly and human
laws demand death.
Patrem occidit Sex. Roscius. Qui homo?
SR killed his father. What sort
of man?
14
Pater igitur amens, qui odisset eum sine causa quem procrearat.
Insane father, who hated without cause the one he bore.
filios suos rei familiari maxime servire
that sons serve the family
15
alterum ruri esse patiebatur
second he endured in country
16
ut ad fabulas veniamus
to come to stories
refer animum sis ad veritatem
Please turn your mind to the
truth.
artificium obliviscatur
to forget trickery
17
feret tamen aequo animo
will bear it with calm mind
hominem turpissimum atque inhonestissimum
vile and dishonest man
18
Suos emim agros studiose colebant, non alienos cupide appetebant.
carefully tilled his own fields, did not covet others'
Convivia cum patre non inibat.
not enter parties with father
Exheredare filium voluit.
wished to disinherit his son
19
Accusatores multos esse in civitate utile est ut metu contineatur audacia.
20
It is useful that there be many accusers so that daring be checked by fear.
Anseribus cibaria publice locantur et canes aluntur in Capitolio ut significent si fures
venerint.
Food stations for geese are public and dogs are fed at the Capitol to show whether thieves
have come.
Alii vestrum anseres sunt qui tantum modo clamant, nocere non possunt; alii canes qui et
latrare et mordere possunt. Some geese only honk; dogs can bark and bite.
Habebat pater in animo. Planum fac. Nihil est.
father hated; true; so what?
21
ut vestro concessu pro summa solitudine abuteretur
to misuse your favor for
solitude
latrocinium, non iudicium futurum
would be robbery, not
judgment
summus furor atque amentia
highest rage and madness
22
inventum esse mane iugulatum
found strangled in morning
23
nomina filiorum parricidio delata sunt
sons' names reported
for murder
iudicio absoluti adulescentes suspicione omni libcrtati sunt youths freed from suspicion
magnam possidet religionem paternus maternusque sanguis Parents' blood causes awe.
24
sua quemque fraus et suus terror maxime vexat
fraud and terror bother own
ius porro civitatis sapientissimum Solonem dicunt fuisse say Solon was wisest of this
city
25
cur nullum supplicium in eum qui parentem necasset
Why no penalty for
killing parent?
respondit se id neminem facturum putasse
thought no one would do it
insui voluerunt in culleum viros atque ita in flumen deici. tied in bag and thrown into
sea
caelum, solem, aquam terramque ademerit
these things taken away
26
ut eorum ossa terra non tangat
that earth not touch
their bones
Non quaero abs te qua re patrem Sex. Roscius occiderit; quaero quo modo occiderit.
I don't ask why but how Roscius killed his father.
27
Servosne an liberos?
Slaves or free?
Romae Sex. Rosius occiditur, cum in agro Amerino esset filius.
28
At Rome Sextius Roscius is killed, when his son was in the field of Amerinum.
Litteras, creco, misit alicui sicario qui Romae noverat neminem. to an assassin who
knew no one
nihil horum ne confingi quidem potest.
None of this can be made up.
ut per servos id admiserit
Vos qui hunc accusatis omnis eius servos habetis.
that he admitted this to slaves
who accuse have all his slaves
apud eum sunt in honore et in pretio.
Quid facitis? Cur recusatis?
at his in honor and reward
What are you doing? Why
refuse?
Omnia, iudices, in hac causa misera atque indigna.
all wretched and unworthy
Nunc, Eruci, ad te venio.
Now, Erucius, I come to you.
29
Restare tibi videbatur servorum nomen.
You restore the name of slave.
Quid ais? Volgo occidebantur?
what you say? killed by mob
Venio nunc eo quo me non cupiditas ducit sed fides
Lust not faith leads me here.
30
Is enim mihi videtur amplissimus qui sua virtute in altiorem locum pervenit, non qui
ascendit per incommodum et
calamitatem.
great who rises by own virtue
Causam tu nullam reperiebas in Sex. Roscio.
You bring no charge
against SR.
cui bono
whose advantage?
Avaritiam praefers qui societatem coieris municipis cognatique fortunis cum alienissimo.
You charge greed who ally yourself to fortunes of fellow-citizens and relatives.
31
hoc est ex tot sicariis
this from the assassins
Quis ibi non est volneratus ferro Phrygio?
who not wounded by foreign
sword
32
postremo Priamum ipsum senem
finally Priam the old man
himself
inter sicarios
among the cut-throats
multa imprudentibus imperatoribus vis belli ac turba molitur
much happens
unaware in confusion
Video igitur causas esse permultas quae istum impellerent. Many reasons drove him.
33
Ubi occisus est Sex. Roscius? Romae. Quis, tu, T. Rosci, ubi tunc eras? Romae.
Where was Sextus Roscius killed? In Rome. Where were you then, Titus Roscius? In
Rome.
At ego, ut tute arguis, agricola et rusticus.
As you argue, I am a peasant.
Videamus nunc strictim, sicut cetera, quae post mortem Sex. Rosci abs te , T. Rosi, facta
sunt.
34
Let us see in order as other things what you, Titus Roscius, did after the death of Sextus
Roscius.
Occiso Sex. Roscio quis primus Ameriam nuntiat? Mallius Glaucia.
Who first announced the death of Sextus Roscius in Ameria? Mallius Glaucia.
Occisus est a cena rediens; nondum lucebat cum Ameria situm est.
He was killed returning from dinner; by dusk it was reported in Ameria.
Nihil est, Glaucia, quod metuas.
Glaucia, there is nothing you
should fear.
Non illum miserum, ignarum casus sui, redeuntem a cena videtis, non positas
35
insidias, non impetum repentinum?
Don't you see him wretched, unknowing, returning from dinner, not expecting treachery or
sudden attack?
Nescio, nisi hoc video, Capitonem in his bonis esse socium. I don't know that Churygonos
is an ally in these goods.
O praeclarum testem, iudices!
Jurors, o famous witness!
nisi ipsos caecos redderet cupiditas et avaritia et audacia. unless lust, greed, and daring
had not blinded them
testimonium dictaturus est qui et sector est et sicarius
assassin ready to testify
36
Multa scelerate, multa audaciter, multa improbe fecisti.
You did much wickdly, boldly,
wrongly.
Ad Volaterras in castra L. Sullae mors Sex. Rosci Chrysogono nuntiatur.
Near Volaterrae in the camp of Sulla the death ofRoscius is announed to Chrysogonus.
Curat Chrysogonus ut eius bona veneant statim.
Chrysogonus sells his
property quickly.
37
T. Roscius cum Chrysogono communiter possidet.
Titus Roscius possessses with
Chrysogonus.
Nonne perspicuum est, iudices, has manubias Rosciis Chrysogonum re cognita
concessisse?
obvious shared spoils with the Roscii
Impedimento est quo minus de his rebus Sulla doceatur.
How much did Sulla know?
38
Non enim possumus omnia per nos agere.
can't do all ourselves
Videte iam porro cetera, iudices, ut intllegatis fingi maleficium nullum posse quo
40
iste esse non contaminarit.
From this realize that every
crime contaminates itself.
Tecti esse ad alienos possumus, intimi multa apertiora videant necesse est; socium cavere
qui possumus?
can hide from alien, friends
see more, how avoid ally?
Num ille lanista omnino iam a gladio recessisse videtur? trainer retreat from sword?
pro homine miserrimo atque infelicissimo
for this wretched and
unfortunate man
42
Servos ipsos...neque arguo neque purgo.
neither accuse nor absolve his
slaves
Venio nunc ad illud nomen aureum Chrysogoni.
to golden name of
Chrysogonus
43
Bonorum Sex. Rosci emptor est Chrysogonus.
Chrysogonus purhased
Roscius' goods.
in Sullae praesidiis
under Sulla's protection
In quem hoc iam quaeris, Eruci? Non in eum quem vis et putas; nam Sullam et
44
oratio mea ab initio et ipsius eximia virtus omni tempore purgavit.
Against whom do you ask this? Not whom you wish. My speech and his virtue cleanse
Sulla..
Ego haec omnia Chrysogonum fecisse dico.
I say Chrysogonus did all
these things.
Aliquot post menses et homo occisus est et bona venisse dicuntur.
After several months a man was killed and his property was said to be sold.
Ego haec a Chrysogono mea sponte remoto Sex. Rosico quaero.
45
Sextus Roscius removed, I ask for these things from Chrysogonus of my own accord.
Placet igitur in his rebus aliquid imprudentia praeteriri? Non placet, sed necesse est.
Pleasing that something be passed by because of shame? No, but necessary.
vis divina sequi non possit
Divine power cannot be
attained.
domus referta vasis Corinthiis et Deliais
house filled with Greek vases
46
Mitto hance artis volgaris, coquos, pistores, lecticarios.
I omit the vulgar: bakers etc.
humiliatem cum dignitate
lowliness with dignity
47
in certamine perditi civis
in fight of ruined citizen
Non modo non laedetur ausa nobilitatis, si istis hominibus resistetis, verum etiam
ornabitur.
Not only will the cause of the nobles be not harmed, if you resist those men, but it will be
enhanced.
O rem miseram atque acerbam!
O wretched and bitter thing!
48
ille improbissimus Chrysogoni fautor
evil accomplice of
Chrysogonus
49
Sex. Roscius horum nihil indignum putat, neminem accusat, nihil de suo patrimonio
queritur.
Sextus Roscius thinks nothing bad of them, charges no one, complains not at all about the
estate.
agricola et rustcus
farmer and peasant
vitam in egestate degere
to pass his life in poverty
An, quod dilignter defenditur, id tibi indignum facinus videtur?
51
Because he is defended diligently, does this crime seem unworthy of you?
Nimirium, iudices, pro hac nobilitate pars maxima civitatis in armis fuit.
For this nobility a great part of the citizenry was at war.
vestra pristina bonitas et misericordia
your former good and pity
52
Numquid hoc aliud videtis obstare Roscio nisi quod patris bona venierunt?
Do you see that the selling of his father's estate has hindered Sextus Roscius?
Quem in locum rem publicam perventuram putetis!
To what state has country
fallen!
53
Hanc tollite ex civitate, iudices, hanc pati nolite diutius in hac re publica versari.
Remove this from our country, jurors, don't allow this to continue any more.
Nam cum omnibus horis aliquid atrociter fieri videmus aut audimus, etiam qui natura
mitissimi sumus adsiduitate
molestiarum sensum omnem humanitatis ex animis
amittimus.
For when we see or hear wrongoing, even if we are clement, because of the persistence of
wrong, we lose the human
sense from our soul.
from Cicero's Pro M. Caelio:
adulescentem inlustri ingenio, industria, gratia accusari ab eius filio
1
A youth of noteworthy talent, effort, and influence is accused by his son.
opibus meretriciis
by trashy resources
Sed ego Atratino, humanissimo atque optimo adulescenti, meo necessario, ignoso.
But I forgive Atratinus, a most humane and best youth, my aquaintance.
pietati, necessitati, pueritiae
to duty, need, youth
introitus defensionis adulesentiae M. Caeli
begin Caelius' defense
2
squalor patris et haec prasens maestitia
filth of father and this sadness
municipio tam inlustri ac tam gravi
so famous and dignfied citizen
de pudicitia
about shame
3
Sunt enim ista maledicta pervolgata in omnis quorum in
adulsecentia forma et species fuit liberalis.
'Boys will be boys.'
Sed aliud est male dicere, aliud accusare.
one thing to speak badly, another to
charge
ex vobis robustioribus
from the heartier of you
Catilinae familiaritas obiecta Caelio est
taunted as colleague of Catiline
4
Deinceps fuit annus quo ego consulatum petivi.
then the year I sought the consulship
in foro sine suspicione, sine infamia
in forum without envy or disgrace
5
ipse sua gravitate et castimonia
he with dignity and restraint
Erant apud illum inlecebrae libidinum multa.
many lures to lust
Quis in rapacitate avarior, quis in largione effusior? who more eager in theft, wide in bribe
6
pecunia, gratia, labor corporis, scelere
by money, influence, work,
crime
cum libidinosis luxuriose vivere
to live riotously with the lusty
firmus amicus ac fidelis
firm and faithful friend
aes alienum obiectum est, sumptus reprehensi
denouned for debts and
expenses
7
P. Clodi insulam esse venalem
that Clodius' house was venal
Reprehendistis a patre quod semigrarit.
criticize him for leaving home
conduxit in Palatio non magno domum
rented house on small Palatine
hanc Palatinam Medeam
this Medea of the Palatine
8
Dixit enim multa de luxurie, multa de libidine, multa de vitiis iuventutis, multa de moribus.
He said much about luxury, lust, vices, habits.
11
P. Clodius, meus amicus
Clodius, my friend
totam adulescentiam voluptatibus dedidissnt
gave his youth to pleasures
12
ipsa natura profundit adulescentiae cupiditates
nature of youth pours forth lusts
Facile est accusare luxuriem.
easy to charge with luxury
de corruptelis, de adulteriis, de protervitate, de sumptis
of corruption, adultery...
non suo crimine sed multorum vitio
not by own crime but by flaw of many
duo crimina, auri et veneni
two crimes, gold and poison
13
Aurum sumptum a Clodia.
The gold was taken by Clodia.
Adulter, impudicus, sequester.
impure adulterer
Video fontem, video certum nomen et caput.
I see the spring, the head.
Necare eandem voluit.
He wanted to kill the same.
Quaesivit venenum, sollicitavit servos, potionem paravit. got poison, stirred slaves,
prepared potion
cum Clodia, muliere...nobili...nota
with Clodia, a noted noble woman
cum istius mulieris viro--fratrem volui dicere
with that woman's husband, I
mean brother
Mulier, quid tibi cum Caelio, quid cum homine adulescentulo, quid cum alieno?
14
Woman, what for you with Caelius, with such a young man, with this stranger?
Non patrem tuum videras, non patruum, non avum, non proavum, non abavum, non
atavum audieras consules fuisse.
Didn't you hear that your relatives were consuls?
Cur tibi Caelius tam coniunctus fuit? cognatus, adfinis? why with Caelius? relative,
friend?
Accusatores quidem libidines, amores, adulteria, Baias, actas, convivia, commissationes,
cantus, symphonias, navigia iactant; idemque significant nihil se te invita dicere.
The prosecutors claim lusts, love affairs, adultery, Baiae, parties, singing..in all she was
willing.
cum maiore sorore cubitabat
slept with older sister
Quid tumultuaris, soror? Quid insanis?
Why disturbed, sister? Why rage?
Quid clamorem exorsa verbis parvam rem magnam facis?
Why do you loudly make a small matter large?
Non potes; calcitrat, respuit, repellit, non putat tua dona esse tanti. Confer te alio.
You can't; he fights back. Go to another.
in istam vicinitatem meretriciam
into that trashy place
16
Nulli sumptus, nulla iactura, nulla versura. At fuit fama. no expense, no waste, but a
story
Nihil iam in istam mulierem dico.
I say nothing against that woman.
in amore atque in voluptatibus adulescentiam suam conlocaret
spent youth in love
and pleasure 17
Detur aliqui ludus aetati; sit adulescentia liberior. Play in youth; let youth be free
.18
Scelere careat.
Let him be free of crime.
Cum adulescentiae cupiditates fervissent, eximiae virtutes firmata iam aetate exstiterunt.
When desires of youth have boiled away, in strong age outstanding virtues show forth.
nulla luxuries...nulli sumptus, nullum aes alienum no luxury, no expense, no debt
19
mature enim et celeriter deflorescunt
in season and quickly they unflower
meretriciis amoribus interdictum iuventuti...severus forbid whores to youth...harsh
20
Mulierem nullam nominabo.
I shall name no woman.
non flagrantia oculorum, non libertate sermonum not by insults to eye nor by free
speech
Obliviscor iniurias tuas, Clodia, depono memoriam doloris mei.
I forget your insults; I set aside memory of my sorrow, Clodia.
Duo sunt enim crimina una in muliere summorum facinorum, auri quod sumptum
21
a Clodia dicitur, veneni quod eiusdem Clodiae necandae causa parasse Caelium
criminantur.
two crimes: gold taken from Clodia, poison prepared to kill her
Aurum sumpsit, ut dicitis.
He took the gold, as you say.
in urbe ac domi sua
in the city and her house
22
utrum temeraria, procax, irata mulier finxisse crimen an gravis sapiens moderatusque vir
whether bold and angry woman or grave, wise, and calm man fashioned the crime
Reliquum est igitur crimen de veneno.
crime of poison remains
23
Cui denique commisit, quo adiutore usus est, quo socio? for whom done, what helper
inustate libidines, luxuries...vitia ac flagitia versentur
vile lusts, luxuries,
crimes
hic servos non esse servos
Here slaves are not slaves.
ab hoc comprobatum venenum?
by this man poison chosen?
24
Ex hac igitur domo progressa ista mulier veneni de celeritate dicere audebit?
Having left this house will that woman dare to mention the swiftness of poison?
Sed revertor ad crimen.
But I return to the crime.
mulier ingeniosa praecepit his ut omnia Caelio pollicerentur.
She told them to
promise all to Caelius.
25
Sed quid ego de dignitate istorum testium loquor? Why speak of dignity of those
witnsses?
In balneis delituerunt. Testis egregios!
They washed in baths. Great
witnsses!
26
O magnam vim veritatis!
O great force of truth!
cum in manu teneret veneni pyxidem
when he held poison cup in hand
27
Mimi ergo iam exitus, non fabulae.
end of farce, not story
mulieraria manus ista de manibus emiserit
released womanly hand
28
ista mulier de suorum propinquorum sententia fecisse
what that woman did as hers
say
29
ad mulieris libidines et delicias
to womanly lusts and delights
M. vero Caelius cur in hoc iudicium vocatur?
Why is Caelius called to this
court?
30
nomen amici mei de ambitu detulit
name of my friend from campaign
31
Sed ego non loquor de sapientia.
But I do not speak about wisdom.
Conservate igitur rei publicae, iudices, civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum
virorum.
32
Save for our country this man of good art and party.
Habet a M. Caelio res publica, iudices, duas accusationes vel obsides periculi vel pignora
voluntatis.
Country has from Caelius two charges or hostages or pledges.
M. Caelium libidini muliebri condonatum
Caelius accepted womanly lust.
Conservate parenti filium, parentem filio.
Save son for father, father for son.
from Cicero's Pro T. Annio Milone:
pro fortissimo viro
for a very brave man
1
reficit Cn. Pompei, sapientissimi et iustissimi viri, consilium
Pompey's advice
restores me.
P. Clodi furor
the rage of Clodius
2
Adeste animis, iudices, et timorem...deponite.
Jurors, be firm and
put aside fear.
erga fortis et bonos civis
toward brave and good
citizens
ceteras tempestates et procellas
other storms and squalls
semper pro bonis contra improbos
always for good against
wicked
quia mors P. Clodi salus vestra fuerit
because death of Clodius was
our safety
In qua urbe hoc homines stultissimi disputant?
In what city fools argue this?
3
est igitur haec, non scripta, sed nata lex.
this unwritten, innate law
4
non docti sed facti, non instituti sed imbuti
not learned but made, not
planned but imbued
Silent enim leges inter arma.
For laws are silent among
arms.
non nulla apud bonos gratia
some influence among the
good
5
incendium curiae decrevit
He decreed burning of curia.
in qua P. Clodius occisus esset
in which Clodius was killed
6
Pompeius...nihil gravius contra Milonem
Pompey nothing serious
against Milo
Nihil de eius morte populus consultus est.
People said nothing about his
death.
7
P. Clodi mortem aequo animo ferre nemo potest.
None take his death calmly.
8
illum sibi inimicum, familiarem Milonem
Pompey enemy of Caesar, ally
of Milo
iustitiam, gravitatem, humanitatem, fidem
justice, severity, humaneness,
trust
dum breviter expono...dilignter attendit
Attend while I briefly explain.
9
omni scelere in praetura vexare rem publicam
bother country in
office
mancam ac debilem praeturam futuram suam consule Milone
weak office if Milo
consul
homo ad omne facinus paratissimus...occidendum Milonem evil man said Milo must be
killed
servos agrestis et barbaros
unkempt and barbaric slaves
Res erat minime obscura.
The matter is very clear.
etnim dictitabat palam consulatum Miloni eripi non posse, vitam posse.
He openly repeated that the consulship could not be taken from Milo, but his life could.
eo die Romam venturus erat
that day he would come to
Rome
10
Statim complures cum telis hunc faciunt de loco superiore impetum; adversi raedarium
occidunt.
At once several attack him from favorable position and kill the driver.
cum Clodio gladiis eductis
with Clodius and drawn
swords
nec imperante nec sciente nec praesente domino
no order, no knowledge, no
presence
insidiator superatus est
plotter was overcome
11
Si id iure fieri non potuit, nihil habeo quod defendam.
If done wrong, nothing to
defend.
senatus contra rem publicam factum iudicavit
senate decreed done
against country
cui bono fuerit
was for whose benefit
12
frangere hominis sceleratissimi conroboratam iam vetustate audaciam
to break the long-standing daring of a most wicked man
Et aspexit me illis quidem oculis.
He saw me with those very
eyes.
Movet me quippe lumen curiae.
The light of the curia moves
me.
cui bono
to whose advantage
Tu P. Clodi cruentum cadaver eiecisti domo.
You cast bloody body out of
house.
13.
Convertite animos nunc vicissim ad Milonem.
Turn your minds to Milo.
solutam P. Clodi praeturam sine...metu
be freed of Clodius' office
without fear
Hic exercitationem virtutis, suffragationem consulatus, fontem perennem gloriae suae
perdiit.
He destroyed the acts of virtue, the voting for consul, the perpetual source of your glory.
Quid enim odisset Clodium Milo?
What if Milo hated Clodius ?
Nihil per vim umquam Clodius, omnia per vim Milo.
all violence from Milo
14
non servos, non arma, non vim?
no slaves, no arms, no force?
At quod erat tempus?
And what was the time?
15
non de impunitate eius, sed de praemiis
not about penalty, but about
rewards
gladios destringendos, lapides iaciendos
swords drawn, stones thrown
aut per naturam fas esset aut per leges liceret
right by nature or allowed by
law
16
insanissima contio ab ipsius mercenario tribuno plebis concitata
17
mad assembly roused by that mercenary tribune
Respiravi; liberatus sum.
I have breathed; I'm free.
18
Noctu occidisset; insidioso et pleno latronum in loco occidisset.
19
Night had fallen; night had fallen in a place treacherous and full of robbers.
Semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine ea; numquam nisi in raeda, tum in equo.
21
Always before with wife, then without her; always in carriage, then on horse.
Ille qui semper secum scorta, semper exoletos, semper lupas duceret, tum neminem.
Always with whores before, then with no one.
Quia non semper viator a latrone, non numquam etiam latro a viatore occiditur.
Beause not always is traveler killed by robber; sometimes robber is killed by traveler.
Quibusnam de servis? Rogas? de P. Clodi?
slaves? you ask? of
Clodius
22
omnia audienti, magna metuenti, multa suspicanti, non nulla credenti
23
to one hating all, fearing greatly, suspecting much, believing nothing
Magna vis est conscientiae.
great is the force of
conscience
Erumpet, occupabit aliquem locum, bellum patriae faciet.
He will burst forth, he will take another place, he will wage war on his homeland.
scutorum, gladiorum, pilorum, frenorum...multitudo
many shields, swords, reins
24
servos Milonis apud se ebrios...confessos se de interfiiendo Cn. Pompeio coniurasse
slaves of Milo while drunk swore that he onspired to kill Pompey
Pompeio nuntiatur in hortos; arcessor in primis.
Pompey told, I'm summoned.
Non iam hoc Clodianum crimen timemus...tuas
not worry over Clodius's
crime, but Pompey 25
rei publicae partis aegras et labantis
part of country sick and
wobbly
duos se habere semper amicissimos sperasse
always hoped to have two
friends
ne quid res publica detrimenti caperet
that country suffer no
harm
26
declarat se non terrorem inferre vobis
says he will not bring
harm to us
Occidi, occidi non...sed eum
I have killed not...but him
27
nefandum adulterium in pulvinaribus sanctissimis nobilissimae feminae
unspeakable adultery on the sacred pillows of a most holy woman
Quid enim ego de muliercula Scantia, quid de adulescente P. Aponio dicam?
What shall I say about the little lady Scantia, what about the youth Publius Aponius?
In privatos, in longinquos, in propinquos, in suos inruebat.
28
He rushed against friends, neighbors, his own.
Imperium ille si nactus esset, omitto socios, exteras nationes, reges, tetrarchas.
If he had gained power, I omit allies, foreign lands, kings, tetrarchs.
in vestras possssiones, vestra tecta, vestras pecunias
against your property, homes,
money
cruentum gladium tenens
holding the bloody sword
Non timeo, iudices, ne odio mearum inimicitiarum inflammatus libentius haec in
29
illum evomere videar quam verius. I do not fear that inflamed by hatred of my enemies I
have seemed to belch forth these things against him more willingly than truthfully.
liberae sunt enim nostrae cogitationes
free indeed are our
thoughts
Etiam si propter amicitiam vellet ab inferis vocare, propter rem publicam non fecisset.
Even if he wished to call him from the underworld for friendship, he would not have done
so because of the country.
Graeci homines deorum honores tribuunt eis viris qui tyrannos necaverunt.
The Greeks assigned the honors of gods to those men who killed tyrants.
ultorem...ad supplicium rapi patiemini?
You will permit the avenger to
be taken?
libertatis omnium causa
for sake of common liberty
cederet ex ingrata civitate
He would leave an ungrateful
country.
30
serae, sed iustae tamen et debita poenae solutae sunt
late but just penalty paid
31
sine imaginibus, sine cantu atque ludis, sin exsequiis, sine lamentibus, sine
32
laudationibus,
sine funere
without any of the
trappings of a funeral
Polluerat stupro sanctissimas religiones.
By wrong he had polluted
holy ceremonies.
Obstabat eius cogitationibus nemo praeter Milonem.
Only Milo opposed his plans.
Aliter perire pestis ille non potuit.
Only this way pest destroyed.
33
ut homo effeminatus fortissimum virum conaretur occidere So effminate man tried to kill
brave man.
templum sanctitatis, amplitudinis, mentis, consili publii, caput urbis, aram sociorum,
portum omnium gentium, sedem ab universo populo concessam uni ordini, inflammari,
exscindi, funestari
temple of holiness, center of the city, altar of allies, granted to one order, is burned, cut
own, buried
Excitate, excitate ipsum, si potestis, a mortuis.
if you can awaken him from
the dead
cum facibus ad curiam concurrerunt...cum gladiis toto foro volitaverunt.
They ran to the curia with torches, they flew with swords through the forum.
Valeant cives mei; sint incolumes...sint beati.
Let my citizens be
strong, safe, blessed. 34
Ego cedam atque adibo.
I will yield and go.
O spes fallaces, o cogitationes inanes meae!
O deceitful hopes, empty
thoughts!
Tibi, T. Anni, nullum a me amoris, nullum studi, nullum pietatis officium defuit.
36
I have showed all love, duty, and piety toward you.
exsilium esse putat ubi virtuti non sit locus
He thinks exile is where
courage is not.
37
armatis et huic iudicio praesidentibus
armed to take charge of court
O me miserum, o me infelicem!
O wretched me, o unlucky me!
omnes mihi meisque redundant ex fonte illo dolores
all sorrows flow from that
spring
Fortem et a vobis, iudices, consrvandum virum!
brave man to be saved by you
38
Hicine vir patriae natus usquam nisi in patria morietur, aut, si forte, pro patria?
Where will this man born for his country die except in country, unless by chance for it?
O terram illam beatam quae hunc virum exceperit, hanc ingratam si eiecerit, miseram si
amiserit!
O blessed counry which bore this man, ungrateful if it expels him, sad if it loses him!
Hic se lacrimis defendi vetat.
He forbids that he be
defended by tears.
from Cicero's Pro Q. Ligario:
novum crimen...et ante hanc diem non auditum
new and previously unheard
of crime
1
cui si praefuit in pace ut et civibus et sociis gratissima esset eius intgritas et fides
presided in peace while his integrity and trust were pleasing to both citizen and ally
Bellum subito exarsit.
War suddenly blazed forth.
Adhuc, C. Caesar, Q. Ligarius omni culpa vacat.
Caesar, Q. Ligatus is not at
fault.
2
domo est egressus non modo nullum ad bellum sed ne ad minimam quidem suspicionem
belli.
He left home not only not for war, but not even suspicion of war.
necessitatis crimen est, non voluntatis
crime of need not will
Quae tua mens, oculi, manus, ardor animi?
what mind, eyes, hands, drive
of yours?
3
Ad me revertar. Isdem in armis fuit.
I return to self. I was in arms.
4
Arguis fatentem.
You accuse one admitting.
Hoc egit civis Romanus ante te nemo.
Before you no Roman
citizen did this.
Italia prohibetur; exsultat.
Kept from Italy, he rejoices.
Novi enim te, novi patrem, novi domum nomenque vestrum.
5
For I know you, I know your father. I know your home and name.
Itaque certo scio vos non petere sanguinem.
I surely know that you do not
seek blood.
C. Caesar, cave credas, cave ignoscas.
Caesar, beware you believe,
pardon.
Dicam plane, Caesar, quod sentio.
I shall say plainly what I
know.
sed non loquor de nobis, de illis loquor qui occiderunt
I speak about those who
killed, not self. 6
uti suum ius tueretur et dignitatem tuam
to guard your law and dignity
civile discidium
civil dispute
sed partim consiliis, partim studiis a communi utilitate aberrantibus
departing from the common good partly by plan, partly by desire
cognita clementia tua
recognizing your mercy
Veniamus ad nostram.
Let us come to our (cause).
7
Reprehendo igitur? Minime vero.
I criticize? No way.
Tardius iter fecit.
He journeyed rather slowly.
Prohibiti estis in provincia vestra pedem ponere.
forbidden to set foot in own
province
8
honos, nobilitas, splendor, ingenium
honor, nobility, splash, talent
9
Pacis quidem semper auctor fui, sed tum sero.
I always sought peace,
although late.
vel humanitatis vel clementiae vel misericordiae
humanity, mercy, or pity
10
Erravi, temere feci, paenitet; ad clementiam tuam confugio. I did wrong and am sorry;
seek your mercy.
agrum Sabinum, florem Italiae ac robur rei publica
11
Sabine field, flower of Italy and strength of country
lacrimas squaloremque ipsius et fili vides
You see tears and filth of self
and son.
Voluntate igitur omnes tecum fuerunt.
All were with you in
will.
12
de homine nobilissimo et clarissimo
about a most noble and
famous man
bonitas...misericordia
good and mercy
from Cicero's Pro Rege Deiotaro:
ad salutem regis Deiotari defendendam
Deiotarus
1
Primum dico pro capite fortunisque regis.
a king.
contra atrocissimum crimen
to defend the safety of King
I speak for life and fortune of
against most awful crime
more maiorum
by custom of ancestors
Sed tua, Caesar, praestans singularisque natura hunc mihi metum minuit.
2
But, Caesar, your outstanding character has diminished this fear of mine.
Moveor etiam loci ipsius insolentia.
I am moved by the insolence
of this place.
In tuis oculis, in tuo ore voltuque acquiesco.
I rest in your eyes and face.
angustiora parietes faciunt
walls make narrow spaces
Sed ante quam de accusatione ipsa dico, accusatorum spe pauca dicam.
Before I speak about the charge, I shall say a bit about the hope of the prosecutor.
Iratum te rege Deiotaro fuisse non erant nescii.
They knew you were angry at
Deiotarus.
3
in exulcerato animo facile fictum crimen insideret
plot a false crime in angry
mind
istam dexteram non tam in bellis...quam in fide
hand for faith more than war
Neque enim ille odio tui progressus, sed errore communi lapsus est.
not in hate, but
common error
Maxime vero perturbatus est, ut audivit consules ex Italia profugisse.
4
greatly upset when heard consuls fled
A Cn. Pompeio legati ad eum venerunt.
Envoys came from Pompey to
him.
Itaque Cn. Pompei bella, victorias, triumphos, consulatus amirantes numerabamus.
And so admiring we number the wars, victories, and consulships of Pompey.
vel rogatus ut amicus, vel arcessitus ut socius
asked as friend or
summoned as ally
5
ad periculi, non ad victoriae societatem
to an alliance of danger, not
victory
domum se contulit
He went home.
ille corpus suum periculo obiecit
He threw his body at danger.
nota tibi est hominis probitas...noti mores
you know his restraint
6
Deiotari integritas, gravitas, virtus, fides
integrity, weight, trust of
Deiotarus
cur regem fugitivus, dominum servus accuset
why runaway
denounes king; slave master
Medicum indicem subornavit.
He suborned the
doctor as witness.
Quid ait medicus? Nihil de veneno.
what say doctor? nothing
about poison
de armis, de ferro, de insidiis celare et noluit?
He wanted to hide you
from iron and plot.
repete illius temporis memoriam
Recall memory of that time.
7
improbus...fatuus et amens es
You are wicked, silly, and
mad.
exercitum eum contra te magnum comparasse
gathered great army
against you
8
Non arbitror; non audivi.
don't think so, not hear that
Pecuniam dedit, exercitum aluit.
gave money, nursed army
9
Secutum bellum est Africanum.
African war followed.
Pereant amici, dum inimici una intercidant.
Let friend die with enemy.
nudum saltavisse
He danced naked.
frugalitas
financial restraint
fortem, iustum, severum, gravem...
brave, just, strict, serious
Ut volet quisque, accipiat.
As each wishes, let him
receive.
optimo et clarissimo viro fugitivi ore male dicere
10
Speak badly of good man with runaway mouth.
post Pharsalicum autem proelium suasor fuissem armorum non ponendorum
After Pharsalus I was an advocate of laying down arms.
rex enim Deiotarus vestram familiam abiectam et obscuram e tenebris in lucem evocavit
For King Deiotarus called your battered family from shadows to light.
11
O tempora, o mores!
O times, o habits!
ille inimico servum remisit, tu ab avo abduxisti
He sent slave back to enemy,
you took from grandfather.
Quae est ista tam impotens, tam crudelis, tam immoderata inhumanitas?
12
What is such mad, cruel, unrestrained inhumanity?
Solus, inquam, es, C. Caesar, cuius in victoria ceciderunt nemo nisi armatus.
Alone, I say, Caesar, you are, in whose victory no one unarmed fell.
Nihil a me arbitror praeteritum.
I think I omitted nothing.
13
Quid de virtute eius dicam, magnitudine animi, gravitate, constantia?
What shall I say about his courage, his greatness, his severity, his consistency?
Laboro quidem regis Deiotari causa.
I work for King Deiotarus.
14
Multa sunt monumenta clementiae tuae.
many the monuments of your
mercy
Corpora sua pro salute regum suorum hi legati regii tradunt.
15
Envoys hand over their bodies for their kings.
Exquire de Blesamio num quid ad regem contra dignitatem tuam scripserit.
Ask Blesamius whether he wrote anything to the king against his dignity.
alterum optare illorum crudelitas est, alterum conservare clementiae tuae.
One choice is cruel, the other preserves your mercy.
from Cicero's Pro M. Marcello:
partim dolore, partim verecundia
partly sorrow, partly modesty
1
inusitatam inauditamque clementiam
unmatched, unheard of
clemency
meae pristinae vitae consuetudinem
habit of my former life
comemmoratis praesertim offensionibus
offenses especially recalled
auctoritatem huius ordinis dignitatemque rei publicae
authority of this order
and dignity of country
merito atque optimo iure
by deserved and best right
non dicam exornare, sed enarrare
not decorate, but tell
2
nec vero disiunctissimas terras citius potuisse peragrari
nor separated lands be
traveled
huius gloriae totum est tuum
all of the glory is yours
Domuisti gentis immanitate barbaras, multitudine innumerabilis, locis infinitas.
3
You tamed races barbaric with fierceness, innumerable, infinite with respect to place.
non modo in gestis rebus, sed etiam in fictis
not only in deeds, but in
stories
viri optimi et commmorabili pietate
best man renowned in piety
4
Haec enim res unius est propria C. Caesaris.
one thing unique to Caesar
clementiae tuae iudicio conservati sumus
saved by judgment of your
mercy
Hominem sum secutus privato officio, non publico.
follow by private not public
duty
5
maluisse se non dimicare quam vincere
preferred not to fight but to
win
Vidimus tuam victoriam proeliorum exitu terminatam.
saw your victory ended by
final battle
6
gladium vagina vaccuum in urbe non vidimus
did not see drawn
sword in city
felicitati tuae gratulabere
salute your good fortune
Nunc venio ad gravissimam querelam et atrocissimam suspicionem tuam.
7
Now I come to the very serious quarrel and worst suspicion of yours.
Augeamus sane suspicionem tuam; simul enim augebimus diligentiam.
Let us increase your suspicion; at the same time we will increase your diligence.
tua salute contineri suam
own safety depends on your
safety
perculsa atque prostrata
struck and laid low
8
Satis diu vel naturae vixi vel gloriae.
live enough for nature and
glory
Omnium salutem civium cunctamque rem publicam res tuae gestae complexae sunt.
Your deeds assure the safety of all citizens and the entire country.
tu in primis summa tranquillitate et otio perfruare
enjoy calm and leisure
9
Obstupescent posteri certe imperia, provincias, Rhenum, Oceanum, Nilum, pugnas
innumerabilis, incredibilis victorias, monumenta, munera, triumphos audientes et legentes tuos.
Those yet to live will gaze in amazement at your commands, provinces, battles, victories
whether they hear of them or read of them.
Diversae voluntates civium fuerunt distractaeque sententiae.
diverse opinions of
citizens
10
certamen inter clarissimos duces
fight between distinguished
leaders
Perfuncta res publica est hoc misero fatalique bello.
country finished by fatal war
maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar
We give greatest thanks to
you, Caesar. 11
Nam laetari omnis non ut de unius solum sed ut de omnium salute sentio.
For I think that all rejoice not only over the safety of one, but also over the safety of all.
from Cicero's In Q. Caecilium:
ad accusandum descendere
to go down to charge
1
Cum quaestor in Siclia fuissem
When I had been quaestor in
Sicily
ut suarum fortunarum omnium causam defensionemque susciperem
that I undertake their cause and defense of their fortunes
Tuli graviter et acerbe.
I took it deeply and
bitterly.
2
Adductus sum, iudices, officio, fide, misericordia.
jurors, led by duty, trust, pity
accusatio quam defensio
charge rather than defense
Defendo enim multos mortalis, multas civitates, provinciam Siciliam totam.
I defend many people, many cities, the whole province of Sicily.
Videor et non omnino a defendendis hominibus sublevandisque discedere.
I seem not altogether to depart from defending and aiding people.
homo singulari cupiditate, audacia, scelere praeditus
man filled with lust, daring,
crime
furta atque flagitia non in Sicilia solum, sed in Achaia, Asia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Romae
his thefts and crimes known not only in Sicily, but also in Greece, Asia, and Rome
iam non salutis spem se solacium exiti quaerunt
seek not hope of safety but
solace of end 3
in hac libidine hominum nocentissimorum
in this lust of most evil men
de contentione nostra
about our dispute
Siciliam provinciam C. Verres per triennium depopulatus esse...dicitur.
4
Verres is said to have devastated the province of Sicily for three years.
Adsunt; queruntur Siculi universi.
They are here; all Sicilians
complain.
Verres, cui te inimicum esse simulas
Verres, to whom you pretend
to be enemy
inimicitias exercere videare
You seem to show hatred.
Adsunt homines ex tota provincia nobilissimi.
Most noble men are here from
the entire province.
Quid ego plura commemorem?
What more for me to recall?
5
Haec lex socialis est, hoc ius nationum exterarum.
this law of ally, this law of
nations
Abs te sestertium miliens ex lege repeto.
By law I ask you for 1000
sesterces.
Te non novimus, nescimus qui sis, numquam te antea vidimus.
6
We don't know you, we don't know who you are, we have never seen you.
Etiamsi taceant, satis dicunt.
Though silent they say
enough.
ut me Siculi maxime velint
Sicilians greatly want me.
7
de honore
about honor
de salute sua
about their own safety
Nunc tamen id iam quod tacitus tu mihi adsentiare.
I shall say what you silently
accept.
propter Verrem
because of Verres
praeter fidem et ingenium
besides trust and talent
8
Non modo ceteris specimen aliquod dedisti, sed tute tui periculum fecisti.
Not only did you give an example to others, but you created danger for yourself.
primum integritatem atque innocentiam singularem
first intgerity and unique
innocence
9
sese tamen te actore ad iudicium adfuturos
By your act he escaped
judgment.
te, antequam Sicilia decesseris, in gratiam redisse cum Verre
Before you left Sicily, you regained Verres' favor
esse cum Verre et cum illo familiarissime atque amicissime vivere
that you were with Verres and lived most familiarly and friendly with him
permulta crimina
very many crimes
Magnum crimen, ingens pecunia, furtum impudens, iniuria non ferenda!
10
Great crime, massive money, bold theft, insult not to be endured!
Utrum hoc tantum crimen praetermittes an obicies?
pass by or cast down such a
crime
Emptum est ex senatus consulto frumentum ab Siculis praetore Verre, pro quo frumento
pecunia omnis soluta non est.
Grave est hoc crimen in Verrem, grave me agente, te
accusante nullum.
By senatorial decree grain has been bought from the Sicilians while Verres was praetor,
but all the money has not
been paid. Verres has committed a serious crime, with me
charging him, you not charging him.
Silebitur toto iudicio de maximis et notissimis illius furtis et iniuriis.
I will not discuss his greatest and well known thefts and injuries.
Ego etiam quae tu sine Verre commisisti Verri crimini daturus sum.
11
I am about to charge Verres with crimes which you commited without him.
Iam mehercule hoc extra hanc contentionem certamenque nostrum familiariter tum loquar.
12
Now I shall speak freely beyond this dispute.
Magna sunt ea quae dico, mihi crede.
I speak of great things,
believe me.
Dicenda, demonstranda, explicanda sunt omnia.
all to be spoken, explained
Quid ergo? Haec in te sunt omnia?
What thus? All this pertain
to you?
in omni vita nihil aliud egi
done nothing else in all life
in foro indiciisque
in forum and courts
13
Non solum commoveor animo, sed etiam toto corpore perhorresco.
Not only am I moved in mind, but my whole body shudders.
Tu horum nihil metuis, nihil cogitas.
fear nothing, understand
nothing
Praeclare te paratum in iudicium venturum arbitraris.
You think self ready
for judgment.
cum homine disertissimo...paratissimo
with most eloquent, prepared
man
qui aestus, qui error, quae tenebrae
what heat, error, shadows
14
Si ab isto libro...verbo uno discesseris.
if you can depart from that
book by one word
in ipsa pugna cum acerrimo adversario
in battle with fierce opponent
Video tamen L. Appulium hominem non aetate sed usu forensi atque exercitatione tironem
I see L. Apuleius, a man not by age but by experience a rookie.
15
In hoc spes tuae sunt omnes.
In this rest all your hopes.
in actoribus Graecis
in Greek actors
ex illo grege moratorum
from that crowd of idlers
Quid ad te dici potest?
What can be said to you?
16
Video mihi non te, sed hunc librum responsurum.
book not you will answer me
Ceteri Siculi ultorem suarum iniuriarum invenerunt.
Sicilians have found an
avenger.
gravius...te ab illo esse laesum an provinciam Siciliam esse vexatam ac perditam
worse that you have been injured by him or that Siily has been devastated and destroyed
Concede igitur ut tibi anteponatur in accusando provincia. Grant that the province ought
to be placed ahead of you.
qualis iniuria dicatur
what insult be charged
17
ut mos in Sicilia est omnium Veneriorum
as custom of Sicilian Venuss
Iudicant recuperatores id quod necesse erat.
Agents judged what was
necessary.
Iste in possessionem bonorum mulieris intrat
.
Lilybaeum Verres venit postea.
Lilybaeum.
ad levandam mulieris calamitatem
disaster
tamquam aliquo Circaeo poculo
quaestorem illius fuiis e
18
ferendo maiorem laudem quam ulciscendo mererere
avenging
summam iniuriam ab illo accepisti
te sine vituperatione quam cum scelere discedere
insult rather than with crime
te accusatorem repudiari
19
Sic enim a maioribus nostris accepimus.
praetorem quaestori suo parentis loco esse oportere
quaestor
te illi iniustum impiumque bellum inferre conari
on him.
ille Cn. Pompeius ita cum C. Iulio contendit.
pro sociis, pro salute provinciae...ad periculum accedere
20
for allies and safety of province to approach danger
iniuria accepta sociorum dolore commoveri
allies
auctoritas et dignitas Pisonis valebat plurimum
powerful
Accusavi eum cui quaestor fueram.
was qaestor.
Accusavi eum rogatu sociorum atque amicorum.
animos hominum nocentium
21
Hoc timent homines.
Iure tum florebat populi Romani nomen.
people flourished.
homine parvis opibus ac facultatibus praedito
resources and chances
neque uti reliqui temporis spem confirmet laborat
22
A nobis multos obsides habet populus Romanus.
from us.
Habet honorem quem petimus.
fide, diligentia, consilio, auctoritate
influence
He took woman's goods.
After Verres went to
to relieve the woman's
as if from some Circe's cup
was that man's quaestor
more praise for enduring than
took highest insult from him
prefer you leave without
you rejected as prosecutor
thus from our ancestors
praetor should be parent to
You tried to wage unjust war
as Pompey with Caesar
we moved by any danger to
influence and dignity were
I have charged him to whom I
at request of allies and friends
minds of guilty men
This men fear.
Then the name of Roman
man with few
not work for more time
People have many hostages
It has the honor we seek.
by trust, effort, planning,
from Cicero's In C. Verrem Actio Prima:
ad invidiam vestri ordinis infamiamque iudiciorum sedendam
1
to calm envy of your order and disgrace of the courts
Inveteravit enim iam opinio perniciosa rei publicae vobisque periculosa.
For a long time has grown an opinion harmful to the state and dangerous to you.
pecuniosum hominem
wealthy man
reus in iudicium adductus est C. Verres
Verres has been brought to
judgment
redire in gratiam cum populo Romano
to return into favor
with the Roman people
praedonem iuris urbani, labem atque perniciem provinciae Siciliae
robber of urban law and destruction of the province of Sicily
cum multae mihi a C. Verre insidiae terra marique facta sint
although many plots were made against me by Verres on land and sea
nihil esse tam sanctum quod non violari, nihil tam munitum quod non expugnari pecunia
possit
nothing so sacred it could not be violated, so fortified it could not be besieged by money
cum incredibili eius audacia singularis stultitia
unique stupidity with
incredible daring
invidia et infamia non recenti sed vetere ac diuturn
with envy and disgrace not recent but old and long standing
Nunc homo audacissimus atque amentissimus hoc cogitat.
3
Now this very bold and mad man plots this.
sua furta atque flagitia
his thefts and evil acts
se cupidum pecuniae fuisse
that he was eager for money
ut, quoniam criminum vim subterfugere nullo modo poterat, procellam temporis vitarit
that, since he could not hide from the flood of crimes, he avoided the storm of time
nudatum et proditum consulem, desertum exercitum, relictam provinciam
4
stripped and betrayed consul, deserted army, abandoned province
Iam vero omnium vitiorum suorum plurima et maxima constituit monumenta et indicia in
provincia Sicilia, quam iste per triennium ita vexavit ac perdidit ut ea restitui in antiquum statum
nullo modo possit.
Amomg his many vices the monuments and proofs littered Sicily, which he so bothered and
plundered for three years
that it was not able to be restored in any way.
Hoc praetore Siculi neque suas leges neque nostra senatus consulta neque communia iura
tenuerunt.
In his praetorship the Sicilians had neither their own rules nor senate decrees nor common
laws.
ad nutum istius
to the nod of that one
5
socii fidelissimi in hostium numero existimati
faithful allies
regarded as enemies
cives Romani servilem in modum cruciati et necati
Roman citizens crucified and
killed as slaves
In stupris vero et flagitiis nefarias eius libidines commemorare pudore deterreor.
By shame I am prevented from telling of his evil lusts in disgrace and crimes.
homo amens et perditus
mad and ruined man
6
sed prius ut ab initio res ab eo constituta sit, quaso, cognosite.
But first that this matter may be explained from the begining, please, consider.
Ut primum e provincia rediit, redemptio est huius iudici facta grandi pecunia.
When he first returned from the province, he avoided trial with massive bribes.
Libelli nominum vestrorum consilique huius in manibus erant omnium.
Writs of your names and of his plans were in the hands of all.
ut Hortensius consul designatus domum ducebatur e campo cum maxima frequentia ac
multitudine
When consul designate Hortensius was led home with large crowd
7
Statim ad me defertur.
At once the matter is brought
to me.
Quid igitur? Quod tota Sicilia, quod omnes Siculi, omnes negotiatores, omnes publicae
privataeque litterae Romae sunt, nihilne valebit?
Thus what? That all Sicily, all the Sicilians, all the businessmen, all public and private
letters are in Rome, all this will
be worthless?
fiscos compluris cum pecunia Siciliensi a quodam senatore ad equitem Romanum esse
translatos
8
treasury transferred to Rome from a knight to a senator
patris istius discipulum atque amicum
pupil and friend of
that one's father
metu deterrebar
I was deterred by fear.
9
se consulem esse
that he was consul
Siculos, timidos homines et adflictos
Sicilians, timid and battered
10
nimium diligentem, nimium servientem populi existimationi
too careful, too
serving of popular opinion
Hi homines veteres tribuni militares sunt designati.
veteran military tribunes
Decem dies sunt ante ludos votivos.
ten days before votive games
defessa ac refrigerata
tired and cold
Nunc ego, iudices, iam vos consulo qui mihi faciendum putetis.
11
Jurors, now I consult you regarding what you think should be done.
paratior, vigilantior, compositior ad iudicium
rather ready,
watchful, prepared
fructum istum laudis
that fruit of praise
Res omnis mihi tum erit, Hortensi.
Hortensius, entire matter with
me
Siculorum rogatu
at the requst of the Sicilians
12
in istius hominis desperati causa
in cause of desperate man
sunt homines quos libidinis infamiaeque suae neque pudeat neque taedeat
There are men who are neither shamed nor wearied by their lust and disgrace.
Profiteor huic generi hominum me inimicum accusatorem
I acknowledge that I am a prosecutor unfriendly to this race of men.
Hoc mihi sumo, hoc mihi deposco.
I take this, I demand this.
Moneo, praedico, ante nuntio.
warn, fortell, before
announce
Erit tum consul Hortensius cum summo imperio et potestate.
13
Then Hortensius will be consul with the highest command and power.
iudiciis ad senatorium ordinem translatis
trial given to senatorial order
uti nationes exterae legatos ad populum Romanum mitterent
14
that foreign countries sent lieutenants to the Roman people
in avaritia, scelere, periurio
in greed, crime, and perjury
ut odio, invidia, infamia, turpitudine totum ordinem liberetis
15
that you free the entire order from hatred, envy, disgrace, evil
populatas vexatasque esse provincias
that provinces had been
looted
Nunc autem homines in speculis sunt.
Now, however, men
are in mirrors.
16
unum senatorem...esse damnatum
that one senator was
condemned
populus Romanus de vobis iudicabit
People will judge about you.
possitne...homo nocentissimus pecuniosissimusque damnari
whether a most harmful and wealthy man can be condemned
Postremo ego causam sic agam.
Finally I'll plead the case
thus.
Habeo autem certam viam atque rationem qua omnis illorum conatus investigare et
consequi possim.
I have sure road and method by which I can investigate him.
auctoritate, sapientia, diligentia
by influence, wisdom, effort
17
Suscipe causam severitatis, integritatis, fidei, religionis.
Take up the cause of severity,
integrity, religion.
ad suspicionem criminis quam a rationem salutis
to proof of crime rather than
method of safety
antea socii atque amici populi Romani
formerly allies and
friends of Roman people
18
ut crimen totum explicem
so I may explain entire crime
interrogandi facultas argumentandi dicendique
talent of questioning and of
arguing and speaking
Dicimus. . .Verrem...quadringentiens sestertium ex Sicilia contra leges abstulisse.
We say that Verres stole much money from Sicily
Dixi.
I have spoken.
from Cicero's Actionem in C. Verrem Secundae:
tam audacem, tam amentem, tam impudentem
so bold, so mad, so
crazy
1
vestra vero laus tenuis plane atque obscura
your praise weak and hidden
summis opibus, summo studio potentissimorum hominum defendatur
Let him be defended by the highest wealth and effort of very powerful men.
certet mea diligentia cum illorum omnium cupiditate
Let my diligence compete with the lust of all those men.
Reus est enim nocentissimus.
very guilty man charged
2
Agunt eum praecipitem poenae civium Romanorum.
3
Punishment by Roman citizens drives him headlong.
non enim furem sed ereptorem, non adulterum sed expugnatorem pudicitiae
not thief but rapist, not adulterer but besieger of chastity
cum civis Romanos morte, cruciatu, cruce adfecerit
4
when he afflicted Roman citizens with death, torture, the cross
quod iste M. Marcelli et P. Africani monumenta...non dubitarit auferre
because he did not hesitate to steal the monuments of Marcellus and Africanus
artioribus apud populum Romanum laqueis tenebitur
5
He will be held by the Roman people with tight ropes.
iuratus apud vos dixit multos civis Romanos in latumiis istius imperio crudelissime per vim
morte esse multatos
sworn among you he said that by his order many Roman citizens were punished very
cruelly with death in the mines
Quo in negotio industriam meam celeritas reditionis, diligentiam multitudo litterarum et
testium declaravit.
6
In this business the swiftness of my return reveals my effort, a multitude of letters and
witnesses attests to my diligence.
ex Sicilia testes erant qui quaestorem me in provincia cognovrat
From Sicily there were witnesses who knew me as quaestor in the province.
reo audaci, pecunioso, profuso, perdito
bold, rich, ruined defendant
7
Quapropter ego quod a me attinet, iudices, vici.
Thus I have won so far as it
pertains to me. 8
Meum fuit cum causa accedere ad accusandum.
my plan to accuse him
rei publicae consulere?
to consult for country?
ostendere ac persuadere hominem nocentem adductum esse to show and persuade a guilty
man to be led forth
odium nostri ordinis
hatred of our order
Utram igitur putas legem molliorem?
think law be moderate?
9
Accusabo; respondebis.
I will accuse; you will answer.
Dixi prima actione me planum esse facturum C. Verrem HS quadringentiens contra leges
abstulisse.
10
said I would prove that Verres stole much money illegally
cum tabulae virorum bonorum proferrentur
records of good men given
Itaque non modo vos, quibus est iudicandun, nostra crimina tenetis, sed etiam
11
populus Romanus totam accusationem causamque cognovit.
Not only you who must judge, but even the people recognize our charge.
Ego meum consilium cum iudicibus tum populo Romano probavi.
I have proved my case to you and the Roman people.
Nihil a me de pueritia sua flagitiis audiet, nihil ex illa impura adulescentia sua...
12
Omnia praeteribo quae mihi turpia dictu videbuntur.
He will not hear of his vile childhood or impure adolescence. I omit all shameful words.
Sileatur de nocturnis eius bacchationibus ac vigiliis.
Let there be silence about his
nightly revels.
Hora nulla vacua a furto, scelere, crudelitate, flagitio reperietur.
No hour will be found free of his theft, crime, cruelty, disgrace.
singulari luxuria atque inertia
unique excess and laziness
13
Aversa pecunia publica quaestor consulem, exercitum, sortem, provinciamque deseruit.
Public money taken, the quaestor deserted the consul, army, and province.
Quid hoc est? quae impudentia, quae audacia?
What is this? What impudence, what
daring?
14
Posteaquam tibi pecuniam, rem frumentarium, rationes omnis suas exercitumque
commisit.
Afterwards he entrusted to you his money, grain, accounts, and army.
totam vitam periculosam, invidiosam, infestamque
whole life dangerous and
diseased
15
Omnium est communis inimicus qui fuit hostis suorum.
common enemy of all who is
enemy of his country
Nemo umquam sapiens proditori credendum putavit.
No wise man ever
believed that he should trust a traitor.
Ab se (Sulla) hominem ab exercitu suo removit.
Sulla ordered him to leave his
army.
Habuit honorem ut proditori, non ut amico fidem.
honor to traitor, not trust to
friend
Commune est hoc malum, communis metus, commune periculum.
common the wrong, common the fear, common the danger
Nullae sunt occultiores insidiae quam eae quae latent in simulatione offici aut in aliquo
necssitudinis nomine.
more hidden dangers which hide in pretence of duty or need
Nam eum qui palam est adversarius facile cavendo vitare possis. You may more easily
avoid the open enemy.
inimicissimum atque improbissimum testimonium
most unfriendly and base
testimony
tam perfidiosum, tam importunum animal
such a treacherous animal
16
eosque ambo non modo deseruit sed etiam prodiderit atque oppugnarit
not only deserted them both, but also betrayed and besieged them
Huius consili non participem C. Verrem, sed principem fuisse reperietis.
17
You will find Verres not the participant but the leader of this plan.
Delum venit.
He came to Delos.
Ita magni fluctus eiciebantur.
Thus great waves were cast
aside.
18
quam impius, quam sceleratus, quam nefarius
how wicked, how
criminal, how evil
Hoc tu fanum depopulari, homo improbissime atque amentissime, audebas?
Did you dare to destroy this shrine, you most wicked and mad man?
Nihil cum Verre de cotidianis criminibus acturus sum.
19
I do not prosecute Verres with his daily crimes.
non ad praetorem sed Romam deferri oportere
should take to Rome, not
praetor
intus canere
to sing within
20
sed Romam in publicum deportasss
deported to Rome in public
cum honore et virtute florerent
bloomed with honor
and virtue
21
Certe maior est virtutis victoriaeque iucunditas quam ista voluptas quae percipitur ex
libidine et cupiditate.
Sweetness of virtue and victory is greater than pleasure received from lust.
Vidi conlucere omnia furtis tuis.
I saw all shining on your
thefts.
22
Unum ostende in tabulis...vicisiti.
show one thing on record:
you won
23
ad summum Graecorum otium
to great Greek leisure
24
integritate pudicitiaque
integrity and modesty
25
humanitatem consuetudinemque
humanity and habit
26
convivium comparat
prepares a banquet
Cur ad nos filiam tuam non intro vocari iubes?
Ask daughter to banquet.
Vocetur mulier!
Let the woman be called!
Aqua denique ferventi a Rubirio ipso Philodamus perfunditur.
Philodamus is poured with hot water by Rubirius himself.
ut et vitae patris et pudicitiae sororis suurreret
to save father's life
and sister's chastity
caedere ianuam saxis, instare ferro, ligna et sarmenta circumdare ignemque subire
coeperunt
27
began to smash down the door with rocks, to draw swords, to begin a fire
Uticae domi suae vivus exustus est
at Utica in own house burned
alive
minister improbissimae cupiditatis
assistant of wicked lusts
29
Ille miser defensorem reperire neminem poterat.
wretch could find no defender
Condemnatur enim perpaucis sententiis Philodamus et eius filius.
30
Philodamus and his son are condemned by decrees.
Tantaene tuae, Verres, libidines erunt ut eas capere ac sustinere non provinciae
31
populi Romani, non nationes exterae possint?
Verres, are your lusts such that Romans and foreigners cannot endure them?
Circumsessus es. A quibus? A Lampaecenis. Barbaris hominibus.
32
You are surrounded. By whom? By the Lampaeceni. Barbaric men.
Nolite, per deos immortalis, cogere socios atque exteras nationes hoc uti perfugio.
Do not compel your allies and foreign lands to use this flight.
Magnum hoc Lampsacenum crimen est libidinis atque improbissimae cupiitatis.
34
Great is the crime of lust and wicked desire of the Lampani.
Navem de classe populi Romani...ausus es vendere?
You dared to sell a ship from
the Roman fleet?
Nullam litteram pupillo, nullam matri eius, nullam tutoribus reddidit.
36
He gave no letter to his pupil, to his mother, to his tutors.
Haec est istius praeclara tutela.
This is his famous tutelage.
37
Homo avarissime et spurcissime, redde bona sodalis filio.
Greedy and impure man, give back his property to the son of a friend.
Solus est hic qui numquam rationes ad aerarium referat.
38
He was the only one not to hand over his accounts to the treasury.
Verum ad illam iam veniamus praeclaram praeturam.
Let us turn to that
famous praetorship. 40
Multi enim ita dicent, ëDe illo nihil dixit in quo ego interfui.í
Many will say, He said nothing about that when I was present.
Illi bona res, huic vendibilis videbatur.
property to one, sellable to
another
41
Pater dat filiae, prohibes; leges sinunt, tamen te intrponis!
44
Father gives to daughter, you forbid; the laws allow, you interpose yourself..
Lapidibus coopertus est in foro.
covered with stones in forum
46
stomachabantur ridiculi
Ridiculous are endured.
Venit Romam Ligus.
Ligus came to Rome.
48
hominem ornatissimum loco, ordine, nomine, virtute, ingenio, copiis
a man decorated by place, name, virtue, talent, resources
Nam quid ego de cotidiano sermone querimoniaque populi Romani loquar, de
49
istius impudentissimo furto seu potius novo ac singulari latrocinio.
What shall I say about the daily speeh and complaint of the Roman people, about the rash
robberies and complaints , about the rash theft of that man or rather about new and unique
brigandage?
non ius, non aequitas, non misericordia, non propinqui oratio, non amici
51
voluntas, non iusquam auctoritas, non gratia valerent
useless all: law, fairness, pity, speeches, good will, authority, influence
in his sartis tectisque
in these huts and hovels
O multis acerbam, o miseram atque indignam praeturam tuam!
52
O bitter for many, o misrable and unworthy: your praetorship!
Domus est plena; nova iura, nova decreta, nova iudicia petebantur.
The house is full; new laws, decrees, judgments are sought.
Hic istius scelerato nefarioque latrocinio bonis patriis fortunisque omnibus
58
spoliatus venit in iudicium. Taking property from good men he comes to judgment.
Neque erant illae lacrimae populares magis quam nostrae, quam tuae, Q, Hortensi, quam
horum qui sententiam laturi sunt, ideo quod communis est causa, commune periculum; ommi
praesidio talis improbitas tamquam aliquod incendium
restinguendum est.
Not everyday tears of those who prosecute; such wickedness must be put out like a fire.
Quis umquam templum illud aspexit quin avaritiae tuae, quin iniuriae, quin audaciae testis
esset?
59
Whoever saw that temple without being a witness to your greed, insults, and daring?
from Cicero's Actionem in C. Verrem Secundae (Liber Secundus):
Multa mihi necessario, iudices, praetermittenda sunt.
Jurors, I must
omit many things.
1
Recepi enim causam Siciliae; ea me ad hoc negotium provincia attraxit.
I have taken the plea of Sicily; this province attracts me.
de provinciae dignitate, vetustate, utilitate dicenda
must speak of dignity, charm, and usefulness of the province
Sicilia se ad amicitiam fidemque populi Romani adplicavit. Sicily sought friendship and
trust with the Roman people.
urbem pulchrrimam Syracusas
most beautiful city
Syracuse
2
Quando illa frumentum quod deberet non ad diem dedit?
When did she not give
us grain by deadline?
Itaque ille M. Cato Sapiens...nutricem plebis Romanae Siciliam nominabat.
Wise Marcus Cato named Sicily the nurse of the Roman plebs.
Civis Romanus sum.
I am a Roman citizen.
ea patientia virtus frugalitasque est
That patience is virtue
and frugality.
neque publicanus neque negotiator odio sit
not be hated by tax
collector nor businessman
perferre non possent luxuriem, crudelitatem, avaritiam, superbiam not able to endure his
luxury, cruelty, greed, pride
Postremo ex tota provincia homines nobilissimi primique publice privatimque
4
venerunt, gravissima atque amplissima quaeque civitas vehementissime suas iniurias
persecuta est.
Finally from entire province men have come to defend their rights.
navem onerarium maximam Mesanae esse publice coactis operis aedificatam
5
that a large grain ship had been built with public funds at Messana
istum a Syracusanis publice laudari
that man praised by
Syracusans
At enim istum Siculi soli persequuntur; cives Romani qui negotiantur in Sicilia defendunt,
diligunt,
salvum esse cupiunt.
6
Only Sicilians prosecute him; Roman citizens there on business defend and cherish him.
in ea provincia maximam uno anno pecuniam facere
to make most money in
one year in that province
in foro latrocinia praetura
in the forum his thieving office
de singulari eius impudentia
about his unique
impudence
Ea erat, iudices, pergrandis pecunia.
Jurors, a great sum of
money.
greges nobilissimarum equarum abactos
herd of noble horses
driven off
Lucullus, qui tum in Macedonia fuit, melius haec cognovit quam tu, Hortensi, qui Romae
fuisti.
8
Lucullus in Macedonia better judge than you, Hortensius, in Rome
Nova tibi haec sunt? Inopinata?
These things new to
you? Unaware?
At enim ad Verrem pecunia ista non pervenit.
money not
come to Verres
10
Verres calumniatorem adponebat; Verres adesse iubebat; Verres cognoscebat; Verres
iudicabat.
Verres sought a liar, ordered him present, recognized him, made the judgment.
praefecti, scribae, accensi, medici, haruspices, praecones manus erant tuae
Officials, scribes, doctors, soothsayers, heralds were your hands.
quasi in praedam invitabas
as if you were invited
to loot
11
Inter aratores et decumanos lege frumentaria...iudicia fiunt.
13
Among farmers by the grain law decisions are made.
Quibus in rebus istius cupiditates et insanias quis ignorat?
14
In this matter who can ignore the acts of lust and insanity of that man?
Deinde a quibusdam Syracusanis admonetur.
warned by
some Syracusans
Adprobat consilium.
He approved a
meeting.
Quid ego istius in iure dicundo libidinem et scelera demonstrem?
16
What should I prove in speaking about the lust and crime of that one?
homo deterrime et impudeentissime
frightening and
impudent man
Eripe hereditatem propinqui.
steal inheritance of
near one
19
Mancipia quae voluit abduxit.
He took what he
wished of a poor man.
Exarsit iracundia ac stomacho.
burned with
anger and bile.
20
Nostis os hominis, nostis audaciam.
You know the man's
cheek and daring.
Ex hac iniquitate istius et improbitate.
from his
injustice
21
Quam facile serpat iniuria et peccandi consuetudo.
22
How easily his insults and custom of theft creep.
iussu istius
by the order of that
one
23
inimicus, hostis...contumelia
enemy...contempt
24
Hic nunc de miseria Siculorum, iudices, audite.
Hear of Sicilians'
misery.
25
sordidati, maxima barba et capillo
dirty, with long beard
and hair
Romam mecum decedere cupiverunt.
They wished to go to
Rome with me 27
Ecquam rem putatis esse in Sicilia nisi ad nutum istius iudicatam?
Do you think anything was decided in Sicily without that one's nod?
sine metu sine cura
without fear, without
care
29
Crimen nullum erat, res erat iudicata, Verres nummos acceperat.
no crime, judgment made, Verres took the money
incredibili importunitate et audacia
with much affront and
daring
30
Retinete, retinete hominem in civitate, iudices, parcite et conservate.
31
Keep this man in his country, jurors, spare and save him.
Sententiam de capite civis Romani ferat.
gives judgment about death of a Roman citizen.
Fidem cum proposuisses venalem in provincia, valuit apud te plus is qui pecuniam
maiorem dedit.
32
When you had proposed seller's trust in the province, he prevailed with you over the
primary payer.
monstrum aut prodigium
monster or prodigy
in foro palam Syracusis in ore atque in oculis provinciae gesta sunt
33
In the forum in plain sight in Syracuse in the mouth and eyes of the province these things
were done.
Invenietis enim id facinus natum a cupiditate, auctum per stuprum, crudelitate perfectum
atque
34
conclusum.
You will find a crime born from lust, developed through evil , perfected by cruelty.
Commoti animi sunt omnium; repertus est nemo quin mori diceret satius esse.
36
The minds of all were disturbed; no one could be found who would not say that he
preferred death.
De amicorum hospitumque suorum sententia Thermis Sthenius Romam profugit.
37
By the advice of his friends Thermis Sthenius fled to Rome.
Postea senex Verres defensores atque hospites omnis Stheni convenit, rogat eos
39
atque orat ne oppugnent filium suum.
Afterwards the old man Verres gathered supporters and all friends at Sthenium and asked
them not to oppose his son.
Citat reum; non respondit; citat accusatorem...citatus accusator...non adfuit.
40
He summons the plaintiff; he does not answer; he summons the prosecutor; the summoned
prosecutor was away..
Itaque fit ut exitus principio simillimus reperietur: quem absentem reum fecerat, eum
absente accusatore condemnat.
And so the end will be found very similar to the beginning: the plaintiff he had forced to be
absent with the prosecutor absent was convicted.
Quare de hospitio violato et de tuo isto scelere nefario nil queror.
45
I shall not complain about violated hospitality and that awful crime.
Nolite exspectare dum omnis obeam oratione mea civitates: hoc uno complector
51
omnia, neminem isto praetore senatorem fieri potuisse nisi qui isti pecuniam dedisset.
Do not wait until I oppose all cities with my speech: in this one matter I embrace all, that
no one was able to be made senator without giving money.
ipsum Verrem tantum avaritia semper hiante atque imminente
54
Verres himself with gaping and threatening greed
ut aratores, ut mercatores, ut navicularii
as farmers, traders,
sailors
55
consumptum esse istam omnem pecuniam in statuis
all money spent in
legalities
57
summa res publica et illa provincia maxime continetur
61
both highest matters of state and that province are held within
Venio nunc ad civitates Siciliae, de quibus facillime iudicium fieri voluntatis
63
potest. I come now to the cities of Sicily, about which judgment can be easily made.
Enumerare omnis non est necesse.
not necessary to count
all
65
Tot homines in Asia nocentes, tot in Africa, tot in Hispania, Gallia, Sardinia, tot in ipsa
Sicilia fuerunt.
So many guilty men in Asia, Africa, Spain, France, Sardinia, and Sicily itself.
Tauromenitani...quietissimi...tamen istius evertere statuam non eubitant.
66
The inoffensive citizens of Tauromena did not hesitate to overturn the statues of that one.
Tamen istius in gymnasio statua deiecta est.
Yet his statue was
overturned in gym.
Dum ego in Sicilia sum, nulla statua deiecta est.
While I was in Sicily,
no statue was overturned.
Videte gravitatem civitatis ac dignitatem.
See weight and dignity
of city.
67
Oderunt Siculi; togatorum enim causa multa feci.
Sicilians hate; I am
cause.
69
Qui te non oderit, sive civium Romanorum sive Siculorum?
Who does not hate you, whether Roman citizen or Sicilian?
Ea autem faeneratio erat eius modi, iudices, ut etiam is quaestus huic cederet.
70
This moneymaking was such that it yielded to that man.
legem ab homine non nostri generis, non ex equestri loco
71
law from a man not of our kind, not from the equestrian order
Satisne magnum crimen hoc videtur? Nullum, opinor, maius.
72
Does this crime seem great enough? I believe, none greater.
Rem ad Metellum defero.
I refer the matter to
Metellus.
77
Laudantur oratores veteres.
Orators of old are
praised.
78
Avaritiaene crimina frugalitatis laudibus deprecetur?
Are the crimes of
avarice excused by praises of frugality?
Quis contumacior, quis inhumanior, quis superbior?
Who more insulting, more
inhuman, more haughty?
Quis acerbior, quis insidiosior, quis crudelior umquam fuit?
Whoever was more bitter, more treacherous, more vicious?
from Cicero's In C.Verrem Secundae (Liber Tertius: De Frumento):
utilitate communi
common use
1
ab re publica civem improbum removet
remove base citizen from country
firmata aetate
with sturdy age
Ego in uno homine omnia vitia quae possunt in homine perdito nefarioque esse
2
reprehendo; nullum esse dico indicium libidinis sceleris audaciae quod non in istius unius
vita perspicere possitis.
I denounce in this man all the vices which the worst man could have; I say that there is no
trace of lust, crime, daring whivh you cannot see in this man.
An tu maiores ullas inimicitias putas esse quam contrarias hominum sententias ac
dissimilitudines studiorum ac
voluntatum?
3
Do you think that there are any greater hatreds than those which are contrary to the good
opinion of men and
dissimilar to proper desire and will?
Quaeris cur ei sim inimicus cui populus Romanus infestus est?
Do you ask why I am an enemy to him to whom the Roman people are hostile?
Odistis hominum novorum industriam, despicitis eorum frugalitatem, pudorem
4
contemnitis, ingenium vero et virtutem depressam exstinctamque
cupitis: Verrem amatis!
You hate the work of new men, you despise their frugality, you sneer at their chastity,
indeed you wish their skill be
reduced and ended: you love Verres!
Hunc vestri ianitores, hunc cubicularii deligunt.
Doorkeepers cherish him.
Nunc tractare causam instituimus frumentariam.
decided to discuss grain case
5
de civium Romanorum qui arant in Sicilia bonis
about property of Sicilian farmers
Hac vero alimur ac sustinemur.
By this we are nursed and sustained.
impositum vectigal est certum
fixed revenue imposed
6
Hoc iure ante Verrem praetorem Siculi semper usi sunt.
The Sicilians always used this law before the praetor Verres.
Nequitia luxuria audacia sui simillimum iudicavit.
9
judge him very similar to self in wrongdoing, extravagance, and
daring
Ille erat in tribunali proximus, in cubiculo solus, in convivio dominus, ac tum maxime cum
accubant praetextato
praetoris filio saltare in convivio nudus coeperat.
He was nearby on the dais, alone in the bedroom, master at the banquet, and especially
when they lay down he began
to dance naked while the son of a praetor was dressed
festively.
Ex agro homines traducis in forum, ab aratro ad subsellia, ab usu rerum rusticarum ad
insolitam litem
atque iudicium?
10
You drag men from the field into the forum, from plow to bench, from farming to unknown
disputes and judgment?
tot viri fortes honesti gratiosi
so many brave, honest, influential
men
12
contra omnia iura Siculorum
contrary to all Sicilian laws
15
Tu innocentior quam Metellus?
You more innocent than Metellus?
16
pugnis et calcibus concisus esset
struck with fists and kicks
23
Genera iam dudum innumerabilium iniuriarum, iudices, singulis nominibus profero,
infinitam multitudinem iniuriarum praetermitto.
By name I offer two of the many types of wrongs; I omit an infinite number of insults.
Mitto vincla, mitto carcerem, mitto verbera, mitto securis, crucem denique illam
praetermitto.
24
I pass by chains, jail, whips, axes,
finally the cross.
Audistis permulta, iudices, testimonia civitatum, et reliquarum audietis.
27
You have heard many testify and will
hear the rest.
Hac lege, iudices, decumas vendidit Verres.
By this law Verres sold the tenths.
28
Cognoscite renuntiationem ex litteris publicis. Recita.
Note the rejection from public
letters. Recite.
30
Spoliasti Siculos; solent enim muti esse in iniuriis suis.
41
You despoiled the Sicilians; they are usually silent when insulted.
sibi et populo Romano non Verri...serere
52
sowed for themselves and Roman people, not for Verres
Vos communem populi Romani causam suscipite atque defendite.
You take up the common cause of the Roman people and defend it.
bellis Carthagininsibus Sicilia vextata est
Sicily was devastated by the Punic
Wars.
54
non ex bello...sed ex tuo scelere, importunitate, avaritia, crudelitate
not from war, but from your crime, importunity, greed, cruelty
furem manifesto avertentem rem frumentariam omnem
thief openly looting all the
grain supply 60
Testis est tota provincia.
entire province is witness
64
Tenetur igitur iam, iudices, et manifesto tenetur avaritia, cupiditas hominis,
65
scelus, improbitas, audacia.
His greed, lust, crime, wrong is
proved.
in epulis cotidianis adulta aetate per triennium inter impudicas mulires et
68
intemperantis viros versatus sit
in daily banquets for three years with wanton women and soft men
maximo atque impudentissimo furto
great, most brazen theft
70
tria genera furtorum
three types of theft
Nihil dicet ex tempore, nihil ex sua voluntate.
will say nothing
71
Certe huic homini spes nulla salutis esset
certainly no hope of safety for this
man
72
Quid ad haec respondere cogitas?
what to answer these things
Siciliae civitates multae sunt, iudices, ornatae atque honestae.
73
The cities of Sicily are many, jurors, ornate and honorable.
summa prudentia, summa auctoritate
highest caution, highest influence
Posco rationes, inspicio litteras.
I demand records, look at notes.
Mala mehercule ac misera defensio praetorem hoc dicere: ëEgo frumentum neque attigi
neque aspexi. 76
Bad and wretched defense for praetor to say that he neither touched nor saw the grain.
O consuetudo peccandi, quantum habes iucunditatem improbis et audacibus, cum poena
afuit et licentia consecuta est!
O habit of theft, how sweet for wicked, when penalty is absent and licence is followed.?
Ita serpit illud insitum in natura malum consuetudine peccandi libera, finem ut audaciae
statuere ipse non possit.
In a nature free of theft that unaccustomed vice creeps so that it cannot put an end to
boldness
Ordo est honestus. Quis negat?
Order is honest. Who denies?
79
anulus aureus
golden ring
80
classis pulcherrima praesidium Siciliae propugnaculumque provinciae
most beautiful fleet, protection of Sicily and rampart of the province
Etenim haec aestimatio nata est initio, iudices, non ex praetorum aut consulum, sed ex
civitatum et aratorum commodo.
This understanding is created from the beginning, not from the edicts of praetors and
consuls but from the habits of
cities and farming communities.
82
Secuti sunt avariores magiatratus.
More greedy officials followed.
In hoc genere facilior est existimatio quam reprehensio.
In respect to this type
evaluation is easier than criticism.
Cogantur etiam nummi ab aratore?
Should coins be collected by the
plowman?
86
Imponitis decumanas, patiuntur.
You offer the tenth; endured.
De cella loquor.
I speak about the chamber.
Magna est enim pecunia, magnum praeclarumque vectigal, si modo id salva provincia, si
sine iniuria sociorum percipere
possumus.
87
Much money, much revenue, if only the province is kept safe without harm to allies.
Nihil detraho magistratibus.
I do not criticize the officials.
pro tota Sicilia de aratorum miseriis
for all Sicily about the misfortunes of
the farmers 88
Quid ad haec Hortensius? falsum esse crimen?
What does Hortensius say to this?
crime false?
ut omittam tuos peculatus
to omit your thefts
Lugent omnes provinciae, queruntur omnes liberi populi.
89
All the provinces weep, all free people complain.
Exempla quaerimus, et ea non antiqua.
precedents sought, not old
90
Sicilia provincia, cum esses pro consule, praefuisti. As proconsul you were in charge of
Sicily.
91
Neque ego hoc in tua laude pono.
Nor do I give you credit for this.
At idem fecit Sacerdos.
But Sacerdos did the same.
92
Idem istuc si in vilitate populo Romano largiri voluisses, derisum
tuum beneficium esset atque contmptum.
If in cheapness you had wished to give the same to the Roman people, your favor would
have been mocked.
Biennium provinciam obtinuit.
He ruled province two years.
93
me omnium provinciarum defensorem
I was defender of all provinces.
Ubicumque hoc factum est, improbe factum est.
Wherever done, done wrongly.
Improbi sunt qui pecunias contra leges cogunt, stulti qui quod licere iudicatum est
praetermittunt.
94
Wicked those who steal, stupid those
who collude.
Absolvit eum qui se fateatur maximas pecunias cum summa sociorum iniuria cepisse.
He has absolved him who admitted he stole much money with injury to allies.
95
pertinere ad utilitatem eorum qui iudicent
pertains to the utility of those who
judge
96
dum equester ordo iudicarit
while equestrian order judged
Nullo modo negare potest; urgetur a tota Sicilia.
No way it can be denied; by all Sicily
it is pressed. 97
periculosum provinciis...perniciosum nostro ordini dangerous to provinces, fatal to our
order
Quid est enim Sicilia si agri cultionem sustuleris et si aratorum numerum ac nomen
exstinexris?
What is Sicily if you remove farming and the name and number of plowman?
ubertas in percipiendis fructibus
fertile in growing crops
98
Etiamn haec tot detrimenta atque damna cum maximis iniuriis contumeliisque perferre?
You accept so many harms with great injury and contempt?
Arationes omnis tota Sicilia desertas atque a dominis relictas esse cognoscitis.
You know that all the farms of Sicily have been deserted or abandoned by their masters.
from Cicero's In C.Verrem Secundae (Liber Quartus):
ad istius studium latrocinium
to that one's desire for theft
1
ex auro aut ebore factum
made from gold or ivory
Magnum videor dicere; attendite etiam quem ad modum dicam.
I seem to speak of a great matter; consider how I shall speak.
Non enim verbi neque criminis augendi causa complector omnia.
I embrace this entire matter not for the sake of expanding word and crime.
nihil apud Siculum, nihil apud civem Romanum...neque privati neque publici neque
profani neque sacra tota in Sicilia
reliquisse
nothing among the Sicilians or Roman citizens...neither private nor public neither profane
nor sacred has been left
behind in all Sicily
Haec omnia quae dixi signa, iudices, ab Heio e sacrario Verres abstulit.
3
All these emblems which I have mentioned Verres stole from the shrine in Heium.
Pro deum hominumque fidem!
By the faith of gods and men!
4
Non quaerebat meretricis heredem.
not seeking inheritance of whore
Sed quid ego tam vehementer invehor? Verbo uno repellar. Emi.
But why do I denounce him so vigorously? I shall be refuted by one word. I bought it.
nihil pro potestate, nihil ab invito, nihil per iniuriam
5
nothing for his power, nothing from anyone unwilling, nothing through injury
hominem maxime locupletem, minime avarum
a man very wealthy, not at all greedy
6
Quid sedes, Verres? Quid exspectas?
Why you sit? What await?
8
Utitur hac lege qua iudicium est.
He uses the law by which it has been
judged.
Homo amentissime, quid putasti?
Madman, what did you think?
9
Res publica detrimentum fecit quod per te imperi ius in una civitate imminutum est.
Country suffered harm because by you power was diminshed in one city.
Verum haec emisse te dicis.
You say that you bought these things.
12
Risus populi atque admiratio omnium vestrum facta est.
laughter of people and
admiration of all of you
Q. Catuli beneficio ab L. Sulla civis Romanus factus est.
17
By favor of Catulus by Sulla became Roman citizen.
Abs te nihil rectius factum esse dico.
I say nothing done right by you.
Huius libidines non solum oculis sed etiam auribus excitabantur.
18
His lusts were aroused not only by the eyes but also by the ears.
Emi. Pecuniam solvi.
I bought it. I paid.
20
Quid hoc est? Quod hoc monstrum, quod prodigium in provinciam misimus?
21
What is this? What monster, what deformity have we sent into the province?
Metus erat summus; ipse enim tyrannus non discedebat longius.
23
Fear was very great; tyrant himself departed not far.
O tempora, o mores!
O the times, o the habits!
25
Ridiculum est me nunc de Verre dicere, cum de Pisone Frugi dixerim; verum tamen
quantum intersit videte.
Ridiculous that I speak about Verres, when I spoke about Piso Frugi; indeed however there
is a great difference
between them.
Dies me citius defecerit quam nomina.
The day escaped me more quickly
than the names.
26
ad furtum, non ad avaritiam, non ad cupiditatem
to theft, not greed and desire
27
hospitium spoliatum ac proditum
spoiled and betrayed hospitality
nihil de istius improbitate suspicatus est
his wickedness unsuspected
28
Rex primo nihil metuere; nihil suspicari.
fear and suspect nothing
29
monumentum suae socitatis amiitiaeque
monument of alliance and friendship
Quae vox, quae latera, quae vires huius unius criminis querimoniam possunt sustinere?
30
What voice, lungs, strength can support the complaint of such crime of this one man?
Verresne habebit domi suae candelabrum Iovis e gemmis auroque perfectum?
32
Verres will have in his house a chandelier of Jupiter made from
jewels and gold?
Illo tempore Segestanis maxima cum cura haec ipsa Diana...redditur.
34
At that time with great care this very Diana is restored to the people of Segesta.
iste sacrorum omnium et religionum hostis praedoque
that enemy of all sacred
things and religion and robber
flagrare cupiditate atque amentia
boil with lust and madness
Scitote neminem, neque liberum neque servum, neque civem neque peregrinum, qui illud
signum auderet attingere.
35
Know that no one, neither free nor slave, neither citizen nor foreigner, dared to touch that
sign.
Te nunc, P. Scipio, te, inquam, lectisimum ornatissimumque adulescentem,
appello, abs te officium tuum debitum
generi et nomini requiro et flagito.
36
You now, Scipio, you, I say, I call upon, most ornate and honored youth, from you I need
and burn for your own duty.
Quid aut tu his respondere honeste potes aut illi facere, nisi ut te ac fidem tuam implorent?
37
What can you do or say except that they beg you and your trust?
aequitate, industria, temperantia, defensione miserorum, odio improborum
fair, effortful, chaste, defending the unfortunate, hated by the wicked
Repeto abs te, Verres, monumentum P. Africani.
I ask back the monument of Africanus
38
ceteris istius furtis
by the other thefts of that one
Quam audacter, quam libidinose, quam impudenter! How boldly, how lustfully, how
impudently!
39
Erat hiems summa, tempestas, ut ipsum Sopatrum dicere audistis, perfrigia, imber
maximus, cum iste imperat lictoribus
ut Sopatrum de porticu, in qua iste sedebat,
praecipitem in forum eiciant nudumque onstituant.
40
It was the middle of winter, as you heard Sopatrus say, cold, stormy, when that one ordered
the lictors to throw
headlong Sopatrus from the portico on which he was siiting into the
forum and place him there naked.
Quid iam de isto plura iam dicam aut querar?
What more shall I say or
complain?
44
Omnia illa, iudices, abstulit, nihil in religiossimo fano praeter vestigia violatae religionis
nomenque P. Scipionis reliquit.
Jurors, he stole all, left only traces of past religion and
Scipio's name.
Insula est Melita, iudices, satis lato a Sicilia mari periculosoque diiuncta.
46
The island Malta is separated from Sicily by a dangerous sea.
Pro di immortales! Quem ego hominem accuso? Quem legibus aut iudicali iure
persequor?
47
By the gods! What man do I charge? Whom by laws do I prosecute?
Unius etiam urbis omnium pulcherrimae atque ornatissimae, Syracusarum, direptionem
commemorabo.
52
I shall report the plundering of the beautiful city Syracuse.
Urbem Syracusas maximam esse Graecorum, pulcherrimam omnium saepe audistis.
You often have heard that Syracuse is the greatest and most beautiful of all Greek cities.
Aedis Minervae est in Insula...quam Marcellus non attigit.
55
The house of Minerva is on the island...which Marcellus did not touch.
Hic ornamenta Minervae virginis in meretriciam domum transtulit.
This man carried the decorations of the virgin Minerva into a whore's house.
Quam ob rem? Nemo erat voluntarius laudator praeturae tuae, defensor periculorum,
praesertim cum inire a praetore
gratiam posset? Nemo. Illi ipsi tui convivae, consiliarii,
conscii, socii verbum facere non audent.
64
Why? No one willingly praised your praetorship, no one was a defender of the dangers,
especially since he could
receive favor from the praetor? No one. Those guests,
party-gatherers, friends dared to speak not one word.
istius turpem calamitosamque praeturam
foul and disastrous office of that one
Discessi cum fratre e curia.
I left the curia with my brother.
O rem ridiculam! O desertum hominem, desperatum, relictum!
65
O ridiculous matter! O deserted man, hopeless, abandoned!
Non amicus istius, non hospes, non denique aliquis Siculus, sed quaestor populi Romani
praetorem appellat!
No friend of that one, no guest, finally no Sicilian, but rather a quaestor of the Roman
people calls you praetor.
homo ridicule insanus
man absurdly insane
66
Laudent te iam sane Mamertini.
Let Mamertines praise you.
67
from Cicero's In C.Verrem Secundae (Liber Quintus):
in omni genere furandi atque praedandi
in every type of looting
1
provinciam Siicliam...a fugitivis atque a belli periculis...servatam esse
The province of Sicily was saved from fugitives and thc dangers of war.
Novi locum; video ubi se iactaturus sit Hortensius.
I know the place; I see where Hortensius is about to throw himself.
Non possum dissimulare.
I cannot pretend.
Timeo ne C.Verres propter hanc eximiam virtutem in re militari omnia quae fecit impune
fecerit.
I fear that because of this courage in war Verres has done without punishment all that he
has done.
in conspectu omnium tunicamque eius a pectore abscidit
In the sight of all he ripped his tunic from his chest.
Sit fur, sit sacrilegus, sit flagitiorum omium vitiorumque princeps; at est bonus imperator.
2
Let him be thief, sacrilegious, fount of sll evils; at least he is a good commander.
An bello fugivorum Siciliam virtute eius liberatam?
that Sicily was freed in the war of fugitives by his courage?
Ubi, quando, qua ex parte?
Where, when, from what direction?
M. Crassi fortissimi viri
the very brave man Crassus
ut ne quis cum telo servus esset
that no one saved himself with a
weapon
3
cum aper ingens ad eum adlatus esset
when a
huge boar had been brought to him
iussu praetoris in crucem esse sublatum
handed over to cross by praetor's
order
cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet
when all Italy blazed in the
Social War
4
Nullum est malum domesticum quod ex ipsa provincia nasci possit.
There is no civil evil which could not arise from that province.
Nihil sane quod a senatum populumque Romanum pervenerit, nihil quod iste publice
Romam scripserit.
Nothing clear reached the senate and people, nothing written by that one to Rome.
Produci ad supplicium necesse est.
must be led forth for torture
5
Quid ais, bone custos defensorque provinciae?
6
What do you say, good guard and defender of the province?
Perditae civitates desperatis iam omnibus rebus hos solent exitus exitialis habere, ut
damnati in integrum restituantur,
vincti solvantur, exsules reducantur, res iudicatae
rescindantur.
Ruined cities in all desperation usually suffer a sad end, that condemned are restored,
chained are freed, exiles return,
decisions rescinded.
ullam spem salutis reliquam esse
hope of safety left behind
verbera atque ignes...cruciatus et crux
whips, fires, torture, and
cross
homo pecuniosus
wealthy man
7
Profecto homo dives repente a Verre non sine causa citatur. A wealthy man is summoned
by Verres without reason.
Iste hominem abripi a tribunali et in cacrerem conici iubet.
That one ordered the man to be dragged from the tribunal and thrown into prison.
in vincla coniectus est
He was thrown into chains,
Servos, quos ipse de consili sententia belli faciendi causa consensisse iudicavit, eos sine
consili sententia sua sponte omni supplicio liberavit.
8
The slaves, whom he himself by opinion of his council judged to have consented to war,
them without the judgment of
his council he set free with all thanks.
Tua sequar iudicia, tuam defendam auctoritatem. I'll follow your decisions; I'll defend
your authority.
Nullam in te invidiam ne ex illis quidem rebus concitabo. Not even in these matters will
I stir up envy against you.
in carcere, in tenebris, in squalore, in sordibus
in prison, in shadows, in filth, in
squalor
Facile ostendam tua crudelitate in alios omnis tibi aditus misericordiae iudicum iam
pridem esse praeclusos.
I shall easily show that by your cruelty consideration of mercy by you was shut off.
Dicet rem publicam administrari sine metu ac severitate non posse.
9
He will say that the country cannot be administered without fear and severity.
Sine causa de carcere emitti iusserit.
ordered him released without reason
Primum insimulatio est repentina capitalis atque invidiosi criminis.
First is the sudden pretence of capital and evil crime.
Deinde crimen sine accusatore, sententia sine consilio, damnatio sine defensione.
Then crime without prosecutor, opinion without council, condemnation without defense.
Habetis hominis comsilia, diligentiam, vigilantiam, custodiam defensionemque
provinciae.
10
You have the man's plans, persistence, watchfulness, guard and defense of the province.
Hic ita vivebat iste bonus imperator hibernis mensibus ut eum non facile non modo extra
tectum, sed ne extra lectum quidem quisquam viderit; ita diei brevitas conviviis, noctis
longitudo stupris et flagitiis continebatur.
He that good commander so lived in winter months that not easily would you see him
outside his house, in his bed so
that the brevity of the day was contained in banquets, length
of the night in outrages.
Eadem lectica usque in cubiculum deferebatur.
In same litter he was carried to
bedroom.
11
Veneri iam et Libero reliquum tempus deberi abitrabatur.
He thought the remaining time should be owed to Venus and Bacchus.
Non numquam etiam res ad pugnam atque ad manus vocabatur.
Sometimes the matter was called to a fight and hands.
illis legibus quae in poculis ponebantur
drinker's law
iste Hannibal
that Hannibal
12
cum pallio purpureo
with purple pallium
13
locum illum litoris percrepare totum mulierum vocibus cantuque symphoniae
The shore resounded with the singing and symphony of all the women.
Hunc tu igitur imperatorem esse defendis, Hortnsi? Do you defend this leader?
Huius furta, rapinas, cupiditatem, crudelitatem, superbiam, scelus, audaciam rerum
gestarum magnitudine atque
imperatoriis laudibus tegere conaris?
Do you try to defend the thefts, siezure, lust, cruelty, pride, crime, daring of this man by the
extent of his deeds and
commander's praise?
noctu stupri causa lectica in urbem introferri...ad mulierum nuptam
admitted to the city by carriage for night lust...to a married woman
O di immortales! Quid interest inter mentes hominum et cogitationes!
14
O immortal gods! What a difference between the minds and plans of men!
quasi in aliquo terrarum orbis theatro
as if in some theater of the world
Nunc sum designatus aedilis.
Now I am aedile designate.
mihi totam urbem tuendam esse commissam
I've been chosen to defend city.
ad summam stultitiam nequitiamque
to highest stupidity and incompetence
15
ab isto praeclare defensa provincia est
province defended by that one
17
non uti provincia defenderetur, sed uti classis nomine pecunia quaeretur
not that the province be defended, but that in the name of the fleet money be sought
haec navis onusta praeda Siciliensi
this ship loaded with Sicilan loot
Fuit ista res publica quondam.
Once there was that country.
18
te illam navem parare quae praedam ex Sicilia deportaret
that you prepared a ship to carry loot from Sicily
Minuisti auxilia populi Romani, minuisti copias maiorum virtute et sapientia comparatas.
20
You diminished the auxiliaries of the Roman people and troops gathered by ancestors'
plans.
Pretio abs te ius foederis et imperi condicionem redemerunt.
By a price set by you they redeem their alliance and conditions of power.
frumentum aequabiliter emi ab omnibus Sicilia civitatibus
21
that grain was purchased fairly from all the cities of Sicily
Tot in Sicilia civitates sunt quibus tu per triennium praefuisti.
22
There are so many cities in Sicily which you presided over for three years.
Per triennium soli ex foedere quod debuerunt non dederunt.
For three years alone of the allies they did not give what they owed.
Accepisti a Mamertinis navem contra leges.
You illegally acquired a ship from the
Mamerines.
23
merces imperi, auxili, iuris, consuetudinis, foederis reward of power, law, habit, treaty
Iste, quod eius nautae nomine pro stipendio frumentoque acceperat, lucrabatur.
25
That one profited from what he had received in the name of his sailor.
Erat ea navis plena iuventutis formosissimae, plena argenti. There was that ship full of
shapely youths and silver.
Archipiratam ipsum videt nemo.
No one sees the archpirate.
Iudex esse bonus nemo potest qui suspicione certa non movetur.
26
No one can be a good judge who is not moved by sure suspicion.
Vivum tu archipiratam servabas?
You were saving the live archpirate ?
custodiri ducem praedonum novo more quam securi feriri omnium exemplo
27
to guard the leader of the pirates in new manner rather than to strike him down with ax as
example for all
iste homo nefarius
that wicked man
28
Itaque alii cives Romani, ne cognoscerentur, capitibus obvolutis e carcere ad palum atque
ad necen rapiebantur, alii, cum
a multis civibus Romanis cognoscerentur, ab omnibus
defenderentur, securi feriebantur.
And so some Roman citizens with heads covered in order not to be discovered were led out
of prison to the stake and
death; others, when they were discovered and were defended by all,
were struck with axes.
formosi homines et adulescentes
handsome men and youths
omnis vestis ablata, omne aurum et argentum ablatum
all clothing, gold, silver taken
Civem Romanum securi esse percussum M. Annius. Marcus Annius struck a Roman
citizen with an ax.
29
hostem acerrimum atque infestissimum populi Romani
30
most bitter and dangerous enemy of the Roman people
Apud me habitavit, mecum fuit.
He lived at my house, was with me.
Populi Romani hostis privati hominis custodiis adservabitur?
An enemy of the Roman people will be saved in the custody of a private citizen?
Volo enim esse totum mihi crimen hoc integrum. I wish the total crime to be one.
Non ad contumeliam civitatis referri volo.
I do not wnat to be recalled to the
insult of the city.
32
Vide quid intersit inter tuam libidinem maiorumque auctoritatem, inter amorem
furoremque tuum et illorum consilium
atque prudentiam.
Note what a difference exists between your lust and our ancestors' authority, between your
madness and their caution.
cum pallio purpureo
with purple pallium
33
praedonum dux
pirates' leader
35
O tempus miserum atque acerbum provinciae Siciliae! O casum illum multis
innoccentibus calamitosum atque
funestum!
O wretched and bitter time for the province of Sicily! O that misfortune calamitous and
deadly for many innoccent people!
hic semisomnus stuperet
He half asleep was stunned.
36
cum fumantis etiam nostras navis reliquiisent
when they had abandoned our
smoking ships
In urbem dico atque in urbis intimam partem venisse piratas.
37
I say that pirates came into the city and into the most secret parts of it.
in insula Cereris natos, ubi primum fruges inventae esse dicuntur
38
born on the island of Ceres, where first crops were said to have been invented
O spectaculum miserum atque acerbum!
O wretched and bitter sight!
Posteaquam e portu piratae non metu aliquo adfecti sed satietate exierunt, tum coeperunt
quaerere homines causam illius
tantae calamitatis.
After the pirates, affected not by some fear but by weariness, left the port, then men began
to seek the cause of that
disaster.
Consilium capit primo stultum, verum tamen clemens.
39
At first he formed a stupid plan, then however kind.
Init consilium non improbi praetoris.
He formed a plan with a not evil
praetor.
40
nauarchos omnis, testis sui sceleris
all sailors, witnesses to his crime
Iste homo ex eius modi civitate, adulescens nobilissimus, testis relinquetur.
That man from this sort of state, a most noble youth, will be left as witness.
Iste hominibus miseris innocentibus inici catenas imperat.
41
That one orders chains to be thrown on wretched, innocent men.
propter avaritiam ipsius
because of his greed
ad aurem familiariter...insusurrare
to whisper casually in his ear
homines honestissimos, electos e suis civitatibus, in ferrum atque in vincla coniectos
Very honorable men, chosen from their cities, were thrown to sword an chains.
ad istius audaciam
to the daring of that one
Adsunt, defendunt, proclamant, fidem tuam...implorant.
42
They are present, they defend, they proclaim, they beg your trust.
Sed quid ego hospiti iura in hac immani belua commemoro?
But why do I recall the laws of hospitality in this immense beast?
Cum homine crudeli nobis res est an cum fera atque immani belua?
Is this matter with a cruel man or with a fierce and large beast?
nudus paene est destitutus
naked and almost destitute
Praetorem accuses? Frange cervices.
Accuse praetor? Break his
neck.
Is certe neque classem prodidit neque metu perterritus fugit neque exercitum deseruit.
43
Certainly he did not betray a fleet nor flee in fear nor desert an army.
cum lacrimans in carcere mater noctes diesque adsideret
when his crying mother sat day and night with him in prison
de suis periculis fortunisque omnibus pertimesunt They fear about his dangers and
fortunes.
44
Indigne ferunt illam clementiam mansuetudinemque nostri imperi in tantam crudelitatem
inhumanitatemque esse
conversam.
Indignantly thy bear that the clemency and restraint of our power has been changed to
such cruelty and inhumanity.
Matres miserae pernoctabant ad ostium carceris ab extremo conspetu librum exclusae.
45
Wretched mothers spent the night at door of prison removed from sight of their children.
Non vitam liberum, sed mortis celeritatem pretio redimere cogebantur parentes.
By payment the parents were forced to redeem not the life of their children, but the
swiftness of death.
Multi et graves dolores inventi parentibus et propinquis, multi.
Many and heavy sorrows were found for parents and relatives, many.
Quis tam fuit illo tempore ferreus, quis tam inhumanus praeter unum te, qui non illorum
aetate nobilitate miseria
commoveretur?
46
Who at that time was so iron-hearted, who so inhuman except you alone, who was not
moved by their age, nobility, misery?
Feriuntur securi.
They are struck by the ax.
maculas furtorum et flagitiorum
stains of thefts and misdeeds
Etenim quamquam illi sunt mortui sceleris tui testes, tamen eorum propinqui neque tibi
neque illis desunt.
Although the witnesses to your crime are dead, nevertheless their relatives are present for
them and for you.
Quas urbis P. Africanus etiam ornandas esse spoliis hostium arbitratus est, eas C. Verres
non solum illis ornamentis sed etiam viris nobilissimis nefario scelere privavit.
47
Which cities Scipio thought should be decorated with enemy spoils, Verres stripped not
only of their decorations but of
most noble men.
Nos semper omnibus Punicis bellis amicitiam fidemque populi Romani secuti sumus.
In all the Punic Wars we always followed the friendship and faith of the Roman people.
Ipsi in hostium loco numeroque ducimini.
You were led to be enemy.
Quo confugient socii? Quem implorabunt?
Where will aliies flee? Whom beg?
48
Ad populum Romanum confugient?
Will they flee to Roman people?
Hic locus est igitur unus quo perfugiant, hic portus, haec arx, haec ara sociorum.
This is the one place to which they may flee, this the harbor, this the citadel, this the altar of
allies.
Patimur enim multos iam annos et silemus.
We bear it for many years and are
quiet.
in paucis villis
in few farmhouses
Aspicite, aspicite, iudices, squalorem sordisque sociorum!
Behold, behold, jurors, the filth and degradation of the allies!
te suum carnificem nominans
calling you his own butcher
49
quasi eius ego excitare ab inferis filium possem
as if I could raise son from dead
Homines enim in proeliis non in conviviis belli fortunam perclitari solent.
50
Men usually test the fortune of war in battles not banquets.
Non in supplicio crimen meum vertitur.
my crime not turned to punishment
Tuus denique testis, tuus imperator, tuus aemulus, tuus hospes Cleomenes hoc dicit.
Last your witness, your commander, your rival, your guest Cleomenes says this.
51
Archipiratam ab oculis omnium removisti.
You removed the archpirate from the
sight of all.
52
cum tunico pallioque purpureo
with purple tunic and pallium
Tibi hominum innocentium sanguis non modo voluptati sed etiam quaestui fuit!
For you the blood of innocent men was not only a pleasure but also a profit!
Ad civium Romanorum...vitam et sanguinem pertinet.
53
This pertains to the life and blood of Roman citizens.
Virgis quam multos ceciderit quid ego commemorem?
How many may I recall whom
he struck with rods?
veterem negotiatorem
long-standing businessman
54
Plagis confectum dico a lictoribus tuis civem Romanum ante oculos tuos concidisse.
I say that a Roman citizen struck by whips by your lictors was laid low before your eyes.
Locutus erat liberius de istius improbitate atque nequitia.
He had spoken rather freely about the wickeness and laziness of that one.
Nam quid ego de ceteris civium Romanorum suppliciis singillatim potius quam generatim
atque universe loquar?
55
For what should I say about the punishment of Roman citizens one by one rather than in
general?
ista libido crudelitatis exercendae
lust for showing cruelty
56
Nulla...praeter praedandi novam singularemque rationem.
Nothing except a new and unique reason for looting.
novum monstrum
new monster
Cylops alter multo importunior
second cylops much more greedy
Cervices in carcere frangebantur indignissime civium Romanorum.
57
Most cruelly the necks of Roman citizens were broken in jails.
Possemus hanc iniuriam ignominiamque nominis Romani inultam impunitamque
dimittere?
58
Can we dismiss unavenged this injury and disgrace
to Roman citizens?
ista in nostros homines crudelitas
that cruelty toward our men
Quis tibi id permisit? Quo iure fecisti?
Who promised you? By what law?
Forum plenum et basilicas istorum hominum videmus.
We see a full forum and the
basilicas of those men.
ad Cn. Pompium, clarissimum virum et fortissimum to Pompey, a most famous and brave
man
Adsunt enim Puteoli toti.
All were preesnt at Puteoli.
59
Nihil est quod te mallem probare.
nothing I'd prefer you to prove
civem Romanum qui...abs te securi percussum esse dixit
60
Roman citizen who said that he had been struck with an ax by you
capitibus involutis civis Romanus ad necem producere instituit
He decided to lead forth Roman citizens with heads covered to death.
se civem Romanum in vincla coniectum
He, a Roman citizen, had been
thrown into chains.
61
adiutricem scelerum, furtorum receptricem
helper in crimes, fence of thefts
62
Ipse inflammatus scelere et furore in forum venit; ardebant oculi.
Inflamed by crime and rage, he came into the forum; his eyes were blazing.
Clamabat ille miser se civem esse Romanum.
The wretched man kept shouting that he was a Roman citizen.
Caedebatur virgis in medio foro Messanae civis Romanus.
A Roman citizen was scourged with rods in the middle of the forum in Messana.
crux, crux--infelici et aerumnoso
cross for the unlucky, woeful man
O nomen dulce libertatis! O ius eximium nostrae civitatis!
63
O sweet name of liberty! O precious law of our country!
In crucem tu agere ausus es quemquam qui se civem Romanum esse diceret?
You dared to drive to the cross anyone who said that he was a Roman citizen?
Facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, prope parricidium necare: quid iam
in crucem tollere?
66
It is wrong to tie a Roman citizen, a crime to whip him, almost parricide to kill him: what
shall I say about placing
him on a cross?
Monumentum sceleris audaciaeque suae voluit esse in conspectu Italiae.
He wished to place a monument of his crime and daring in sight of Italy.
ad saxa et ad scopulos
to rocks and cliffs
67
Quid nunc in nostro sanguine tandem facere debemus?
What now finally ought we to do about our blood?
Salutis omnium ratio et veritas postulat.
account of safety of all and truth
demands
Omnes hoc loco cives Romani...vestram severitatem desiderant, vestram fidem implorant,
vestrum auxilium requirunt.
In this place all Roman citizens desire your severity, beg your faith, need your aid.
Magno tuo periculo peccabitur in hoc iudicio, maiore quam putas.
68
In this court it will be sinned at great price, greater than you think.
Longe alia mihi lege in hac civitate et condicione vivendum est. Venit mihi in mentem M.
Catonis, hominis
70
sapientissimi et vigilantissimi.
Life must be lived in a far different law in this state and rule. I recall Cato, a very wise
and watchful man.
Ad summam senectutem summa cum gloria vixit. He lived to highest old age in highest
glory.
Haec eadem est nostrae rationis regio et via, horum nos hominum sectam atque instituta
persequimur.
This is the same region and road of our plan, we follow the path and rules of these men.
Et si me in hoc reo, quem mihi inimicum Siculi dederunt, satis vehementem, satis
perseverantem, satis vigilantem esse cognorunt, existiment in iis hominibus quorum ego
inimicitias populi Romani salutis causa suscepero multo graviorem
atque acriorem
futurum.
71
And if in the case of this defendant, whom the Sicilians gave to me as enemy, they find that
I have shown enough vigor, enough persistence, enough vigilance, let them realize that in the
case of those men whose animosity I have accepted for the safety of the Roman people, I will
strive to be even more severe and fierce.
Nunc te, Iuppiter Optime Maxime...teque, Iuno Regina...teque, Minerva...teque, Latona et
Apollo et Diana...teque,
Mercuri...teque, Hercules...teque, Ceres et Libera...vos
etiam atque etiam imploro et appello.
72
I implore and call upon you Jupiter best and greatest, you Queen Juno, you Minerva, you
Latona, Apollo, and Diana, you Mercury, you Hercules, you Ceres and Proserpina.
facinora sceleris, audaciae, perfidiae, libidinis, avaritiae, crudelitatis
misdeeds of crime, daring, treachery, lust, greed, cruelty
mihique posthac bonos potius defendere liceat quam improbos accusare necesse sit
and I may be permitted after this to defend good citizens rather than to accuse the bad
from Cicero's Pro P. Quinctio:
summa gratia et eloquentia
highest influence and eloquence
1
contra vim et gratiam
against force and influence
homines disertissimos, fortissimos, florentissimos nostrae civitatis
2
very eloquent, very brave, very flowering men of our state
falsum crimen
false crime
praetoris iniquitate et iniuria
by injustice and insult of praetor
in tuam...fidem, veritatem, misericordiam
to your faith, truth, pity
Erat ei pecuaria res ampla et rustica sane bene culta et fructuosa.
3
He had a fine ranch, cultivated and fruitful.
Fit magna mutatio loci, non ingeni.
change of place, not talent
De communi quodcumque poterat ad se in privatam domum sevocabat.
From the common he was removing to his own house whatever he could.
Praeteribo.
I'll pass it by.
quas libidine, non ratione gesserat, moritur in Gallia Quinctius
4
which he had done by lust, not reason, Quinctius died in Gaul
Nam P. Quincti consobrinam habet in matrimonio Naevius et ex ea liberos.
For Naevius married the cousin of P. Quinctius and from her had children.
Romam proficiscitur.
He set out for Rome.
in ipso articulo temporis
in the very joint of time
5
Destitutione illa perculsus
driven into poverty
in vadimonium
to his inheritance
Proficiscitur; Roma egreditur.
He set out; he left Rome.
6
Quinctius interea contra ius, consuetudinem, edicta praetorum de saltu agroque communi a
servis communibus vi
detruditur.
Against law, custom, edicts of the praetor Quinctius is driven by force from the common
field by common slaves.
expulsus atque eiectus praedio
expelled and driven from his reward
Venit Romam Quinctius, vadimonium sistit.
went to Rome, took inheritance
8
Conturbatus sane discedit Quinctius.
Disturbed Quinctius left.
9
non de re pecuniaria, sed de fama fortunisque
not about money, but
reputation
converti ad perniciem
turned to danger
Negamus te bona P. Quincti, Sex. Naevi, possedisse ex edicto praetoris.
10
We deny that you gained possssion of the property of Quinctius and Naevius from the
praetor's decree.
Non fuit causa cur postularet.
no cause why he should demand
11
non pecuniam modo verum etiam hominis propinqui sanguinem vitamque eripere conatur?
He tried to take away not only money but blood of a neighbor?.
homo timidus virginali verecundia
fearful man with chaste modesty
cum hominem nomino, satis mihi videor dicere.
When I name the man, I seem to say
enough.
12
Pecuniam petit.
He asked for money.
13
Pecunia mea tot annos igitur P. Quinctius.
used my money so many years
Immo...abs te satis accipiam. Ego autem tibi satis non dabo.
14
Rather I shall take enough from you. I however will not give you enough.
Fateatur se non pecuniam sed vitam et sanguinem petere.
Let him admit that he seeks not money but life and blood.
Nihil igitur debuit, ut tu ipse praedicas.
He owed nothing, as you admit.
Quod tantum evenire dedecus, quae tanta calamitas inveniri potest?
15
What such great crime can happen, what such disaster be found?
Mors honesta saepe vitam quoque turpem exornat. Honorable death decorates a base
life.
ut carnifices a reliquias vitae lacerandus
as butchers to pierce the remains of
life
vi ac necessitate
by force and need
16
Ad vadimonium non venit. Quis? Propinquus.
ius amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis
law of friendship, alliance, relation
fortunas funditus evertere
to totally overturn fortune
controversia de re pecuniaria recens
recent dispute about money
17
Quo te nomine appellemus?
By what name should we call you?
18
Audacem, cupidum, perfidiosum?
daring, greedy, treacherous?
Vixit enim semper inculte atque horride; natura tristi ac recondita fuit.
For he always lived wild; he was of sad and hidden character.
cupiditati crudelitatique
to lust and cruelty
Quid aliud sit absentem defendi ego non intellego. how defend absent?
19
ne quid atrocius in P. Quinctium absentem sine causa facere conetur
21
lest anything worse happen to P. Quinctius in his absence
Nihil ad me attinet.
Nothing pertains to me.
22.
Haec est iniqua certatio.
This is an unfair dispute.
Unus fuit, adfinis, socius, necessarius.
one relative, ally, friend
23
Ubi erant ceteri creditores?
where the other creditors?
Emisti bona Sex. Alfeni L. Sulla dictatore vendente; socium tibi in his bonis edidisti
Quinctium. Plura non dico. 24
You bought the goods of Alfenus with Sulla the dictator selling. You named Quinctius as
ally in these sales. More I shall not say.
artifex eius modi ut solus videatur dignus esse qui in scaena spectetur
25
actor of the sort that only he was worthy to be seen on stage
O hominem fortunatum qui eius modi nuntios seu potius Pegasos habeat!
O fortunate man who would have messengers of this type or rather Pegasi!
alterum incredibile est, alterum nefarium
one incredibile, other evil
26
non vim, non scelus, non latrocinium
not force, crime, robbery
Redeamus ad edictum.
Let us return to the edict.
27
Reliquum est ut eum nemo iudicio defenderit.
left that no one defend him
28
Bona possessa non esse constitui.
goods were not possessed
29
per senetutem ac solitudinem suam
through his old age and loneliness
30
Non opibus, non facultate contendit.
not compete with wealth or chance
Miserum est exturbari fortunis omnibus, miserius est iniuria.
31
It is wretched to be deprived of all fortune, worse is the insult.
From Cicero's Pro Q. Roscio Comoedo:
malitiam naturae
natural evil
1
manum plenam perfidiae
hand full of treachery
Haec sunt menstrua, illae sunt aeternae.
these monthly, those eternal
2
tali fide, virtute, gravitate, auctoritate ornatus
endowed with trust,
virtue
3
Erubescit, quid respondeat nescit.
blushed, not know what to
answer
Magnum est quod conor, diffiile est quod polliceor.
great try, tough promise
Itaque alter causae confidit, alter diffidit.
one trusted cause, other
mistrusted
4
Quis in hanc rem fuit arbiter? Utinam is quidem Romae esset! Romae est. Utinam
adesset in iudicio! Adest. Utinam sederet in consilio C. Pisonis! Ipse C. Piso est. Eundemne
tu arbitrum et iudicem sumebas?
Who was judge in ths matter? Would that he were here in Rome! He is in Rome. Would
that he were present in the court! He is. Would that he were sitting in the council of Piso!
He is Piso. Were you taking the same arbiter and judge?
Stipulatus es--ubi, quo die, quo tempore, quo praesente? Quis spopondisse me
5
dicit? Nemo. You agreed--where, on what day, in whose presence? Who said that I
promised? No one.
Pecuniam petis, Fanni, a Roscio.
Fannius, you ask money from
Roscius
6
fiduciae, tutelae, socitatis
of trust, tutelage, alliance
ita dignissimus est scaena propter artificium ut dignissimus sit curia propter abstinentiam
so very worthy of the stage because of skill that he is worthy of the senate beause of
restraint
Fraudavit Roscius. Est hoc quidem auribus animisque omnium absurdum.
7
Roscius cheated. absurd to the ears and mind of all.
Balionem illum improbissimum et periurissimum leonem that most wicked and lying
pimp Ballio
Probus improbum, pudens impudentem, periurium castus, callidum imperitus, liberalis
avidum?
Honest defrauded wicked, careful incautious, lying clean, inexperienced skilled, casual
avid?
Egebat? Immo locuples erat.
in need? rather,
wealthy
8
Et illa fuit pecunia immanis, haec parvola, illa honesta, haec sordida, illa iucunda, haec
acerba, illa propria.
That was much money, this a little bit, that honorable, this dirty, that pleasant, this bitter,
that proper.
Iudicio gravi experiri nolebas?
You don't want to be
tried in severe judgment?
9
Dic enim, tabulas habes an non?
Say, do you have records or
not?
Quid erat enim Fanni? Corpus. Quid Rosci? Disciplina. For what of Fannius? A
body. Of Roscius? Order. 10
Sic est volgus; ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa aestimat.
Thus the crowd; from truth they judge little, from opinion much.
Sciebat. Nesciebat Fannium Roscio esse socium.
Knew. not know Fannius ally
of Roscius
12
Quis est huius restipulationis scriptor, testis, arbiterque? Tu, Piso.
13
Who is the writer, witnss, and arbiter of this restatement? You, Piso.
Si alia de causa, quae ratio tibi cum eo intercesserat? Nulla.
14
If about another cause, what reason had intervened for you with him? None.
At ego hoc ex contrario contendo: levior esset auctoritas Cluvi, si diceret iuratus, quam
nunc est, cum dicit iniuratus.
But I claim the opposite: less would be the authority of Cluvius if he spoke sworn than it is
now when he speaks
unsworn.
16
Quem hominem? levem? Immo gravissimum. Mobilem? Immo contantissimum.
Familiarem? Immo alienissimum.
What kind of man? Fickle? Rather very serious. Flighty? Rather rock steady.
Familiar? Rather most alienated.
Quo nihil captiosus neque indignius potest dici.
Nothing more captious nor
unworthy can be said. 17
Simillima enim et maxime gemina societas hereditatis est.
18
A society of inheritance is very similar and especially twinned.
From Cicero's De Lege Agraria Prima:
praedam, manubias...xviri vendent.
frag
consilia siccorum an vinolentorum somnia
ten men sold loot, spoils
assassin's plans or drunks'
dreams
1
impurus heluo
filthy phantom
auctionem publicorum bonorum
auction of public goods
Persequitur in tabulis censoriis totam Siciliam.
goes over all Sicily with
censor's list
2
agrum optimum et fructuossimum Corinthium
best and grain-producing
field
Sunt tamen in tota lege exceptiones duae non tam iniquae quam suspiciosae.
4
In the entire law there are two exceptions not so much unjust as suspicious.
Provincias, civitates liberas, socios, amicos, reges denique exhauriunt, admovent manus
vectigalibus populi Romani.
Provinces, free cities, allies, friends, kings they finally exhaust; they move against the
revenues of the Roman people.
Non est satis.
That is not enough.
Sed cui manubias remittit, in huius vectigalia invadit.
But to whom he
remitted spoils, he attacked their revenue.
Optime. Quis ergo emet agros istos? Idem xviri.
5
Very well. Who will buy those fields? The same ten men.
Cavet enim vir optimus ne emat ab invito.
Good man takes care not to buy from
an unwilling person.
Deducentur coloniae. Quot? Quorum hominum? In quae loca?
Colonies will be formed. How many? Of what men? In what places?
Capuam deducti coloni volunt.
want farmers led to Capua
6
Locus propter ubertatem agrorum abundantiamque rerum omnium superbiam et
crudelitatem genuisse dicitur.
Because of the fertility of its fields and the abundance of all things this place is said to have
produced pride and cruelty.
Si luxuries, Hannibalem ipsum Capua corrupit.
If luxuries, Capua corrupted
Hannibal himself.
De periculo salutis ac libertatis loquor.
I speak of danger to safety
and liberty.
Lacesso vos, in contionem voco.
I challenge you, I call you to a
meeting.
Spem improbis ostenditis, timorem bonis iniecistis, fidem de foro, dignitatem de re publica
sustulistis.
8
You offer hope to the base, cast fear upon the good, remove trust from the forum and
dignity from the country.
Conspirate nobiscum, consentite cum bonis.
Breathe with us, join the
good.
9
Multa sunt occulta rei publica volnera, multa nefariorum civium perniciosa consilia.
Many wounds of our country are hidden, many dangerous plans of evil citizens.
From Cicero's De Lege Agraria Secunda:
certa ratio et moderatioque dicendi
sure manner of speaking
1
primum hominem novum consulem fecistis
you made a new man consul
novus ante me nemo
no new man before me
una vox universi populi Romani populi declaravit one voice of the Roman people
declared me consul 2
non et in hoc magistratu et in omni vita esse popularis
3
not to be of popular party in this office or in all my life
Dixi in senatu in hoc magistratu me popularem consulem futurum.
4
Quid tam populare quam libertas?
what so popular as freedom?
Quid tam populare quam otium?
what so popular as leisure?
Nam vere dicam, Quirites, genus ipsum legis agrariae vituperare non possum.
5
For I shall speak truly, fellow citizens, I cannot denounce that sort of agrarian law.
mihi designato consuli nuntiabatur legem agrariam tribunos plebis designatos consribere
to me as consul designate it was announced that the tribune designates were proposing an
agrarian law
ne forte mea sedulitas aut insidiosa aut impudens videretur
lest my persistence seem treacherous or brash
Contio exspectatur P. Rulli.
Rullus' assembly awaited
Legem hominis contionemque exspectabam.
I was awaiting the man's law and
assembly,
Lex in publicum proponitur.
A law is proposed in public.
Non potestatum dissimilitudo, sed animorum disiunctio dissnsionem facit.
6
Not unlike powers, but disunity of minds creates disunity.
x reges aerari, vectigalium, provinciarum omnium ten kings of money and provinces
hac lege agraria pulchra atque populari
by this beautiful and popular
agrarian lsw
Primum caput est legis agrariae.
first heading with farm law
7
Iubet enim tribunum plebis qui eam legem tulerit creare xviros per tribus xvii.
It orders the tribune of the people who carried the law to choose ten men through seventeen
tribes.
ad usurpandam libertatem
to usurp liberty
Non fuit consilium.
Advice does not fail.
8
Iubet Rullus, homo non cupidus neque appetens.
Rullus, a man neither greedy nor
seeking, orders.
Sortietur tribus idem Rullus.
That same Rullus will assign the
tribes.
Quis legem tulit? Rullus. Quis maiorem partem populi suffragiis prohibuit? Rullus.
Quis comitiis praefuit, quis tribus
quas voluit vocavit nullo custode sortitus, quis xviros quos
voluit creavit?
Idem Rullus. Quem principem renuntiavit?
Rullum.
9
Who proposed the law? Rullus. Who denied a majority of the people the right to vote?
Rullus. Who took charge of the assembly, who called the tribes he wished, who cast lots with
no observer, who chose the ten men he wanted?
That same Rullus. Whih leader did he
renounce? Rullus.
reus non excipitur; Cn. Pompeius excipitur.
Not the proposer, but Pompey is
bought forth.
libertatem vestram hac lege funditus tolli
your freedom totally overturned by
this law
10
pauci homines cupiditatis oculos adiecissent
few men cast eyes of lust
Cognoscite nunc quae potestas xviris et quanta detur.
Note what kind and
how much power is given.
Maiores de singulis magistratibus bis vos sententiam ferre voluerunt.
11
Our ancestors wished that you express your opinion twice about each magistracy.
Sed videte hominis religionem et diligentiam. Vidit et perspexit sine curiata lege xviros
potestatem habere non posse.
But see the religion and diligence of this man. He saw and wondered that without curial
law the ten men had no
power.
Videt sine lege curiata nihil agi per xviros posse. saw without law nothing done
Reges constituuntur, non xviri.
Kings are established, not ten men.
ad usurpationem vetustatis
to loss of charm
Deinde ornat apparitoribus, scribis, librariis, praeconibus, architectis.
13
Then he honors sribes, book sellers, heralds, architects.
Formam adhuc habetis, Quirites, et speciem ipsam tyrannorum; insignia videtis potestatis,
nondum ipsam potestatem.
To this time, fellow citizens, you have the appearance and form of tyrants; you see the
trappings of power, not yet the
power itself.
Perspicite quanta potestas permittatur.
See how much power is
permitted.
emere agros a quibus volent
to buy fields from whomever they will
want
colonias deducere novas, renovare veteres
to form new colonies, restore old
liberos populos agris multandi
to steal fields from free people
Cur hoc tam est obscurum atque caecum?
Why is this so obscure and hidden?
14
Magna potestas permittitur.
Great power is permitted.
Habetis unum venditionis genus quod magnum videri vobis intellego; sed attendite animos
ad ea quae consequuntur.
You have one type of sale which seems to be great to you; but turn your minds to the things
which follow. 15
totam Asiam...post L. Sullam
all Asia after Sulla
lege ac victoriae iure
by law and right of victory
16
Haec L. Philippum saepe in senatu confirmasse memoria teneo.
I remember that L. Philippus often confirmed these things in the senate.
Hac tanta de re P. Rullus cum ceteris xviris conlegis suis iudicabit, et utrum iudicabit?
About this great matter Rullus with the other board of ten will judge; whih way?
Volet esse popularis; populo Romano adiudicabit.
He will wish to be popular; he will judge for the Roman people.
per totum orbem terrarum
through the entire world
17
Est in imperio terror; patientur. Est in adventu sumptus; ferent.
There is terror in power; they will be endured. There is festivity in arrival; they will
endure.
luctuosam et acerbam praedicationem futuram
will be grievous prediction
18
Nihil est in hac provincia quod aut in oppidis aut in agris maiores nostri proprium nobis
reliquerunt quin id venire
iubeat.
There is nothing in this province which either in the towns or in the fields our ancestors left
for us as our own but that
he ordered us to come.
Maiores vobis in sociorum urbibus ac finibus et vinculum pacis et monumentum belli
reliquerunt.
Our ancestors left for you in the cities of our allies both the chain of peace and the
monument of war.
non legibus datis, non auditis verbis imperatoris, nondum denique bello confecto
19
laws not given, general's words not heard, finally the war not yet finished
An Pompeium non adhibebit? In eius provincia vendet manubias imperatoris?
20
Will he not support Pompey? In his province he will sell the spoils of the commander?
O perturbabtam rationem, o libidinem effrenatam, o consilia dissoluta atque perdita!
O disturbed reason, o unchecked lust, o dissolute and ruined plans!
omnis agros extra Italiam
all fields outside Italy
21
aurum, argentum ex praeda, ex manubiis, ex coronario
22
gold, silver from loot, from spoils, from crowns
de clarissimis viris qui populi Romani bella gesesrunt
about famous men who waged the wars of the Roman people
Remittit hoc Rullo Cn. Pompeius.
Pompey sent this to Rullus.
23
Parta sit pecunia xviris tanta quanta sit in terris.
So much money has been given to the ten men as is on earth.
Hac pecunia iubet agros emi quo ducamini. Non consuevi homines appellare asperius nisi
lacessitus.
24
With this money he orders fields to be bought where we are led. I am not acustomed to
label men more harshly unless
injured.
Iubet agros emi.
He orders fields bought.
25
Qui possit arari aut coli?
How can it be plowed or tilled?
Sed videte vim legis agrariae.
See the force of farm laws.
26
Haec lex eos homines fortunis loupletat, invidia liberat.
This law enriches men with fortunes, frees them from envy.
Sullanis oneribus gravi
heavy with Sullan burdens
Alterum genus agrorum propter sterilitatem incultum, propter pestilentiam vastum atque
desertum emetur.
Another type of field will be purchased, untilled because of sterility, devastated and
deserted beause of disease.
Retinete istam possessionem gratiae, libertatis, suffragiorum, dignitatis, urbis, fori,
ludorum.
27
Keep this possession of influence, freedom, voting, dignity, city, forum, games.
Atque in hos agros qui hac lege empti sint colonias ab his xviris deduci iubet.
And into these fields which were purchased by this law he orders colonies to be led down
by the ten men.
totam Italiam suis praesidiis obsidere atque occupare
28
to besiege and occupy all Italy with his own garrisons
Num obscure maiores opes quam libertas vestra pati potest?Can greater wealth be sought
than your freedom?
de commodo prius vestro dicam.
I shall talk about your advantage.
At qui homines possidebunt?
But what men will possess?
29
ut privatos agros...pecunia publica coemeret
to sell private lands with public
money
30
Cetera vectiglia belli difficultatibus adfliguntur.
Other revenues wasted in diffiulties
of war.
illi miseri nati in illis agris et educati
born and raised in those fields
31
Hunc agrum patres nostri acceptum a patribus suis perdiderunt.
Our ancestors destroyed this field received from their fathers.
Carthaginem, Corinthum, Capuam statuerunt posse imperi gravitatem ac nomen sustinere.
Deleta Carthago
est...Corinthi vestigium vix relictum est.
32
Our ancestors decided to uphold Carhtage, Corinth, Capua because of their power and
name. Then Carthage was destroyed. Scarcely a trace of Corinth remains.
Nihil enim supererat de quo certarent, nihil quod contra peterent, nihil ubi dissiderent.
33
Nothing remained over which to fight, nothing to seek against, nothinmg where they might
dispute.
Carthaginienses fraudulenti et mendaces non genere sed natura loci
35
Carthaginians cheats and liars not by race but by place
singularis homo privatus, nisi magna sapientia praeditus...in domicilio superbiae atque in
sedibus luxuriosis
noteworthy private citizen, if not endowed with great wisdom...in a house of pride and in
opulent places
pro vestra stultitia atque intemperantia
for your stupidity and
unrestraint
36
non in cunabulis sed in campo consules facti
made consuls not in cradles but in
fields
Ego is consul qui contionem metuam, qui tribunum plebis perhorrescam?
37
I that consul who fears a gathering, who fears a tribune of the people?
Etnim illis honores, potestates, divitiae ex tumultu atque ex dissensionibus civium
comparari solent.
Indeed for them honors, powers, riches are gathered from the uproar and disputes of
citizens.
From Cicero's De Lege Agraria Tertia:
aequitatem vestrae discerpationis et consuetudinem superiorum et ius suae potestatis
1
fairness of your thinking, custom of your ancestors, and law of power
hac lege agraria quae promulgata est adimi Sullanos agros vobisque dividi
by this farm law which has been proposed the Sullan fields are purchased and divided for
you
rei publicae cicatricem
scar on the country
2
iniquissimam dissimilimamque legis
most unjust and unlike law
Hic rei publicae tyrannum lege constituit.
He formed a tyranny by law.
Si enim Sullam dictatorem nominasset, perspicuum fore et invidiosum arbitratus est.
If he had nominated Sulla dictator, he realized that he would be hated.
Etiamne melior quam paterna et avita? Melior.
Better than by family? Better.
Libera meliore iure sunt quam serva.
They are free by a better law than
slave.
Patior. Audio.
I permit it. I hear.
3
ius civile
civil law
Hos defendit, hos privatos facit.
He defends them and makes them
private.
Nam socer huius viri multum bonus est; neque ego nunc de illius bonitate, sed de generi
impudentia disputo.
For his father-in-law is very good; I do not argue about his goodness, but about the
impudence of his son-in-law.
Habet publicos; reddam privatos.
He has public fields; let him return
the private ones.
4
Silvam Santiam vendis; populus Romanus possidet; defendo.
You sell the fields, the Roman people own them, I defend them.
Exercitus contra vos, contra libertatem vestram, contra Cn. Pompeium constituitur; contra
hanc urbem Capuam, contra vos manus hominum audacissimorum , contra Cn. Pompeium x
duces comparantur.
Against you, against your liberty, against Pompey an army is being formed; against this
city Capua, against you a
band of very bold men is prepared, against Pompey ten leaers.
From Cicero's In L. Calpurnium Pisonem Oratio:
monstrum urbis, prodigium civitatis
city monster, state prodigy
frag
turbulenti, seditiosi, factiosi, perniciosi
muddy, rebelious, partisan, diseased
quae et beluam ex utero, non hominem fudit
who poured forth a beast, not a man
from her womb
Pauci ista tua lutulenta vitia noramus.
We few know your muddy
vices.
1
aut militiae aut domi
in war or at home
Noti erant illi mortui.
The dead were known to him.
cum hac peste atque labe
with this pest and disease
Sit sane Fors domina campi.
Let chance be mistress of the field.
2
Ego provinciam Galliam ...in contione deposui.
I restored Gaul in assembly.
L. Catilinam...egredi ex urbe iussi.
I ordered Catiline to leave the city.
Ego faces iam accensas ad huius urbis incendium comprehendi, protuli, exstinxi.
I siezed and put out fires lit against this city.
Me Q. Catulus, princeps huius ordinis et auctor publici consili, frequentissimo senatu
parentem patriae nominavit. 3
Catulus, the leader of this order and promoter of public advice, in a packed senate named
me parent of the country.
Iuravi rem publicam atque hanc urbem mea unius opera esse salvam.
I swore that the country and city were safe by work of one man.
Exposui breviter consulatum meum.
I have explained in short my term.
Facio iniuriam fortissimo viro mortuo.
I injure a brave dead man.
4
Sex. Clodium...hominem impurum ac non modo facie sed etiam oculo tuo dignissimum
Clodius, an impure man most unworthy of not only your face but your eye
propugnacula murique tranquilitatis atque oti
bastion and wall of peace and
leisure
in naufragiis civitatis
in shipwreck of country
Ipse perniciosis legibus, improbis contionibus rem publicam vexet.
5
He bothers the country with lethal laws and evil meetings.
O carnifex!
O butcher!
dilectus servorum habebatur
held a levy of slaves
caenum
filth
6
e gurgustio
from banquet
in illo ganearum tuarum nidore atque fumo
in sweat and smoke of your gambles
tum turpissime ructando eiecisti
most foully threw out by belching
Hic te ille homo dignissimus tuis laudibus conlaudavit. Crudelitatis tu, furcifer, senatum
consul in contione
condemnas?
7
Here that man most worthy of your praises praised you. Butcher, do you as consul
condemn the senate in a meeting?
Quae enim L. Catilinam conantem consul prohibui, ea P. Clodium facientem consules
adiuverunt.
What I as consul prevented Catiline from doing you as consuls aided Clodius.
Caedem illi civium, vos servitutem expetistis.
They sought the death of
citizens, you slavery.
mori potius quam servire
to die rather tham be a slave
Quod me domo mea expulistis, Cn. Pompium domum suam compulistis.
Because you drove me from my house, you drove me to Pompey's house.
ex tenebricosa popina...cum illa saltatrice tonsa
from dirty bar with shaved dancer
8
cum illo bustuario gladiatore
with solid gladiator
9
Quod mihi igitur certamen esset huius modi?
What fight of this sort for me?
cum altero barbato Epicuro, cum altero Catilinae lanternario consule
with one consul a bearded Epicurus, the other the torch-bearer of Catiline
qui in maximis turbinibus ac fluctibus rei publicae navem gubernassem salvamque in portu
conlocassem
who in the greatest gusts and waves guided the ship of state and safely placed it in harbor
Alios ego vidi ventos, alias prospexi animo procellas.
I saw some winds, I foresaw
other storms.
cantu et cymbalis
with singing and cymbals
10
cum ipse nudus in convivio saltaret
when he danced naked in banquet
fortunae rotam
wheel of fortune
Nemo potest dicere utrum iste plus biberit an vomuerit an effuderit.
No one can say whether he drank or vomited more.
Clodiane canis
Clodian canine
consilio, gravitate, vigilantia, cura
by plans, weight, watch, care
Viri boni lapidibus e foro pellerentur.
Good men were driven from the
forum with stones.
Qui latrones igitur, si quidem vos consules, qui praedones, qui hostes, qui proditores, qui
tyranni nominabuntur?
Except you consuls, who indeed will be called robbers, pirates, traitors, tyrants?
Magnum nomen est, magna species, magna dignitas, magna maiestas consulis.
11
Great is the name, appearance, dignity, and majesty of a consul.
Erant illi compti capilli et madentes cincinnorum fimbriae et fluentes purpurissatae buccae,
dignae Capua.
He had oiled hair and borders dripping of cinnamon and purple flowing cheeks worthy of
Capua.
contra latrocinium tuum
against your robbery
An tum eras consul cum in Palatio mea domus ardebat non casu aliquo sed ignibus
iniectis instigante te?
But weren't you consul when my house burned on the Palatine not by chance but by fires
encouraged by you?
Erat ipse sceleratus, erat gladiator.
He was a wicked gladiator.
12
Quae lex privatis hominibus esse lex non videbatur. Law for private men seems not to be a
law.
13
ut hostes aut proditores
as enemies or traitors
semiviri
half man
14
Ad meam unius hominis salutem senatus auxilium omnium civium cuncta ex Italia qui rem
publicam salvam esse
vellent consulis voce et litteris implorandum putavit.
15
To the safety of one man, namely me, the senate thought that the aid of all citizens
throughout Italy who sought the
safety of the country should be implored.
Mei capitis conservandi causa Romam uno tempore quasi signo dato Italia tota convenit.
To save my life at one time as if by signal all Italy gathered in Rome.
praeter unum praetorem
except one praetor
Confer nunc, Epicure noster ex hara producte non ex schola, confer, si audes, absentiam
tuam cum mea.
16
Our Epicurus taken from the product, not the school, compare, if you dare, our absence
with yours.
Quas res gessisti imperio, exercitu, provincia consulari?
What did you do with your power, army, and consular province?
Nondum commemmoro rapinas, non exactas pecunias, non captas, non imperatas, non
neces sociorum, non caedis hospitum, non perfidiam, non immanitatem, non scelera praedico.
Not yet do I recall your rapes, thefts, killings, treachery, inhumanity, crimes.
Mox...ut cum fure, ut cum sacrilego, ut cum sicario disputo.
Soon I dispute with a thief, an unholy one, an assassin.
volturius illius provinciae
vulture of this province
non laudi et gloriae
not for praise and glory
17
geminae voragines scopulique
twin whirlpools and cliffs
18
Verum audis in praesepibus, audis in stupris, audis in cibo et vino.
Indeed you hear in hedges, you hear in drunkenness, you hear in food and wine.
in Phalaridis tauro
in the bull of Phalaris
suscepta fraus, impedita et oppressa mens, bonorum odium
fraud ommitted, hindered and overwhelmed mind, hatred of the good
resectis palpebris
eyebrows torn out
19
Fortunae enim ista tela sunt non culpae.
Those weapons of Fortune are not at
fault.
saxa spargens tabo, sanie, et sanguine atro
throwing rocks with disease, gore,
and blood
In fortuna quadam est illa mors non in poena putanda. Quae est igitur poena, quod
supplicium, quae saxa, quae cruces?
In some fortune that death should not be regarded as a punishmnt. What therefore is the
punishment, what the
torture, what the rocks, what the crosses?
His ego rebus pascor, his delector, his perfruor
20
I feed upon these things, I am delighted by them, I enjoy them.
in mentem furorem et insaniam
in raging mind and insanity
ut in scaena videtis
as you see on the stage
se ipsum exercitum...numen...vendidit
He sold army and power.
21
Praebuit se mercenarium comitem regi Alexandrino.
He offered himself as mercenary companion to the Egyptian king.
Mitto exire de provincia, educere exercitum, bellum sua sponte gerere.
I omit that he left his province, led out an army, waged war on his own accord.
de reditu Gabini omittamus.
Let us not mention Gabinius' return.
22
Habes reditum meum.
You have my return.
Quae deverticula flexionesque quaesisti?
What turns and twists do you seek?
nox erat pro die, solitudo pro frequentia, caupona pro oppido
night for day,
solitude for a crowd, inn for town
Togulae lictoribus ad portam praesto fuerunt.
23
At audistis, patres conscripti, philosophi vocem.
You heard the voice of philosophy.
24
O amentem Paulum, rusticum Marium!
O mad Paulus, o hick Marius!
Fertur ille vir, mihi crede, gloria; flagrat, ardet cupiditate iusti et magni triumphi. Non
didicit eadem ista quae tu.
That man is moved by glory, believe me. He rages, burns with lust for a just and great
triumph. He has not learned
ths same things as you.
25
delectamenta paene puerorum
delight of almost boys
O tenebrae, o lutum, o sordes, o paterni generis oblite, materni vix memor!
26
O shadows, o mud, o forgetful of father's line, scarcely remembering mother's!
os tuum ferreum
your irom mouth
Senatus odit te.
The senate hates you.
27
per latrones et per servos
through robbers and slaves
da te populo, committe ludis. Sibilum metuis? Ubi sunt vestrae scholae? Ne acclametur
times?
Give yourself to the people. Commit yourself to school. You fear hissing? Where are
your schools? You fear to be
acclaimed?
cum P. Clodio
with Clodius
Nam quod vobis iste tantum modo improbus, crudelis, olim furunculus, nunc vero etiam
rapax, quod sordidus, quod contumax, quod superbus, quod fallax, quod perfidiosus, quod
impudens, quod audax esse videatur, nihil scitote esse
luxuriosius, nihil libiinosius, nihil
protervius, nihil nequius.
For because he seemed to you to be not only wicked, cruel, once a thief, now indeed also
greedy, sordid, stubborn,
haughty, deceitful, treacherous, impudent, bold, now know that
nothing is more extravagant, lustful, forward,
worthless.
exstructa mensa non conchyliis aut piscibus sed multa carne subrancida
a dinner made not from oysters and fish but from much half-rancid meat
panis et vinum a propola atque de cupa
bread and wine from tray and cup
non illa tibi invidia nocuit sed versus tui
not envy but your poems hurt
29
Haec res tibi fluctus illos excitavit.
These aroused those waves.
Quid nunc te, asine, litteras doceam? Non opus est verbis, sed fustibus.
Ass, what now shoud I teach you about letters? There is no need of words, but rather
clubs.
vestrae fraudes, vestrum scelus, vestrae criminationes insidiarum mearum
31
your deceits, your crime, your manipulations of my plots
Ego C. Caesarem non eadem de re publica sensisse quae me scio.
32
I know that Caesar has not thought the same as I about our country.
in certamen
in dispute
Quid loquar plura?
Why should I say more?
socium sibi et adiutorem C. Caesarem
his ally and aide Caesar
totis volutationibus corporis
with all twistings of the body
34
cum miser ille securibus hospitis sui cervices subicere gestiret
when that wretched man itched to strike the neck of his guest with an ax
Tua scelera di immortales in nostros milites expiaverunt.
35
The immortal gods reject your crimes against our soldiers.
in sinu pacis
in the lap of peace
37
non ambitio ad gratiam, non iniquitas ad aemulationem
39
not ambition for thanks, non injustice for rivalry
L. Opimius iectus est e patria.
Opimius was expelled from his
country.
Omnes memoriam consulatus tui, fata, mores, faciem denique ac nomen a re publica
detestantur.
40
All detest the memory of your consulship, deeds, habits, appearance and finally name from
the country.
depeculatorem, vexatorem, praedonem, hostem
crook, torment, robber, enemy
uberrima supplicationibus triumphisque provincia province rich in triumphs
Numquam ego sanguinem expetivi tuum.
I never sought your blood.
41
Adulantem omnis videre te volui; vidi.
I want to see you praised; I saw.
From Cicero's Pro C. Rabirio Postumo Oratio:
similia parva mgnis
small things similar to large
2
Multa gessit, multa contraxit.
He did many things, arranged much.
Is in regnum restitueretur a senatu populoque Romano.
He will be restored to his kingdom by the senate and Roman people.
Corruptores nostri causam dicunt; nos qui corrupti sumus non dicimus? Quid ergo?
3
Our corrupt plead their own case. We who have been corrupt do not speak? What thus?
Quod si creditor est in culpa, non is qui improbe credita pecunia usus est, damnetur is qui
fabricatus gladium est et
vendidit, non is qui illo gladio civem aliquem interemit.
But if the lender is at fault, not he who wickedly used the lent money, rather he is
condemned who made and sold the sword, not he who killed with his sword another civilian.
Hoc vero novum et ante hoc tempus omnino inauditum.
4
This indeed new and totally unheard of before this time.
In litibus dico...Qua lege?
In courts I speak..by what law?
5
Quibus tabulis?
On what tablets?
Potestis tollere e civitate quem voltis.
You can take from the state whom you
wish.
Huic ordini ignem novum subici non sivistis.
not allow fire to this order
6
Serpet hoc malum, mihi credite, longius quam putatis.
Believe me, this evil creeps
farther than you think.
Moneo ne faciatis. Rapientur homines in haec iudicia ex omni non modo invidia sed
sermone malivorum.
7
I warn you not to do this. Men will be grabbed in these judgments from not only envy but
also the speech of evil men.
Cn. Pompei auctoritas
the authority of Pompey
8
rei publicae causa
for the sake of the state
Tu inimicus negas.
As an enemy you deny.
Redeo igitur ad crimen et accusationem tuam.
I return to your crime and
charge.
At diocetes fuit regius.
But he was the kingly
procurator.
in maximis periculis insidiisque
in greatest dangers and plots
9
Oderat vestitum etiam illum, sed sine eo nec nomen illud poterat nec munus tueri.
10
He hated him clothed, yet without him neither name nor duty was able to be guarded.
At ex hoc ipso crimen exoritur.
From this very thing crime arose.
11
At erunt testes legati Alexandrini. Ei nihil in Gabinium dixerunt; immo et Gabinium
laudaverunt.
But the Alexandrian envoys will be witnesses. They have said nothing against Gabinius,
rather praised Gabinius.
Neque me vero paenitet mortalis inimicitias, sempiternas amicitias habere.
12
I am not sorry to have mortal animosities, eternal friendships.
Non violabam Pompeium.
I was not wronging Pompey.
Nec mihi longius quicquam est quam videre hominum voltus.
Nothing is longer for me than to see the face of men.
Nunc vero quid agitur? Ubi terrarum sumus? Quid tam perversum, tam praeposterum
dici aut excogitari potest?
13
Now indeed what is done? Where on earth are we? What so perverse, so absurd can be
said or thought?
Novum genus hoc gloriae concupiscit.
He itches for this new type of glory.
14
Nudus atque egens ad extremum fugit e regno.
Naked and needy he fled to the far
end from his kingdom.
C. Caesaris liberalitas
generosity of Caesar
15
Nihil huic eripi potest praeter hoc simulacrum pristinae dignitatis quo Caesar solus tuetur
et sustinet.
Nothing can be taken from him except this appearance of past dignity which Caesar alone
watches and supports.
castris locum capere, exercitum instruere, expugnare urbis, aciem hostium profligare
to place a camp, to draw up an army, to besiege cities, to rout the enemy line
Sunt ea quidem magna. Quis negat?
These are great. Who denies?
qui immortalitatem concupiverit
who sought immortality
Haec vera laus est.
This is true praise.
16
si adventicia pecunia petitur ab eo cui sua non redditur
17
if foreign money is sought by him to whom his own is not returned
Reddam etiam lacrimas quas debeo.
I shall return the tears which I owe.
Versatur ante oculos luctuosa nox meis omnibus. Night grieving for all mine passes.
Bonitatis ipsius invidiam reformido.
I dread envy of goodness itself.
rectis oculis hanc urbem intueri
to gaze upon this city with right eyes
From Cicero's Oratio Cum Senatui Gratias Egit:
fratrem optatissimum
1
ille pestifer annus
2
defensorem salutis meae
most wished for brother
that disease-bearing year
defender of my safety
meus inimicus promulgavit
my enemy decreed
ex superioris anni caligine et tenebris
from the fog and shadows of the
previous year 3
Nihil vos civibus, nihil sociis, nihil regibus respondistis.
You answered nothing to the citizens, nothing to the allies, nothing to the kings.
cum ferro et facibus
with sword and torches
vulneratum ferro
wounded by sword
desperatione rei publiae
desperation of state
princeps P. Lentulus, parens et deus nostrae vitae Lentulus, parent and god of our life
4
de salute mea
about my safety
sapientissimo homine atque optimo civi et viro
wisest man and best citizen
non consules, sed mercatores
not consuls, but merchants
non consules, sed latrones
not consuls, but robbers
impuram intemperantiam
impure intemperance
5
Eegestatem et luxuriem domestico lenocinio sustenavit?
He supported his need and extravagance by domestic robbery.
Eegestate et improbitate coactus piraticam ipse fecisset.
Compelled by need and wrong, he had undertaken piracy.
ad lenonis impudicissimi pedes
to the feet of a most unchaste pimp
A latrone archipirata productus est.
From a robber a pirate was made.
6
vini somni stupri plenus, madenti coma...gravibus oculis
full of wine, sleep, revel, with dripping hair, with heavy eyes
Cur in lustris et helluationibus huius calamistrati saltatoris tam eximia virtus tam diu
cessavit?
Why in drunken revels of this mad dancer did such virtue for so long cease?
sine sensu, sine sapore, elinguem, tardum, inumanum negotium
without sense, without taste, speechless, inhuman work
captus uno verbo voluptatis
taken by one word of pleasure
Hi sunt conditores instructoresque convivi.
These are the founders and
instructors of the banquet.
non unguentorum odor, non vini anhelitus
not odor of perfume, not breath of
wine
7
Uno eodemque tempore domus mea diripiebatur, ardebat.
At one time my house was plundered, it was burned.
sceleratum civem aut domsticum hostem
wicked citizen and domestic enemy
8
contra vim et ferrum
against force and sword
mei temporis iniurias meminisse
to remember the insults of my time
9
Q. Metellus, inimicus et frater inimici
Metellus, enemy and brother
of enemy
10
Possum ego satis in Cn. Pompeium umquam gratus videri?
11
Can I seem kind enough to Pompey?
Quibus autem officiis T. Anni beneficia renumerabor?
12
By what acts shall I repay the favors of Annius?
unus frater...pietate filius, consiliis parens, amore frater
15
one brother, a son in respect, a parent in planning, in love a brother
summa virtute et pietate
highest virtue and duty
virtutem et fidem numquam amiserim
I never lost virtue and faith.
From Cicero's Oratio Cum Populo Gratias Egit:
vestro beneficio fruor
I enjoy your favor.
1
amicitiae, consuetudines, vicinitates, clientelae, ludi friendship, habits, neighbors, clients,
games
honos, dignitas, locus, ordo, beneficia vestra
honor, dignity, place, rank, favors
A parentibus...parvus sum procreatus, a vobis natus sum consularis.
2
By my parents I was formed small, by you I was made consul.
ut non solum calamitatem mihi detraxisse, sed etiam dignitatem auxisse videamini.
that you seem not only to have removed disaster from me, but also to have added to my
dignity
Mei inimici...corporibus civium trucidatis flumine sanguinis meum reditum intercluendum
putaverunt. 5
My enemies thought that they could prevent my return with the torturing of so many bodies
of citizens.
cum ferro et facibus
with sword and torches
6
Uno dissentiente, nullo intercedente, dignitatem meam...ornavit, salutem vobis municipiis
colonis omnibus
commendavit.
With one dissenting, with no veto, it decorated my dignity, it commended my safety to all
the colonies.
Cn. Pompeius, vir omnium virtute sapientia, gloria princeps...privato amico
7
Pompey, leader of all in virtue, wisdom, glory...a private friend
tanta consensione Italiae, tanto studio bonorum omnium
8
with such great unity of Italy, such great eagerness of all the good
Vidi ego fortissimum virum, municipem meum, C. Marium.
I saw the very brave man, my fellow municipal citizen, Marius.
in paludibus demersus concursu ac misericordia...corpus ac vitam suam conservaret
Plunged into the swamps he saved his body and life by flight and pity.
inimicos suos ultus est
He avenged his enemies.
armis...oratione, quoniam illi arti in bello a seditione locus est, huic in pace atque otio
by arms...speech, since there is a place in war and revolt for that art, for this art in peace
and leisure
me quattuor hominum genera violarunt
four types of men violated me
9
Quapropter memoriam vestri benefici colam benivolentia sempiterna.
10
Therefore I shall cherish the memory of your favor with eternal good will.
From Cicero's De Domo Sua:
dignitas, omnium civium salus, vita, libertas, arae, foci, di penates, bona, fortunae, domiilia
vestrae sapientiae
dignity, safety of all citizens, life, liberty, altars, firplaces, family gods, property, fortunes,
houses of our wisdom
ab aliis oppressa, ab aliis deserta, ab aliis prodita
by some crushed, by others deserted, by others betrayed
Respondebo hominis furiosi non orationi...sed convicio.
I shall answer not by speech of a raving madman but by.....
homine vesano ac furioso
mad and raging man
2
Nondum de mea sententia dico.
Not yet do I speak of my opinion.
Quis est Sergius? Armiger Catilinae, stipator tui corporis, signifer seditionis, concitator
tabernariorum, damnatus
iniuriarum, percussor, lapidator, fori depopulator, obssesor
curiae.
5
Who is Sergius? Armor-bearer of Catiline, filler of his body, source of rebellion, inciter
of tavern bums, condemned for injuries, drum-beater, stone-hurler, killer of the forum, besieger
of the curia.
Veni exspectatus.
I came awaited.
7
Improborum convicia sustinere non poteram.
I could not endure the taunts
of the wicked.
discessu...frugum inopia, fames, vastitas, caedes, incendia, rapinae, scelerum impunitas,
fuga, formido, discordia
at my departure...lack of crops, hunger, devastation, slaughter, fires, pillaging, crime
without punishment, flight, fear,
lack of harmony
reditu ubertas agrorum, frugum copia, spes oti, tranquillitas animorum, iudicia, leges,
concordia populi, senatus
auctoritas
on my return fertility of fields, abundance of crops, hope of leisure, calm minds, courts,
laws, harmony of the people, authority of the senate
extra ordinem
outside the order
8
extra ordinem bellum cum Mithridate Tigraneque gessit.
Outside the order he waged war with Mithridates and Tigranes.
de honore Catonis
about the honor to Cato
9
homini egentissimo et facinerosissimo, Sex. Clodio a most desperate and criminal man,
Clodius
10
Impendebat fames, incendia, caedes, direptio.
Hunger, fire, killing, plunder
loomed.
patricida, fratricida, sororicida
patricide, fratricide,
sororicide
imberbum adulescentulum
unbearded youth
14
Adest praesens vir, singulari virtute, constantia, gravitate praeditus, M. Bibulus..acta C.
Caesaris, viri fortissimi.
15
There is present a man of unique virtue, consistency, severity, Bibulus...the acts of Caesar,
a very brave man.
At ego hoc totum non sine causa relinquo.
I give this up with reason.
16
poenam in civis Romanos nominatim sine iudicio constitutam
17
a punishment determined against a Roman citizen without a trial
de eius capite, liberis, fortunis
about his life, children,
fortune
Velitis iubeatis ut M. Tullio aqua et igni interdicatur?
18
Do you wish to order that Cicero be excluded from water and fire?
O caenum, o portentum, o scelus!
O filth ..., o portent, o crime!
ille novicius Ligus, venalis adscriptor et subscriptor tuus
19
that rookie Ligus, writer for bribe and your personal writer
Domus ardebat in Palatio non fortuito.
My house was burning on the
Palatine by plan.
24
cum magna internicione improborum
with great slaughter of wicked
Eiciuntur duo...alter per honorem turpissimum, alter per honstissimam calamitatem.
25
Two are driven out, one through wicked honor, the other through honest disaster.
Postea fregit foedus Gabinius, Piso tamen in fide mansit.
Later Gabinius broke the treaty, Piso however remained in honor.
Sententia verior, gravior, melior, utilior rei publicae nulla esse potuit.
26
No opinion can be truer, more important, better, more useful for the state.
Summum est populi Romani populorumque et gentium omnium ac regum consilium
senatus.
28
The advice of the senate is the highest of the Roman people and all nations and kings.
Proximus est huic dignitati oro equester.
The knights are second to the senate.
ut nemo civis Romanus aut libertatem aut civitatem possit amittere.
29
that no Roman citizen can lose either freedom or citizenship
ut mihi aqua et igni interdiceretur
I be forbidden water or fire
31
tu unus pestifer civis
you the one disease-bearing citizen
32
O speciem dignitatemque populi Romani, quam reges, quam nationes exterae,
33
quam gentes ultimae pertimescant, multitudinem hominum ex servis, ex conductis, ex
facinerosis, ex egentibus
congregatam!
O sight and dignity of the Roman people, whom kings, foreign nations, farthest tribes fear,
a multitude of men
gathered from slaves, mercenaries, criminals, beggars!
Peccatine conscientia me profugisse?
awareness of fault made me flee
35
Iudicium populi pertimuisse?
feared judgment of people?
Bonorum mihi praesidium defuisse? Falsum est. Me mortem timuisse? Turpe est.
protection of property lacking for me? false. I fear death? Wrong to do so.
Accepi, pontifices, magnum atque incredibilem dolorem Priests, recognize the great
and incredible sorrow.
Privatus consulibus armatis cesserim.
As a private citizen I yielded to armed
consuls.
37
Publiusne Clodius, qui ex pontificis maximi domo religionem eripuit, is in meam intulit?
Clodius, who took religion from the priestís house, brought it to mine?
39
Aspicite, pontifices, hominem religiosum.
Priests, behold a religious man.
40
Civis est nemo tanto in populo, extra contaminatam illam et cruentam P. Clodi manum.
Every citizen is contaminated by the bloody hand of Clodius.
41
de busto meretricis
about a whore's bust
43
At videte hominis intolerabilem audaciam cum proiecta quadam et effrenata cupiitate.
Monumentum iste umquam aut
religionem ullam excogitavit?...Eodem puncto temporis quo
meus discessus
isti causam caedis eripuit, a Q. Seio
contendit ut sibi domum
venderet.
44
But see the man's intolerable audacity with extended and unbridled lust. Has he ever
considered any monument or
religious duty?...At that very moment at which my departure
removed any cause of slaughter he hastened from Seius to buy my house.
Hanc vos, pontifices, tam variam, tam novam in omni genere voluntatem, impudentiam,
audaciam, cupiditatem
comprobatis?
Priests, do you comprehend such varied, such new desire, impudence, daring, lust of every
type?
Date huic religioni aditum, pontifices; iam nullum fortunis communibus exitum reperietis.
47
Allow an approach to this religious duty, priests; you will find no end to our common
fortunes.
Ementiri, fallere, abuti deorum immortalium numine ad hominum timorem quid voluisti?
48
Why did you wish to lie, to deceive, to abuse the will of the immortal gods for fear of men?
Mitto Gabinium.
I pass
by Gabinius.
Quo iure? Qua lege? Quo exemplo? Qua potestate?
49
By what law, by what statute, by what precedent, by what power?
Res illa plena iustitiae, sapientiae, dignitatis.
51
The matter is full of justice, wisdom, dignity.
cum ferro, cum metu, cum edictis, cum privilegiis, cum praesentibus copiis perditorum
with sword, with fear, with edicts, with privileges, with troops of wicked men present
Tu non contempsisti sed pertimuisti dignitatem.
You despised and feared dignity.
ex ea dedicatione litterarum
from the dedication of letters
53
imperitus adulescens, novus sacerdos, sororibus precibus, matris minis adductus, ignarus,
invitus, sine conlegis, sine libris, sine auctore, sine fictore, furtim, mente et lingua titubante
54
unskilled youth, new priest, with sister's prayers, influenced by his mother's threats,
unknowing, unwilling, without
colleagues, without books, without right, without author,
secrettly, with shaking mind and tongue
neque institutas caerimonias persequi neque verbum illum sollemne potuit effari
55
could neither follow the prescribed rituals nor speak the solemn word
Revocate iam animos vestros ab hac subtili nostra disputatione ad universam rem
publicam.56
Turn your minds from my subtle disputation to the entire state.
in mean domum
into my house
te, Capitoline, teque Iuno Regina, et te, custos urbis, Minerva...precor et quaeso
57
I pray to and call upon you, Capitoline (Jupiter), and you Queen Juno, and you, guardian
of the city, Minerva.
perditissimorum civium furori atque ferro
rage and violence of most evil citizens
domo per scelus erepta, per latrocinium oupata
home siezed by crime, taken by
robbery
From Cicero's De Haruspicum Responso:
Putavi mihi reprimendam esse P. Clodi impudicam impudentiam.
1
I thought that I ought to reprimand the impure impudence of Clodius.
hominem furentem exsultantemque
man raging and gloating
Sed vaecors repente sine suo vultu, sine colore, sine voce constitit.
Suddenly mad he stood without face, without color, without voice.
Nihil feci iratus, nihil impotenti animo, nihil non diu consideratum ac multo ante
meditatum.
2
Everything I did was done calmly, with clear mind, with long planning.
cum his furiis et facibus, cum his exitiosis prodigiis ac pestibus
with theses furies and firebrands, with these deadly prodigies and diseases
Consedit ille; conticui.
He sat; I was silent.
4
Clodius sacra et religiones neglegi violari pollui questus est!
5
Clodius sought that holy objects and rites be neglected, violated, polluted.
Bonae deae stuprum intulerit, eaque sacra quae viri oculis ne imprudentis quidem aspici fas
est non solum aspectu virili sed flagitio stuproque violarit, in contione religionibus neglectis
conqueri.
He brought wrong to the Good Goddess and complained in assembly about the rites he
violated.
iure optimo, sed tamen iure privato, iure hereditario, iure auctoritatis, iure mancipi, iure
nexi
7
by best law, yet private law, hereditary law, law of authority, law of freedom, law of
binding
Me civem esse Romanum? Litterate respondissem.
8
that I was a Roman citizen? I should have answered literarily.
sed pietate ac religione atque hac una sapientia
but in piety, religion, and one wisdom
9
Tu meam domum religiosam facere potuisti? Qua mente? quam amiseras. Qua manu?
qua disturbaras. Qua voce?
qua incendi iusseras.
15
You could make my house holy? By what mind? By the one you had lost. By what
hand? By the one you disturbed
the house. By what voice? By the one with which you
ordered the house to be burned.
quod quidem sacrificium nemo ante P. Clodium omni memoria violavit
17
No one violated this sacrifice before Clodius.
flagrantis sororis
raging sister
18
in dicendo gravitas, iucunditas, brevitas
in speaking dignity, pleasantry,
brevity
19
P. Clodius a crocota, a mitra, a muliebribus soleis purpurisque fasceolis, a
21
strophio, a psalterio, a flagitio, a stupro est factus repente popularis. nisi eum mulieres
exornatum ita deprendissent
Clodius suddenly was found popular from rattles, from miter, from lust. unlss some
women had not dragged away
him so decorated
Iniecta fax est foeda ac luctuosa rei publicae.
A foul and deadly torch has been
thrown into our republic.
exercitum C. Caesaris...Cn. Pompeio adiutore, M. Crasso auctore
22
army of Caesar...Pompey assisting, Crassus as author
in Carinis aedificare alteram porticum
to build a second portico
23
ille plenus vini stupri somni
he full of wine, stupor, sleep
26
Quid de patria loquar?
What shall I say about my country?
27
Cn. Pompeium ferro domum compulit.
He drove Pompey home by sword.
Fuit quondam ita firma haec civitas et valens ut neglegentiam senatus vel etiam
28
iniurias civium ferre posset. Iam non potest. Aerarium nullum est, vetigalibus non
fruuntur.
Once our city was so firm and strong that the senate could ignore neglegence or even
insults of its citizens. No longer: the treasury is exhausted, we enjoy no revenues.
Unus est inferior gradus aut interitus aut servitutis. There is the one lower grade of death
or slavery.
From Cicero's Pro P. Sestio:
in discrimen...pro statu civitatis et pro communi libertate
1
in crisis...for the status of the country and for the common liberty
cum senatu, cum bonis omnibus
with the senate, with all good people
latrocinio domestico liberarint
free from home robbery
de capite, de fama, de civitate, de fortunis, de liberis
about life, about reputation, about the country, about our fortunes, about our children
non solum alacris laetosque volitare, sed etiam fortissimis atque optimis civibus periculum
moliri
not only to fly about eagerly and happily, but also to promote danger to the bravest and
best citizens
quos facibus, quos vi manu copiis delere non potuerunt
whom by torches, whom by force and troops they could not destroy
a Q. Hortensio, clarissimo viro atque eloquentissimo
2
by Hortensius, a most famous and eloquent man
serius...aut liberius
more seriously and freely
Sed quoniam singulis criminibus ceteri responderunt, dicam ego de omni statu P. Sesti , de
genere vitae, de natura, de moribus, de incredibili amore in bonis, de studio conservandae
salutis communis atque oti.
But since others have answered the individual charges, I shall speak about Sestius' status,
his type of life, his nature, his habits, his incredible dedication to the good, his
eagerness to preserve our common safety and leisure.
in gravissimis temporibus civitatis
in most grave times for our country
optimi et calamitosissimi viri
of a best and disastrous man
3
fluctibus rei publicae expulsum
driven out in waves of state
in alienis terris iacentem
lying in foreign lands
par prope laus P. Sesti esse debet
nearly equal praise is owed Sestius
cum illa coniuratio ex latebris atque ex tenebris erupisset
4
when that conspiracy had burst forth from the hideaways and shadows
testimonium praeteriti temporis
testimony of a bygone day
Ad urbem confestim incredibili celeritate advolavit. He flew to the city with unbelievable
speed.
Longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam.
Long to tell all, this Iíll say briefly.
5
sceleris furore
by furor of crime
6
me totum superioris anni rei publicae naufragium exponere I explain the shipwreck of the
state in the previous year
traductione ad plebem furibundi hominis ac perditi by the transfer to the plebs of a loose
and raging man
hanc taetram immanemque beluam
this foul and oversized beast
7
quam taeter incedebat, quam truculentus, quam terribilis aspectu
8
how foul he approached, how moody, how terrible in appearance
gubernacula rei publicae
ship of state
9
vino, ganeis, lenociniis adulteriisque
wine, gambling, pimping, adultery
quia tristem semper, quia taciturnum, quia subhorridum atque incultum videbant
because they always saw him sad, moody, half-human and rude
tantum esse in homine sceleris, audaciae, crudelitatis
There was such crime, daring,
cruelty in this man.
si gladium parvo puero aut si imbecillo seni aut debili dederis
10
if you gave a sword to a small boy or a weak old man
foedus fecerunt cum tribuno plebis palam
made deal with tribune of plebs
id autem foedus meo sanguine ictum
treaty struck with my blood
O diem illum funestum senatui bonisque omnibus, rei publicae luctuosum!
12
O that day deadly to the senate and all good men, gloomy for the state!
Exanimatus evolat ex senatu.
He left the senate angry.
terrore ac metu
with terror and fear
15
Meam causam senatus palam, equester ordo acerrime, cuncta Italia publice,
16
omnes boni proprie...susceperant.
The senate openly, the knights fiercely, all Italy publicly, all good people properly took up
my cause.
Cn. Pompeio...M. Crassus.... C. Caesar
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar
17
Vicissent improbos boni.
Good would have defeated wicked.
19
Victi essent improbi.
wicked would be defeated
21
Servavi igitur rem publicam discessu meo.
My leaving saved state.
22
primo senile corpus paludibus occultasse demersum First he hid his old body in swamps
by sinking.
expulsus sine iudicio, vi, lapidibus, ferro
driven out without trial, by force,
stones, sword 24
rex Ptolomaeus
king Ptolemy
26
M. Catonis...magnitudo animi...virtus
Cato, great mind and virtue
28
Initur consilium de interitu Cn. Pompei.
assembly held about Pompey's death
32
Hoc interim tempore P. Sestius designatus iter ad C. Caesarem pro mea salute suscepit.
Sestius at this time journeyed to Caesar for my safety.
33
Exierunt malis ominibus atque exsecrationibus duo vulturii
paludati.
Two swamp vultures left with bad omens and prayers.
me...spe reliquae tranquillitatis praesentis fluctus tempestatemque fugisse
34
In hope of present calm I fled the waves and storm.
Meministis corporibus civium Tiberim compleri, cloacas refarciri, e foro spongiis effingi
sanguinem. 35
I remember the Tiber filled with citizensí bodies, the sewers filled, sponges soaked with
blood from the forum.
vi, manu, ferro
violence, force, sword
36
manus illa Clodiana
that Clodian gang
37
simplex causa
simple reason
40
Quemnam ostenditis exitum nobis? Quem spem rei publicae datis?
43
What end do you show us? What hope do you give for our country?
Duo genera semper in hac civitate fuerunt eorum qui versari in re publica atque in ea se
excellentius gerere studerunt;
quibus ex generibus alteri se popularis, alteri optimates et
haberi et esse voluerunt.
Qui ea quae faciebant quaeque
dicebant multitudini iucunda
volebant esse, populares, qui autem ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent,
optimates habebantur. Quis ergo iste optimus quisque? Numero, si quaeris,
innumerabiles, neque enim aliter stare
possemus; sunt principes consili publici, sunt qui
eorum sectam sequuntur, sunt maximorum ordinum homines, quibus
patet curia, sunt
municipales rusticique Romani, sunt negoti gerentes, sunt etiam libertini optimates. Numerus, ut
dixi, huius generis late et varie diffusus est; sed genus universum, ut tollatur error, brevi
circumscribi et definiri potest.
Omnes optimates sunt qui neque nocentes sunt nec
natura improbi nec furiosi nec malis domesticis impediti. Esto igitur
ut ii sunt, quam tu
nationem appellasti, qui et integri sunt et sani et bene rebus domesticis constituti. Horum qui
voluntati, commodis, opinionibus in gubernanda re publica serviunt, defensores
optimatium ipsique optimates
gravissimi et clarissimi cives numerantur et
principes civitatis.
45
In this country there always have been two groups who engage in politics and were striving
to do well; one group calls itself and wishes to be popular, the other the best. Those who were
doing those things which were pleasing to the
crowd were called popular; however, those
who were doing things accoring to the best advice were called the best. Who therefore is a
best? In number, if you ask, innumerable, nor could it be otherwise. They are the leaders of
public planning, those who follow that party, men of the greatest rank, to whom the senate lies
open; they are the town
councilors and old-fashioned Romans, they are the
businssmen, even freedmen. The number, as I said, has been
scattered far and wide; But
the type, to avoid error, can be restricted and defined briefly. All are the best who are not
harmful nor by nature are wicked or raging or engage in civil evils. Be therefore that they
are those whom you have
called a nation, who are proper and sane and well estabished for
civil concerns. Of these those who will serve by their
advantages and ideas in governing
the country, defenders of the best things and themselves are numbered the best
citizens and
leaders of the country.
Huius autem otiosae dignitatis haec fundamenta sunt, haec membra, quae tuenda
principibus et vel capitis periculo
defendenda sunt: religiones, auspicia, potestates
magistratuum, senatus auctoritas, leges, mos maiorum, iudicia, iuris
dictio, fides,
provincia, socii, imperi laus, res militaris, aerarium.
46
These are the pillars and supports of leisurely dignity, which ought to be guarded by
leaders even at danger of death:
rituals, auspices, magistratesí power, the authority of the
senate, laws, precedents, trials, decisions, trust, provinces, allies, praise of rule, the army, the
treasury.
Haec imitamini qui dignitatem, qui laudem, qui gloriam quaeritis!
48
Imitate these who seek dignity, praise, glory!
multae insidiae sunt bonis
many plots against the good
oderint, dum metuant
Let them hate as long as they fear.
ut popularis cupiditas a consilio principum dissideret
that lust of popularity separates them from the plans of the leaders
His in theatro plaudebatur.
They are applauded in the theater.
contione, comitiis, ludorum gladiatorumque consessu
50
in meeting, in assembly, in gathering of gladiatorial games
summum amicum summo in bello
highest friend in highest war
56
Tullius, qui libertatem civibus stabilaverat.
Cicero, who steadied freedom for
citizens
58
Reditus meus qui fuerit quis ignorat?
Who ignored my return?
63
Ille hominem mihi amicissimum Cn. Pompeium ut meam domum metueret atque a me ipso
caveret.
64
He warned my dear friend Pompey to fear my house and avoid me.
Acta mea sibi ait displicere.
He says my acts displease him.
Et aiunt alios esse qui acta Caesaris rescindant.
They say there are those who cancel
Caesar's acts.
Haec qui pro virili parte defendunt optimates sunt. Those who defend these are the best.
68
Video P. Sestium, meae salutis, vestrae auctoritatis, publicae causae defensorem,
propugnatorem, actorem, reum; video
hunc praetextatum eius filium oculis lacrimantibus
me intuentem; video Milonem, vindicem vestrae libertatis, custodem
salutis meae.
69
I see Sestius, defender of my safety, your authority, and the public cause, rampart,
prosecutor, defendant; I see this
purple-bordered son gazing on me with tearful eyes; I see
Milo, defender of your liberty, guardian of my safety.
Quod tamen est in me scelus?
What great crime is in me?
Ac si scelestum est amare patriam, pertuli poenarum satis: eversa domus est, fortunae
vexatae, dissipati liberi, raptata
coniunx...pertuli crudelitatem inimcorum, scelus infidelium,
fraudem invidorum.
But if it is criminal to love oneís country, I have suffered enough punishment: my house
overturned, my fortunes
destroyed, my children scattered, my wife siezed...I have
suffered the cruelty of enemies, the fraud of the envious.
From Cicero's In P. Vatinium Testem Interrogatio:
interrogem quem nemo congressu, nemo aditu, nemo suffragio, nemo civitate, nemo luce
dignum putet
1
that I would question someone no one thought worthy of meeting, approach, voting,
citizenship, light
Nimium es vehemens feroxque natura.
You are too wild and fierce.
2
Scilicet aspera mea natura, difficilis aditus, gravis vultus, superba responsa,
insolens vita.
3
To be sure, I have harsh nature, difficult approach, serious face, proud taunts, insolent life.
Dico esse odio civitati.
I say that the country hates
(you).
Duo sunt tempora quibus nostrorum civium spectentur iudicia de nobis, unum honoris,
alterum salutis.
4
There are two times at which the decisions of our citizens about us are seen, one of honor,
the other of safety.
Neque te ex amplissimi viri dignitate, sed ex tuis tenebris extraham.
5
I shall remove you not from the dignity of an outstanding man, but from your shadows.
Seiungam te ab illo (Caesar).
I shall separate you from him.
6
id unus tu emersus e caeno
emerged from
7
non labefactatam rem publicam...sed captam hanc urbem not wobbly state but taken city
8
non in carcerem, sed ad supplicium et ad necem
not to jail, but to punishment and
death
9
cum...nomine C. Caesaris, clementissimi et optimi viri, scelere vero atque audacia tua, M.
Bibulum foro, curia, templis,
locis publicis omnibus expulisses
when in the name of Caesar, a most clement and best man, you had driven Bibulus from the
forum, from the curia,
from the temples, from all public places
Quid ergo de me querar?
Why shall I complain about myself?
10
Praeclara defensio facinoris tui!
Clear defense of your crime!
11
Erogarisne pecunias ex aerario tuis legibus?
Do you ask for money from the
treasury by your laws?
12
cum toga pulla accumberes
when you reclined in toga pulla
pestem illius anni, furiam patriae, tempestatem rei publicae, Clodium
14
pest of that year, fury of the country, storm of our government, Clodius
Esne igitur patriae certissimus parricida?
Are you the sure killer of our
country?
15
Ante te nemo, post continuo fecit idem in duobus prodigiis rei publicae Clodius.
Before you no one, afterwards Clodius did the same in two portents to our country.
Pauca de ipsa causa rogabo.
I shall ask a few things about the case
itself.
16
causam Milonis, fortissimi viri...inconstantiam orationis ac testimoni tui
17
case of Milo, very brave man...inconsistency of speech and your testimony
From Cicero's De Provinciis Consularibus:
Gabinium et Pisonem, duo rei publicae portenta ac paene funera
1
Gabinius and Piso, two portents and almost deaths for our country
Sed ego in hac sententia dicenda non parebo dolori meo, non iracundia serviam.
But I shall not follow my sorrow in expressing my opinion nor serve my anger.
Quattuor sunt provincia quibus adhuc intellego sententias esse dictas, Galliae duae...et
Syria et Macedonia. 2
I think I must talk about four provinces, the two Frances, Syria, and Macedonia.
ut Thssalonicenses positi in gremio imperi nostri relinquere oppidum et arma munire
cogantur
the people of Thessalonica placed in the lap of our power are compelled to abandon town
and fortify citadel
non solum excursionibus barbarorum sit infesta, sed etiam castris Thraecis distincta ac
notata
not only infested by attacks of the barbarians, but also marked with Thracian camps
incuria fame morbo vastitate consumpti
consumed by unconcern, misrepute,
disease, devastation 3
diligentissimos satellites scelerum
most dilligent slaves of crime
Omitto iuris dictionem in libera civitate contra leges senatusque consulta, caedis relinquo,
libidines praeterito.
I omit rules in a free city contrary to laws and senate decrees, I fail to mention killings, I
pass by lusts.
effervescentem in Asiam atque erumpentem ore
boiling forth into Asia and erupting
from the mouth
4
te imperatore infleissimo et taeterrimo
with you as most unlucky and
foul leader
in illo naufragio huius urbis
in that shipwreck of this city
De provincia disputo.
About the province I argue.
Nihil de superbia, nihil de contumacia, nihil de crudelitate disputo.
Nothing about pride, nothing about arrogance, nothing about cruelty I argue.
De provincia quod agitur, id disputo.
About what is done in the province,
that I argue.
Publicanos miseros...tradidit in servitutem Iuaeis et Syriis.
5
Wretched tax collectors he handed into slavery to the Jews and Syrians.
inimicissimum ordinis equestris bonorumque omnium
most unfriendly to the knights and all good people
Gabinius unus omnium nequissimus
Gabinius most worthless of all
in exostra helluatur
tamen ego mea sententia C. Caesari succendum nondum putaret
8
Nevertheless I thought that my opinion ought not yet to yield to Caesar.
Negat me vir optimus inimiciorum Gabinio debere esse quam Caesari.
That worthy man said that I ought not to be more unfriendly to Gabinius than to Caesar.
me communis utilitatis habere rationem, non doloris mei
that I ought to care for the common utility, not my private sorrow
Quis plenior inimicorum fuit C. Mario?
Who had more enemies than Marius?
Bellum in Gallia maximum gestum est.
A very great war has been waged in
France.
Quid? Si ipsas inimicitias depono rei publicae causa, quis me tamen iure reprehendent?
What? If I put aside my private animosities for the country,who will rightly condemn me?
An ego possum huic esse inimicus ?
I can be enemy to this man?
9
Quod volent denique homines existiment.
Let men think what they will.
flamma et ferro
by fire and sword
10
Ego me a C. Caesare in re publica dissensisse fateor.
I admit I disagreed with
Caesar in matters of state.
Vos sequor...vos obtempero, vos adsentior.
I follow, agree, accept your view.
Primum decem dierum est supplicatio decreta Cn. Pompeio.
First ten days of honor
were given to Pompey.
11
Sum Cn. Pompei virtutem et animi magnitudinem admiratus.
I have admired the virtue and magnanimity of Pompey.
Ad gloriam devocant, ad triumphum, ad gratulationem, ad summum honorem senatus,
equestris ordinis gratiam, populi
caritatem.
12
They eall to glory, to a triumph, to thanks, to the highest honor of the senate, to the favor of
the knights, to the love of
the people.
propter utilitatem rei publicae
because of usefulness to the state
Bellum Gallicum C. Caesare imperatore gestum est. A Gallic war has been waged with
Caesar as commander.
13
Sed totam Galliam in nostram dicionem esse redigendam. Itaque cum acerrimis
nationibus et maximis Germanorum et
Helvetiorum proeliis felicissime decertavit, ceteras
conterruit, compulit, domuit, imperio populi Romani parere
adsuefecit.
But all France was complled to accept our control. And so in very fierce battles with very
great nations and the
Germans and Swiss he fought, frightened others, forced them,
tamed them, led them to obey the power of the Roman
people.
Restitimus semper lacessiti.
Previously when wounded we
stopped.
Sed tamen una atque altera aestas vel metu, vel spe vel poena vel praemiis vel armis vel
legibus potest totam Galliam sempiternis vinculis adstringere.
But nevertheless in one and a seond summer whether by fear or by hope or by punishment
or by rewards or by arms
or by laws he was able to bind with eternal chains all France.
Atque haec, si inimicissimum essem C. Caesari, sentirem tamen rei publicae
causa.
16
And so these things, if I were most hostile to Caesar, I thought so for the country.
Mihi legationem quam vellem, quanto cum honore vellum, detulit. Quae ego omnia non
ingrato animo, sed obstinatione
quadam sententiae repudiavi.
17
He offered an honorary position to me. With not ungrateful mind, but more stubborm
attitude I declined.
Cn. Pompeius idem mihi testis voluntate Caesaris et sponsor est illi
18
Pompey was witness to me of Caesar's will and sponsor to him.
Extremum illud est.
That is the end.
20
Possem etiam summorum virorum extemplo inimicitias rei publicae causa deponere.
Even then I would be able to put aside personal animosities for the sake of the country.
From Cicero's Pro L. Cornelio Balbo:
Ab amplissimis viris L. Corneli causa defensa est.
1
The cause of Cornelius (Balbus) is defended by very famous men.
Quae sunt igitur meae partes?
(What do I need to say?)
Hesterno die Cn. Pompei gravitas in dicendo
Pompey's dignity in speaking
yesterday
Nihil audivi inlustriore auctoritate de belli, nihil de re publica gravius.
I heard nothing more illustrious about war, nothing more serious about our country.
Sed mos est gerendus non modo Cornelio...sed etiam Cn. Pompeio.
2
This matter must concern not only Balbus, but also Pompey.
Natum esse Gadibus.
He was born in Gades.
Haec sunt propria Corneli, pietas in rem publicam nostram, labor, adsiduitas, dimicatio,
virtus digna summo imperatore,
spes pro proeliis praemiorum.
These qualities of Balbus are noteworthy: piety toward our country, work, persistence,
ability to contest, courage
worthy of the greatest commander, hope of rewards in
dangers.
Donatus igitur est ob eas causas a Cn. Pompeio civitate.
3
Therefore for these reasons he was given citizenship by Pompey.
Ergo in iudicium caput Corneli, factum Pompei vocatur.
Therefore in this trial the citizenship of Balbus and the deed of Pompey are evaluated.
Ubi igitur est crimen?
Where is the crime?
Quid enim abest huic homini quod, si adesset, iure haec ei tribui et concedi putaremus?
Ususne rerum?...An
ingenium?...An pudor, an integritas, an religio in eo, an diligentia
umquam requisita est?
4
What is lacking to this man, which, if it were present, we would think ought to be attributed
and granted to him? Use
of things? Talent? Shame, integrity, proper religion in him, or
diligence has been sought in him?
O nationes, urbes, populi, reges, tetrarchae, tyranni--testes Cn. Pompei non solum virtutis
in bello sed etiam religiones in pace! Vos denique, mutae religiones, imploro, et sola terrarum
ultimarum; vos, maria, portus, insulae, litora!
5
O nations, cities, people, kings, tetrarchs, tyrants--witnesses of Pompeyís courage in war
but also his restraint in
peace! Finallly you, silent divinities, I beg, and soil of farthest
lands, you, the seas, harbors, islands, shores!
in universo denique belli iure atque pacis
finally in all law of war and peace
6
Est enim haec saeculi quaedam macula atque labes. There is a certain stain and disease of
this age.
Peritus vero nostri moris ac iuris nemo umquam, qui hanc civitatem retinere
vellet,
in aliam se civitatem dicavit. 12
No one skilled in our habit and law, who would wish to retain this state, would transfer to
another state.
Ne quis invitus civitate mutetur neve in civitate maneat invitus! Haec sunt enim
fundamenta firmissima nostrae
libertatis, sui quemque iuris et retinendi et dimittendi
esse dominum.
13
No one would change his state nor remain unwillingly in his. These are the most
established bases of freedom, that each is the master of his law of staying or leaving.
Quid habes igitur dicere de Gaditano foedere eius modi?
14
What do you have to say about the Gades treaty of that type?
Neque ideo est Gaditanorum causa deterior.
Nor is the case of Gades less.
15
Nihil est enim aliud in foedere nisi ut pia et aeterna pax sit.
16
For there is nothing in the treaty except that peace be fair and eternal.
qui erranti comiter monstrat viam
who kindly shows the way to a
wanderer
Nunc vero quid ego contra Gaditanos loquar, cum id quod defendo voluntate eorum,
auctoritate, legatione ipsa
comprobetur?
17
What shall I say against the people of Gades, when what I defend is supported by their will,
influence, and very
embassy?
Hospitium multis annis hoc tempus cum L. Cornelio Gaditanos fecisse publice dico.
Proferam tesseram, legatos excito.
I publicly declare that hospitium has existed between Balbus and the people of Gades for
many years. I shall offer the
token, bring forth the envoys.
18
Omitto quantis ornamentis populum istum C. Caesar adfecerit, controversias sedarit, iura
ipsorum permissu statuerit.
I omit with what emblems Caesar honored that people, controvrsies he settled, laws he
established with their
permission.
19
Potest igitur, iudices, L. Cornelius condemnari, ut non . Mari factum condemnetur?
20
Jurors, can Balbus be condemned without condemning the deeds of Marius?
Sit hoc discrimen inter gratiosos civis atque fortis.
21
Let there be this distinction between influential and brave citizens.
Habetis imperatorum summorum et sapientissimorum hominum, clarissimorum virorum,
interpretationem iuris ac
foederum; dabo etiam iudicum qui huic quaestioni
praefuerunt, dabo universi populi Romani, dabo sanctissmum
iudicium etiam
senatus.
23
You have the interpretation of law and treaties by the highest commanders and wisest and
very famous men; Iwill give you the judgment of jurors who were in cgarge of the proceeding, of
the entire Roman people and the senate.
Multi in civitatem recepti ex liberis feoderatisque populis sunt; nemo umquam est de
civitate accusatus, quod aut
populus fundus factus non esset, aut quod foedere civitatis
mutandae ius impediretur.
Many have been received into this state from freed and federate peoples; no one ever has
been accused from them,
because either the base has not been made popular or because the
law has been hindered by changing the city.
An lingua et ingenio patefieri aditus ad civitatem potuit, manu et virtute non potuit?
By tongue or talent citizenship is available, wny not by hand or courage?
ut omnium malivolorum iniquorum invidiosorum animos frangeremus
25
so that we may break the minds of all spiteful, worthless, envious men
More hominum invident, in conviviis rodunt, in circulis vellicant; non illo inimico, sed hoc
malo dente carpunt. 26
In the manner of men they envy, they knaw away at banquets, they flit about in their little
circles; they bite not with that
unfriendly, but rather evil teeth.
Non idem aliis videtur: sunt fortasse in sententia firmiores. Reprendo neminem; sed
adsentior ab omnibus; neque esse
in constantis puto sententiam tamquam aliquo navigium et
cursum ex rei publicae tempestate moderari.
27
It seems not the same for others: perhaps they are more set in their opinion. I denounce
no one, but I am approved by
all. I do not think that my opinion is constant as if
shipwreck and storm of country may be moderated.
Cognovit adulescens; placuit homini prudentissimo; in summa amicorum copia cum
familiarissimis eius est adaequatus. In praetura, in consulatu praefectum fabrum detulit;
consilium hominis probavit, fidem est complexus, officia
observantiamque dilexit.
28
The youth recognized; he pleased a very careful man; among many friends he was equal in
friendship. In his
praetorship and consulship he carried away the chief engineer. He
approved the man's plan, he embraced his trust,
he cherished the duties and
observance.
quod ius si Cn. Pompeius ignoravit, si M. Crassus, si Q. Metellus, si Cn. Pompeius pater, si
L. Sulla, si P. Crassus, si
senatus, si populus Romanus, si qui de re simili iudicarunt, si
foederati populi, si socii, si illi antiqui Latini
what law if Pompey, Crassus, Metlelus, Sulla, the senate, the people, if all who judge, if the
allied peoples, if our allies, if the old Latins all ignore it
Omnia ante oculos vestros proponite: primum esse omnis etiam post mortem reos
clarissimos illos viros qui foederatos
civitate donarunt; deinde senatum qui hoc iudicavit,
populum qui iussit, iudices qui adprobarunt.
de virtutis praemio in iudicium vocetur
Let the reward of courage be called
into judgment.
non de maleficio L. Corneli, sed de beneficio Cn. Pompei iudicaturos
They will judge not by the wrong of Sulla, but by the right of Pompey.
From Cicero's Pro M. Tullio:
de vita et moribus et existimatione M. Tulli
about life and habits of Tullius
1
ad officium suum
to his office
2
de re peuniaria controversia
controversy about money
ad male dicendum non soleo desendere
not usually go to speak badly
Dolo malo faciunt.
They do this with a bad trick.
14
Videtis aedificiorum expugnationes, agri vastationes, hominum trucidationes, incendia,
rapinas, sanguinem in iudicium
venire.
18
You see the besieging of buildings, devastation of the field, slaughter of men, fires,
plundering, blood comes to
judgment.
At ille legem mihi de xii tabulis recitavit.
He recited a law from the twelve
tables.
20
Furem, hoc est praedonem et latronem, luce occidi vetant xii tabulae.
21
The twelve tables forbid the thief to be killed in daylight.
Si qui furem occidiret, iniuria occiderit.
If anyone killed a thief, pay injury.
From Cicero's Pro M. Fonteio:
Quid accusas, quid reprehendis?
What do you charge, accuse?
1
A quibus versuras tantarum pecuniarum factas esse dicunt?
5
By whom do you claim theft of such funds has occurred?
Quid? Coloni Narbonenses quid volunt, quid existimant?
6
What? What do the inhabitants of Narbo want, what do they say?
Cogoscite nunc crimine vinario, quod illi invidiosissimum et maximum esse voleurunt.
Consider now the theft of wine, which they claim is vicious and great.
9
in teste profecto valere plurimum debet
ought to count much in a witness
12
Illae in bellis gerendis ab dis immortalibus pacem ac veniam petunt, istae cum ipsis dis
immortalibus bella gesserunt. Those nations seek peace and pardon from the immortal gods in
waging war, these have waged wars with the
immortal gods themselves.
13
illam immanem ac barbaram consuetudinem hominum immolandorum
14
that awful and barbarous habit of burning men
sagatos bracatosque
cloacked and trousered
15
nullum probum, nullum facinus, nulla turpitudo quae a libidine aut a petulantia aut ab
audacia nata esset
no misdeed, no crime, no flaw which does not arise from your lust, petulance, or daring
16
Videtisne subito, iudices, virum fortissimum, M. Fonteium, parentis et sororis
commemoratione lacrimas profudisse?
Do you see, jurors, that the brave man Fonteius and his parents and sisters have suddenly
poured forth tears? 21
qui se armatas saepe in hostium manum multitudinemque immiserit
who often plunged armed into the band and multitude of enemies
Tum enim vitae socia virtus, mortis comes gloria fuisset; nunc vero qui est dolor victoriae
te atque imperi poenas ad
eorum arbitrium sufferre qui aut victi armis sunt aut invitissimi
paruerunt. A quo periculo, defendite, iudices, civem f
ortem atque innocentem; curate ut
nostris testibus plus quam alienigenis credidisse videamini, plus saluti civium quam
hostium libidini consulisse, graviorem duxisse eius obsecrationem quae vestris sacris
praesit quam eorum audaciam qui cum omnium sacris delubrisque bella gesserunt. Postremo
prospicite, iudices, id quod ad dignitatem populi Romani maxime pertinet, ut plus apud vos
preces virginis Vestalis quam minae Gallorum valuisse videantur.
Then indeed virtue was the ally of life, glory the companion of death! Now truly the
sorrow of victory is to allow
yourselves and the punishment of power to suffer at the
judgment of those who either were conquered by arms or unwillingly obeyed. From that
danger, citizens, protect this brave and innocent man; take care that you seem to value our
witnesses more than foreign-born, that you consider the safety of citizens more than the lust of
enemies, that you
consider more important the cries of those who take charge of your sacred
things than the daring of those who have
waged war on all our sacred shrines. Finally,
jurors, consider that which greatly pertains to the dignity of the Roman people, that you seem
to value the prayers of the Vestal virgins more than the threats of Gauls.
From Cicero's Pro Archia Poeta:
Etenim omnes artes quae ad humanitatem pertinent habent quoddam commune vinclum et
quasi cognatione quadam
inter se continentur.
1
All the arts which pertain to humanity have a sort of bond and are interconnected.
Patiamini de studiis humanitatis ac litterarum paulo loqui liberius.
2
Please permit me to speak rather freely about the study of humanity and letters.
propter otium ac studium
because of leisure and study
ad alias voluptates et ad ipsam requiem animi et corporis to other pleasures and to rest
of mind and body
6
Sed pleni omnes sunt libri; plena sapientium voces, plena exemplorum vetustas; quae
iacerent in tenebris omnia, nisi
litterarum lumen accederet. Quam multas nobis imagines
non solum ad intuendum verum etiam ad imitandum
fortissimorum virorum
expressas sriptores et Graci et Latini reliquerunt.
But all books are full; full of the voices of the wise, full of the charm of examples; what is in
the shadows light strikes
only through literature. How many images of the bravest men for
us not only to look upon but to imitate in the written
works have Greek an Latin authors
left for us.
Haec studia adulescentiam accunt, senectutem oblectant. These studies stir youth,
delight old age.
7
Noster ille Ennius sanctos appellat poetas.
Our Ennius called poets holy.
8
Carus fuit Africano superiori noster Ennius.
Our Ennius was dear to older
Africanus.
9
At eis laudibus certe non solum ipse qui laudatur sed etiam populi Romani nomen ornatur.
By these praises certainly not only he who is praised but also the name of the Roman
people is decorated.
quod Graeca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus, Latina suis finibus exiguis sane
continentur
10
because Greek is read in almost all ages, Latin is contained in its territory.
Nullam enim virtus aliam mercedem laborum periculorumque desiderat praeter hanc laudis
et gloriae.
Virtue desires no other reward for its work and dangers except this honor of praise and
glory.
auctoritate municipi, testimonio Luculli, tabulis Metelli comprobetur
12
proved by the muniipal authority, by Lucullu'í testimony, by the tablets of Metellus
From Cicero's Pro Cn. Plancio:
in causa facili atque explicata perdifficilis
in easy case and very difficult
explanation
2
Vetus est enim lex illa iustae veraeque amicitiae ...consensus et societas consiliorum et
voluntatum.
There is that old law of just and true friendship...agreement and alliance of plans and will.
Nunc tantum disputo de iure populi.
Now I argue only about the people's
law.
3
Tu continentiam, tu industriam, tu fidem, tu labores tuos...fractos esse et abiectos
4
et repuiatos putas?
Do you think that restraint, industry, trust, work have been broken, cast down, and rejeted?
Non est enim consilium in volgo, non ratio, non discrimen, non diligentia, semperque
sapientes ea quae populus
fecisset ferenda, non semper laudanda dixerunt.
For there was no plan among the mob, no account, no separation, no diligence, and always
the wise said that the things the people did had to be endured, not praised.
Male iudicavit populus.
The people decided badly.
Tu es e municipio antiquissimo Tusculano, ex quo sunt plurimae familiae consulares.
8
You are from the most ancient municipality Tusculum, from which there are very many
consular families.
Nam municipia coniunctione etiam vicinitatis vehementer moventur.
For the municipalities are moved vigorously by unity of neighborhood.
non infuscata malivolentia, non adsueta menaciis, non fucosa, non fallax, non erudita
artificio
9
not with ingrained ill will, not soothed by lies, not tawny, not deceitful, not trained in
artifice
Etenim est gravius spoliari fortunis quam non augeri dignitate.
Indeed it is more damaging to be despoiled of fortunes than not to be increased in dignity.
Valuit causa rogandi, non gratia.
Cause, not influence of asking
prevailed.
10
Non potentia mea sed causa rogationis fuit gratiosa. Not my power but the reason for
asking was influential.
Omitto illa.
I pass by those things.
12
Facilis est illa occursatio et blanditia popularis.
Easy that meeting and popular
wheedling.
Bimarium appellas, ut verba etiam fingas, non solum crimina.
You call it ----, so that you fashion not only crimes but even words.
sanctissimus et iustissimus iudex
most holy and just judge
13
ut nos invito te tamen ad iudices non ad darnifides veniremus
16
that with you unwilling nevertheless we may come to judges not butchers
Semper fuerunt viri boni qui apud tribulis suos gratiosi esse vellent.
18
Always there were good men who wished to be influential among their tribesmen.
Haec enim plena sunt offici, plena observantiae, plena etiam antiquitatis.
These things were full of duty, full of observance, full of antiquity.
Etenim verebantur, credo, angustias.
Indeed they feared, I believe, the
narrows.
22
Magnae sunt in te opes, late patet gratia; multi amici, multi cupidi tui, multi fautores laudis
tuae.
23
You have many resources, your influence is spread widely, you have many friends, many
are desirous of you, many
are promotors of your fame.
Nihil est autem tam volucre quam maledictum, nihil facilius emittitur, nihil citius excipitur,
latius dissipatur.
Nothing is so swift as bad words, nothing more easily released, nothing is taken more
quickly, nothing is spread more
widely.
Vigilandum est semper; multae insidiae sunt bonis.
24
Always one must watch; much treachery toward the good.
Virtus, probitas, integritas in candidato, non linguae volubilitas, non ars, non scientia
requiri solet.
25
Virtue, probity, integrity in the candidate, restraint of tongue, not skill, not knowledge are
usually required.
si de quaestura mea dixero
if I speak about my quaestorship
26
Cui cum respondissem me e provincia decedere: etiam me hercule, inquit, ut opinor, ex
Africa
To anyone I had answered that I departed from my province: as I think, from Africa.
Huic ego iam stomachans fastidios: immo ex Sicilia inquam. Tum quidam, quasi qui
omnia sciret: Quid? Tu nescis,
inquit, hunc quaestorem Syracusis fuisse? Quid multa?
Destiti stomachari et me
unum ex eis feci qui ad aquas
venissent.
27
To this one I breathing haughtily: rather from Sicily, I said. The one as if he knew all:
What? Don't you know this man was quaestor at Syracuse? What more? I ceased to sniff and
pretended I was one of those who had come from the waters.
populi Romani auris hebetiores, oculos autem esse acris atque acutos
The ears of the Roman people are rather dull, but their eyes are fierce and sharp.
Respondebo tibi nunc, Laterensis, minus fortasse vehementer quam abs te sum provocatus.
30
I will answer to you, Laterensis, perhaps less vigorously than I have been provoked by you.
ex hostium manibus
from the hands of the enemy
in illo tristi et acerbo luctu
in that sad and bitter grief
Quo usque ista dicis?
How long do you say that?
31
Salvum tu me esse cupisti.
You wished that I be safe.
33
Quid est pietas nisi voluntas grata in parentes? Qui sunt boni cives, qui belli, qui domi de
patria bene merentes, nisi qui
patriae beneficia meminerunt?
What is piety exept pleasing will toward parents? Who are the good citizens, those who
are deserving well of their country in war and peace, except those who remember favors to the
country?
Non nihil egisti hoc loco.
You did nothing in this place.
34
Egentes in locupletis, perditi in bonos, servi in dominos armabantur.
35
The enemy against the wealthy, ruined against the good, slaves armed against their
masters.
Vinci autem improbos a bonis fuisse praclarum.
wicked beaten by good
36
Mortem me timuisse dicis.
You say that I fear death.
37
Ego autem Cn. Pompeium non dico auctorem, ducem, defensorem salutis meae.
39
I do not speak of Pompey, the leader, author, defender of my safety.
Ego vero haec didici, haec vidi, haec scripta legi. I learned, saw, read these written
things.
me arcem facere e cloaca lapidemque e sepulcro venrari pro deo
40
that I made a citadel from sewer and worshiped a stone as a god
O excubias tuas, Cn. Planci, miseras, o flebilis vigilias, o noctes acerbas, o custodiam etiam
mei capitis infelicem! 42
O your wretched ---, o crying watches, o bitter nights, o unlucky guard of my life.
Plura ne dicam tuae me etiam lacrimae impediunt. Your tears stop me from saying more.
From Cicero's Pro M. Scauro:
Ignominiae dolore, ut ait poeta, victor insolens se victum non potuit pati.
3
From sorrow of disgrace, as the poet says, the winner could not bear defeat.
cum corpore animus tamquam carcere saeptus teneretur
4
The mind as if hedged in prison is held by the body.
Matrum in liberos, virorum in uxores scelera cernitis, crudelitate mixtas libidines videtis
immanis.
1
3
You see crimes of the mothers in their children, those of husbands in their wives; you see
monstrous lusts mixed with cruelty.
Poposcit, imperavit, eripuit, coegit.
He demanded, he ordered, he stole,
he forced.
18
Dicam enim primum de ipso genere accusationis, postea de Sardis, tum etiam pauca de
Scauro.
22
I shall first speak about the type of charge, next about the Sardinians, and finally a few
words about Scaurus.
nomen Q. Muttonis, hominis sordidissimi
name of Muttonis, a most foul man
23
Prudentes natura, callidi usu, doctrina eruditi.
careful by nature, hot in use,
trained in doctrine. 24
Tamen ego mihi provinciae causam in provincia ipsa cognoscendam et discendam putavi.
However I thought that I ought to study and learn the case of the province in the province
itself.
anhelitu Aetnam ardere dicunt
They say that Etna was
burning with breath.
29
Omnia consulem putant posse.
All think that they can be consul.
36
fallacissimum genus esse Phoenicum
Carthaginians, the most deceitful
race
42
sine fide, sine societate et coniunctione nominis nostri
44
without trust, without alliance and unity of our name
Quo te nunc modo appellem? Ut hominem? At non es inter nos. Ut mortuum?
50
At vivis et viges, at in omnium animis atque ore versaris, atque divinus animus mortale
nihil habuit, neque tuo
quicquam potuit emori praeter corpus.
How shall I address you? As a man? But you are not among us. As dead? But you
live, breathe, and are engaged in
mind and mouth. The divine mind had nothing mortal and
nothing of yours is mortal except the body.
From Cicero's In M. Antonium Oratio Philippica:
Exponam vobis breviter consilium et profectionis et reversionis meae.
I.1
I shall explain briefly the reason for my departure and return.
ieci fundamenta pacis
I laid base of peace.
Praeclara tum oratio M. Antoni.
Antony's fine speech
2
dictaturam...funditus de re publica sustulit.
totally abolished dictatorship
3
non modo regno...sed regni timore sublato
kingdom and fear removed
4
uncus impactus est fugitivo
fugitive executed
5
Hannibal ad portas
Hannibal at the gates
serperet in urbe infinitum malum
great evil creep into city
insepultam sepulturam
unburied burial
sceleratos servos
wicked slaves
mutata omnia, nihil per senatum
all changed, not through senate
6
consules designati negabant se audere in senatum venire
consul designates said that they could not come into the senate
Kalendis senatum frequentem fore
would be full senate
8
incensus ad reditum
eager to return
9
Brutum vidi.
I saw Brutus.
maximi ac pulcherrimi facti sui
of his great noble deed
de hesterna Antoni iniuria, cui sum amicus
insult of my friend Antony
11
de supplicationibus referatur
about thanks a motion
12
vos inviti secuti estis
you passed unwillingly
13
ut decernerentur supplicationes mortuo
thanks for a dead man
dominatu regio rem publicam liberavit
free state from kings
de reliquis rei publicae malis licetne dicere?
may I speak of other ills
14
Pisonem ducem optimae sententiae
Piso proponent of good bill
voluntaria servitus
voluntary slavery
15
Mihi fere satis est quod vixi.
I have lived long enough.
Primum igitur acta Caesaris servanda censeo.
Caesar's acts should be
approved.
16
summo studio illius praeclara acta defendo
I greatly approve his acts.
17
ne praetoriae provinciae plus quam annum optineretur
one year limit
19
Omnes enim iam cives de rei publicae salute una et mente et voce
consentiunt.
21
All citizens are agreed about the safety of the state.
aqua et igni interdici
forbidden water and fire
23
de exilio reducti a mortuo
recalled from exile by dead
24
mihi inimicissimus sit non recusabo
not object to him as enemy
27
liberati per viros fortissimos
freed by brave men
32
quod dictaturae nomen sustulisti
because you offer him power
33
gloriosum putes plus te unum posse quam omnes think glorious to have all power
Oderint, dum metuant.
Let them hate if they fear.
34
ut malis carus esse quam metui
to prefer love to fear
35
sum a vobis benigne ac diligenter auditus
heard kindly and with care
39
rei publicae hostis...mihi
enemy of state mine also
II.1
de amicitia...pauca dicam.
say few words about friendship
3
At beneficio sum tuo usus.
You favored me.
5
homo et humanitatis expers et vitae communis ignarus
inhumane and ignorant
7
Sit hoc inhumanitatis; stultitiam incredibilem videte.
also stupid
8
Iam invideo magistro tuo...nihil sapere doceat.
envy teacher who makes you dumb
neque auctoritas huius ordinis neque existimatio populi Romani neque leges ullae possent
coercere
9
not senate nor people nor law hinder
Non tractabo ut consulem; ne ille quidem me ut consularem.
10
I'll not treat him as a consul; he doesn't treat me as a consular.
Non placet M. Antonio consulatus meus.
my consulship not please Antony
12
dat nataliciam in hortis
give birthday party in garden
15
Tuus videlicet salutaris consulatus, perniciosus meus.
your term good, mine bad
pax cum civibus bello civili utilior
Peace with citizens is more useful
than civil war.
sua manu...se urbem inflammare, cives trucidare
by own hand admit burn city
17
te domi P. Lentuli esse educatum
you were raised at Lentulus' house
18
non cohaerentia inter se, sed maxime disiuncta
all disjoint
Accusa senatum, accusa equestrem ordinem.
denounce senate and knights
19
cedant arma togae...at postea tuis armis cessit toga peace yields to your arms
20
P. Clodium meo consilio interfectum esse dixisti. You say on my order Clodius killed
At ego suasi...At laetatus sum.
I urged, I rejoiced.
21
Pompeium a Caesaris coniunctione avocarem
I called Pompey from Caesar.
23
ne quinquennium imperium Caesari prorogaret
not extend Caesar's power
24
pacis, concordia, compositionis auctor
author of peace and unity
Caesarem meo consilio interfectum
Caesar killed by my orde.r
25
libertatem populi Romani unius amicitiae praeposuit
freedom ahead of friendship
27
male parta male dilabuntur.
badly acquired, badly wasted
immemor beneficiorum, memor patriae
forget favor, aid country
rei publicae praeclarum...ipsis gloriosum
famous for state, glorious for them
inter suasorem facti et probatorem
between advisor and approver
29
omnes boni...Caesarem occiderunt
all good men killed Caesar
homicidae sint an vindices libertatis
killers or avengers of freedom
30
familiaris...socius
friend...ally
31
patriae parentem quam suum occidere
to kill father of country over
own
non igitur homicidas
thus not murderers
sed in omnibus terris est gesta maior?
any greater deed anywhere?
32
tamquam in equum Troianum
as if in a Trojan horse
non solum regem, sed etiam regnum re publica sustulissem remove kingdom and king
34
Quod non fecisti ignoso.
pardon what you didn't do
Virum res illa quaerebat.
needed a man to do it
35
cui bono
to whose advantage
ego te tantum gaudere dico, fecisse non arguo
you are glad, did not do it
36
tanta in maestitia fuisse quanta ceteri optimi cives
37
spe victoriae elati
38
incolumitati civium
si modo homines sunt, interdum animis relaxantur
39
albus aterne..ignoras
41
populi Romani tanta mercede nihil sapere disceres
43
Visne igitur te inspiciamus a puero?
44
Curio...in matrimonio stabili
nomen pacis dulce
sad as others would be
roused by hope of victory
safety of citizens
as men relax minds
not know if white or dark
learn to be fool for fee
start from childhood
Curio in stable marriage
name of peace sweet
Sed iam stupra et flagitia omittamus.
Omit his lusts and crimes.
47
in civili bello in maximis rei publicae miseriis
wrongs in civil war
incidamus media ne nimis sero ad extrema veniamus
cut short to end fast
Intimus erat in tribunatu Clodio.
tight with Clodius in tribunate
48
te prius ad parentem tuam venisse quam ad me
(not) visit parent before me
49
P. Clodium es conatus occidere
tried to kill Clodius
Sine lege ad Caesarem cuurristi.
Ran off to Caesar without law.
50
nondum tot luminibus extinctis
so many greats not yet killed
51
tua illa pestifera intercessio
your deadly veto
cum tu unus adulescens universum ordinem decernere de salute rei publicae prohibuisi
when you alone stopped the senate from dealing with disorder
52
Tu, tu, inquam, M. Antoni, princeps, Caesari omnia perturbare cupienti causa belli
contra patriam inferendi dedisti.
gave Caesar excuse for war
53
causam sui dementissimi consilii et facti
reason for mad plan and deed
nulla causa iusta...contra patriam arma capiendi
no just cause to fight country
Pompeium..imperii populi Romani decus ac lumen Pompey honor and light of country
54
omnem subolem uno verbo rem publicam expulsam All youth fled by one word.
Doletis tris exercitus populi Romani interfectos; interfecit Antonius.
55
You grieve over three slain armies; Antony slew them.
Auctoritas huius ordinis adflicta est; adflixit Antonius.
Antony ended our influence.
hominem omnium nequissimum
'worthless reprobate'
56
tantum flagitium...tantam turpitudinem, tantum dedecus
such evil and crime
57
Vehebatur in essedo tribunus pl.
tribune in French chariot
58
Sequebatur raeda cum lenonibus.
next chariot with pimps
Saturavit se sanguine eis simillorum sui civium.
gorged on citizens' blood
59
Victor e Thessalia Brundisium cum legionibus revertisti. Ibi me non occidisti. Magnum
beneficium!
You returned as victor and did not kill me. Great favor!
in eomplexum tuae mimulae
to embrace of actress
61
in urbe auri, argenti maximeque vini foeda direptio in city plunder money and wine
62
Cogebat egestas.
need compelled
qui rei publicae sit hostis, felix esse nemo potest
enemy never happy
64
civitas ingemuit...cum omnia metu tenerentur
people groaned in fear
quam insolenter statim helluo invasit in fortunas
glutton siezed fortunes
65
Male parta male dilabuntur.
bad gain, bad loss
Quae Charybis quam vorax?
What monster so greedy?
66
non enim semper iste felix
not always lucky
67
At idem aedes etiam et hortos.
took house and gardens
domi admirandus
admired at home
69
Huius in sedibus pro cubiculis stabula
brothel for bedroom
Sed omitto ea peccata.
But I pass by those faults.
70
Cui bello cum propter timiditatem tuam, tum propter libidines defuisti.
71
Because of cowardice and lusts you avoided this war.
Fueras in acie Pharsalica antesignanus.
You were in front at Pharsalus.
Num sibi soli vicit?
did he conquer for self alone
72
Ius postulabas.
You demand your rights.
consilium reprehendum, laudanda constantia
plan bad, steadiness good
75
mensas hospitum convomeres
vomited on hosts' tables
76
luce non tenebris...cum alceis et toga
in light not shadows w/toga
At videte levitatem hominis.
Behold his frivolity.
77
se ocultans perpotavit ad vesperam
te catamitum
hiding he drank until evening
you a catamite
Si eundem nequam hominem audacemque cognorat, hunc in familiaritatem libentissime
recipiebat.
78
willingly reeived reprobates
impulsus, inductus, elusus
urged, led, rejected
79
nec enim est ab homine numquam sobrio postulanda prudentia
81
no foresight from one never sober
Quis umquam adparitor tam humilis, tam abiectus? What attendant so lowly, so cast
down?
82
Sedebat in rostris conlega tuus amictus toga purpura in sella aurea
coronatus.
85
Your colleague was sitting on the rostrum crowned with a purple toga on a gold chair.
a puero vixeras ut omnia paterere ut facile servires live as slave as youth
86
C. Caesari dictaturi perpetuo M. Antonium detulisse
Antony offered dictatorship to
Caesar
87
optimis civibus cum importunissimo hoste
(no) for best with worst
89
funeri tyranni...sceleratissime praefuisti
evilly conducted tyrant's funeral
90
dictaturae nomen in perpetuum de re publica sustulisti
abolished dictatorship
91
te gubernante naufragia metuebam
feared disaster with you as pilot
92
civitas non iam singillatim, sed provinciis totis dabatur
wholesale citizenship
nemo erat qui in ipso dolore risum posset continere all in sorrow laughed
93
actorem odimus, acta defendimus
hate author, defend acts
96
tamquam gladiatorum libellos
as if fight programs
97
At quam caeca avaritia est!
How blind greed is!
Filiam eius sororem tuam eiecisti
cast out relative
99
Acta enim Caesaris pacis causa confirmata sunt a senatu. for peace Caesar's acts
approveed
100
furiosam vinulentiam
furious drinking
101
Ab hora tertia bibebatur, ludebatur, vomebatur.
from morning drinking, vomiting
104
natabant pavimenta vino, madebant parietes
floors with wine, walls dripped
105
ingenui pueri cum meritoriis, scorta inter matres
whores mixed with free
operta lectica latus...ut mortuus
in closed litter as if dead
106
alter gladiorum est princeps, alter poculorum
princes of sword and drink
magno studio...non...vi et armis
eager not forced
107
illa mirabilia facinora effecit
did remarkable crimes
109
In publicis nihil est lege gravius.
law rules in public
tu illum amas mortuum
you love him dead
110
te omnia quaestu tuo, non illius eignitate
by profit, not his honor
111
non igitur miliens perire
die a thousand times
112
ista tua minime avara coniunx
your not greedy wife
113
inter pacem et servitutem plurimum interest
much between peace and slavery
propter suspicionem regni adpetendi sunt necati
kill on suspicion of power
114
Iudicia non metuis.
You do not fear courts.
115
in illo ingenium, ratio, memoria, litterae, cura, cogitatio, diligentia
116
in him talent, planning, memory, education, concern, thought, diligence
regnare meditatus
plotted for throne
partim metu, partim patientia
partly by fear, partly by effort
fama gloriosum tyrannum occidere
glorious to kill tyrant
117
defendi rem publicam adulescens, non deseram senex
lifelong friend of country
118
negavi...mortem immaturam esse consulari
consular not wrong time to die
119
ut moriens populum Romanum liberum relinquam dying I leave Rome free
breve tempus longus est inparatis
short time long if unprepared
III.2
facile hominis amentis fregissemus audaciam
break madness of madman
C. Caesar adulescens, paene potius puer, incredibili ac divina quadam mente atque virtute
C. Caesar, a youth almost boy, with incredible, divine mind and courage
3
Qua peste privato consilio rem publicam...Caesar liberavit. By own plan freed country.
5
Nisi unus adulescens illius furentis impetus crudelissimosque conatus cohibuisset, rem
publicam funditus interituram
fuisse.
Had
one youth not stopped him, country destroyed.
hostem populi Romani Antonium...reliquit consulem
left consul an enemy
6
a cervicibus nostris est pulsus Antonius
Antony pulled off our neck
8
Pollicetur enim se provinciam Galliam retenturum in senatus populique Romani potestate
He promised to keep Gaul in our power.
Antonius contra populum Romanum exercitum adducebat.
11
Antony led an army against the Roman people.
O praeclarum custodem ovium lupum.
O famous shepherd of sheep. the wolf.
intolerabilis est servire inpuro, inpudico, effeminato awful to be slave to impure
12
flos Italiae, illud firmamentum imperii populi Romani
flower of Italy, bastion
of power
13
iudicetur non verbo, sed re non modo non consul, sed etiam hostis Antonius
14
that Antony be judged from word and deed not only not consul, but enemy
cui bono
to whose advantage
Quis enim hoc adulescente castior, quis modestior? Who more modest?
15
Aricina mater...Trallianum aut Ephesiam
mother from Aricina...Ephesus?
tuae coniugis bonae feminae, locupletis certe
your wife, good and indeed rich
16
Caesaris consiliorum esse socium, Antoni furoris inimicum
17
ally of Caesar's plans, enemy of Antony's madness
illam pulcherrimi facti memoriam
memory of great deed
18
currentem...incitavi
I urged a ready horse.
19
vino atque epulis retentus
stopped by wine and banquet
20
per Gallorum cuniulum
by French undergound passage
alterutrum esse hostem
one or other enemy
21
ut hominem stupidum magis etiam infatuet
to make dumb dumber
22
O praeclarum custodem ovium...lupum!
O great guard of sheep, the wolf!
27
Quid est in Antonio praeter libidinem, crudelitatem, petulantiam, audaciam?
28
What is in Antony except lust, cruelty, stubbornness, daring?
mortem servituti anteponamus
prefer death to slavery
29
nec ruere demens nec furere desinit
stops neither rush nor madness
31
ex murmillone dux, ex gladiatore imperator
gladiator and matador
obruit vino; vastantur agri, diripiuntur villae
drunk in wine; fields wasted, houses
plundered
armis sed etiam decretis
by arms and decrees
32
urbi Caesarem, Brutum Gallia
Caesar for city, Brutus for
Gaul
34
ut cum dignitate potius cadamus quam cum ignominia serviamus better die than be
slave
35
Nam est hostis a senatu nondum verbo adpellatus, sed re iam iudicatus Antonius.
IV.1
Antony has been judged enemy by the senate not by word but by fact.
cruentus sanguine civium Romanorum
red with blood of Romans
4
Caesar fertur in caelum.
Caesar is praised to skies.
6
nisi...vos consulem non hostem iudicatis Antonium if judge Antony consul not enemy
Si consul Antonius, Brutus hostis.
If Antony consul, Brutus enemy.
8
una mente unaque voce
with one mind and voice
Negat hoc Brutus imperator.
General Brutus denies this.
9
cum immani taetraque belua.
with savage, foul beast
12
in foveam incidit
fell into pit
mortem quidem natura omnibus proposuit
nature gives death to all
13
cum alia omnia falsa, incerta sint, caduca, mobilia since all false, uncertain, moving
senatum, id est orbis terrae consilium, delere gestit to destroy senate, world council
14
populo Romano...certamen cum percussore
contest between people and assassin
15
Longo intervallo me auctore et principe ad spem libertatis exarsimus.
16
At long last with my leadership we burn in hope of liberty.
consilio nostro subvenire communi saluti
V.1
aut honesta pax aut bellum necessarium
2
nervos belli, pecuniam
Pacem vult M. Antonius? Arma ponat.
arms.
3
non iam levitatis est, sed dementiae
Hoc qui non videt excors.
5
omnis audacia gladiatoris amentis
to aid common safety with advice
honest peace or necessary war
the sinews of war, money
Antony wants peace? put down
act of madness not folly
mad who does not see this
all daring of mad gladiator
10
mulier sibi felicior quam viris
11
Omne malum nascens facile opprimitur.
wife luckier for self than men
Every evil is best crushed at birth.
gemente populo Romano
with Roman people groaning
12
saltatores, citharistas
dancers, musicians
15
palam secum habuerit armatos
had an armed guard
17
armatos, latrones, sicarios in cella Concordia
armed men in Temple of Concord
18
gladium scelere imbuisset
had dipped sword in flesh
20
sanguinem nostrum sitiebat
thirsting for our blood
qui civem possit iudicare potius quam taeterrimum et crudelissimum hostem
21
Can anyone call him a citizen rather than a foul and cruel enemy?
ante pedes suos uxorisque suae
before his and wife's feet
22
bellum intulit provinciae Galliae
waged war on Gaul
24
ergo Hannibal hostis, civis Antonius?
Hannibal enemy, Antony
citizen?
25
depopulationes, vastationes, caedes, rapinas
killing, damage, looting
Legatos decernis?
You choose an embassy?
Legati proficiscantur; bellum nihilo minus paretur. Have embassy and war.
26
Minimis momentis maxima inclinationes temporum fiunt. small act, big result
Recedat a Mutina, desinat oppugnare Brutum, decedat ex Gallia. Let him stop fighting.
impetus nefarios ab urbe in Galliam avertit
turned attack to Gaul
28
Numquam parebit ille legatis.
He will never obey embassy.
29
Omne malum nascens facile opprimitur, inveteratum fit plerumque robustius.
31
Every evil can be crushed at its beginning; it grows with age.
Verum praeterita omittamus.
Let us omit the past.
tumultum decerni...dilectum haberi
revolt declared, levy held
capitalem hominem
jailbird
33
ne quid res publica detrimenti accipiat
that country suffer no harm
34
ut hostem arcuit Gallia
kept enemy from Gaul
37
Lepido pro eius egregiis in rem publicam meritis to Lepidus for service to country
38
periculosissimum civile bellum M. Lepidus ad pacem convertit
40
Lepidus turned dangerous war to peace.
homo impotentissimus ardens odio, animo hostili evil, hating, hostile man
42
demus igitur imperium Caesari
give command to Caesar
45
maiores nostri veteres
our ancestors of old
47
in populari levitate
to popular whim
49
omnibus carissimus
very dear to all
good
At est quibusdam inimicus clarissimis atque optimis civibus.
enemy to many
50
nihil est illi re publica carius
nothing more dear to him than state
Mora est adlata bello, non causa sublata.
war delayed, cause not removed
VI.1
longo intervallo...liber senatus
at long last free senate
2
bellum nefarium inlatum rei publicae
evil war versus state
Ad quem enim legatos?
To whom send embassy?
3
quo libido rapuit, quo levitas, quo furor, quo vinulentia
4
where lust, rage, and drink take him
novi violentiam, novi impudentiam, novi audaciam I kmow his rage and daring.
6
Aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt.
Other nations can endure slavery.
7
Nos amissos tot dies...queremur.
We regret lost days.
9
Nam hic inter illos Africanus est.
Among them he is great.
10
se coniecit in turbam
threw self into crowd
aqua et igni interdictum
forbidden water and fire
equestrem statuam inauratam
gilded equestrian statue
12
Agrum iis divisit.
He divided fields for them.
13
vocem simulationemque clementiae
voice and pretence of mercy
16
omnibus honoribus praetulistis
you gave me all honors
17
furorem extinguere, opprimere audaciam
put out rage, check daring
18
Populum Romanum servire fas non est.
wrong for Romans to be slaves
19
Aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt, populi Romani est propria libertas.
Other nations may be slaves; liberty is special to the Roman people.
ut omnes exercitus dimittantur
that all armies be dismissed
VII.2
nationes ad urbem conetur adducere
try to lead nations to city
3
quondam propter levitatem populares habebantur all democrat from levity
4
adversarium multitudinis temeritati
opponent of rash people
inlustratur consulatus...necessario tempore
term ennobled by need
7
Semper pacis auctor fui.
I always promoted peace.
hinc honores amplissimos, hinc mediocres opes
gained honors and some wealth
pacis semper laudator
promoter of peace
8
Quia turpis est, quia periculosa, quia esse non potest.
beause evil, danger,
impossible
9
hostem non verbo, sed re
man enemy in fact, not word
C. Caesari meritos illi honores et debitos
gave owed honors to Caesar
10
at qua imbecillitate, qua macie
what weakness and illness
12
Armorum officinas in urbe videtis.
You see armories in the city.
13
constantia, gravitas, perseverantia
steadiness and persistence
14
Libertati regio dominatu videbamur.
seem freed from kingly rule
Si non possumus facere, moriamur.
If can't do, let us die.
Satis multa de turpitudine.
enough of disgrace
16
Qui familiarem iugularit, quid is facit inimico?
kill friend, what to enemy
18
Nec ego pacem nolo, sed pacis nomine bellum involutum reformido.
19
I do not reject peace, but I fear war wrapped in peace.
Monebo, praedicam, denuntiabo, testabor.
I shall warn and denounce.
20
pax M. Antonio cum senatu?
peace between Antony and senate?
21
una mente atque voce
with one mind and voice
22
C. Caesari, qui illum urbe, quid?
to Caesar, who kept him from city?
24
et in senatus et in populi Romani potestate
in power of senate and people
26
sed ille populo Romano bellum indixerit
but he wars on Roman people
libertas agitur populi Romani
freedom of Romans at stake
27
taetram et pestiferam beluam
foul and diseased beast
summi gubernatores in magnis tempestatibus a vectoribus moneri solent
Best captains often advised by travelers in great storms.
Hac gravitate senatus, hoc studio equestris ordinis, hoc ardore populi Romani
by dignity of senate, eagerness of knights, desire of people
Nolumus hoc bellum videri.
wish not to seem war
VIII.4
Sed quid plura?
what need of more?
5
belli gerendi tempus
time for waging war
contentionem rei publicae causa faciebat
political dispute caused strife
7
hoc bellum quintum civile geritur
fifth civil war
8
homines agrestes
country louts
9
ex mendicis fieri repente divites
rags to riches
nos libertatem nostris militibus, leges, iura, iudicia, imperium orbis terrae, dignitatem,
pacem, otium
grant soldiers freedom, law, power, dignity, peace, leisure
10
non semper otio studui
always for peace
11
servitutem pacem vocas?
call slavery peace
12
virtute, consilio, magnitudine animi
by courage, planning, extent
13
ego nolo quemquam civem committere ut morte multandus sit
not want citizen merit
death
15
Vehementer me agere fateor, iracunde nego.
argue loud, not angrily
16
Quousque enim dices pacem velle te?
how long want peace
17
Ad hunc legatos? Cur?
embassy to him? why?
20
deserti sumus a principibus
deserted by our leaders
22
ferrei sumus
25
cavet mimis, aleatoribus, lenonibus
26
Galliam togatam remitto
27
At istud vetat lex Caesaris.
28
Vobis M. Antonius nihil tribuit.
Turpis autem fuga mortis omni est morte peior.
29
in spem libertatis sexennio
32
made of iron
aids mimes, gamblers, pimps
give up Roman France
Caesar's law forbids.
Antony gave nothing to you.
flight worse than death
hope of freedom in sixth yar
sine ullo mortis metu
with no fear of death
IX.2
non vis hiemis, non nives, non longitudo itineris, non asperitas viarum, non morbus
ingravescens
not bitter winter, not length, not tough road, not illness
in ipsa cura...sui muneris excessit e vita
died in midst of cares
causam mortis...non genus
cause not character of death
3
Nemo tum novitati invidebat.
no one grugded new man honor
4
vos...Sulpicium vita privastis
You deprived Sulpicius of life.
8
auctoritatem vestram vitae suae
your authority over his life
9
vita enim mortuorum in memoria est posita vivorum life of dead in memory of living
10
nec enim ille magis iuris consultus quam iustitiae fuit
master of law and justice
Maiores quidem nostri statuas multis decreverunt, sepulchra paucis.
14
Our ancestors granted statues to many, tombs to few.
difficillimo rei publicae tempore
in bad time for country
15
minuere amicitiam nostram videatur perpetua dissensio
X.2
ut unus aliquis sententiam tuam secutus sit
3
Quod est tibi cum Brutis bellum?
4
recte et ordine
6
audi viros bonos
dissent diminish friendship
not one support you?
why war with Bruti
rightly and properly
listen to good men
nisi forte eos, qui diadema imposuerint, conservandos, eos, qui regni nomen sustulerint,
deserendos putatis
Save those who offer crown, condemn those who offer title.
7
nihil nisi pace et concordia civium
only peace and unity of
citizens
8
Tria tenet oppida toto in orbe terrarum.
possesses three towns
10
Tenet igitur res publica Macedoniam...tuetur Graeciam.
have Macedonia, guard
Greece
14
in pace iacere quam in bello vigere
rest in peace than fight in war
moderationem patientiamque mirantur
admire his restraint
Timere se dicunt quo modo ferant veterani exercitum Brutum habere.
15
They say that they fear how the veterans will accept Brutus taking an army.
virtutis robore firmior
vigorous in srength of virtue
16
quos veterani secuntur
the veterans follow them
Omnis est misera servitus.
all slavery wretched
19
Omnes nationes servitutem ferre possunt, nostra civitas non potest.
20
All nations can endure slavery, our city cannot.
Concurritur unique a commune incendium restinguendum. All rush to put out fire.
21
M. Bruti...tota mens auctoritatem senatus, libertatem populi Romani intuetur.
23
The entire mind of M. Brutus is directed to the authority of the senate and the will of the
people.
magno in dolore ex crudeli et misrabili morte Treboni
sorrow over death of
Trbonius
XI.1
geminum in scelere par
twins equal in crime
2
statuit ille quidem non inimicos, sed hostes
not just unfriendly, but enemy
3
Alter in Asiam inrupit. Cur?
One rushed into Asia. Why?
4
falsi indices extiterunt in amore simulato
false pretence of affection
5
post cervicibus fractis caput abscidit
broke neck and cut off head
Quid loquar de caede civium Romanorum, de direptione fanorum?
6
What shall I say about the slaughter of Roman citizens, the plundering of shrines?
volitat ut rex
struts as if king
quae tulisse illum fortiter et patienter ferunt
bore bravely and patiently
7
non solum in vivo, sed etiam in mortuo
on dead as well as living
8
Miserior igitur, qui suscipit in se scelus, quam si quis alterius facinus subire cogitur.
Worse he who undertakes a crime than one forced to follow another in crime.
9
hominem ridiculum
absurd man
13
iudicavit hostem Dolabellam
judged Dolabella an enemy
15
est ipse confidens, impotens, gladiatorio generi mortis addictus
16
He is sure, out of order, to die like a gladiator.
Dolabella hesterno die hoste decreto
Dolabella decreed enemy
yesterday.
honorem homini amicissimo denegavisse
deny honor to friend
19
C. Caesari adulescentulo imperium extraordinarium mea sententia dedi.
20
I gave an extraordinary command to the youth Caesar.
Aut exercitus adimendus aut imperium dandum fuit.
take army or give command
ut liberato Bruto...ut relicto, deserto, prodito
freed...abanoned, betrayed
22
liberine vivamus an mortem obeamus
Live free or die.
24
ipsc accipere manicas
to take the gloves
26
ut omnia quae rei publicae salutaria essent legitima et iusta haberentur
28
that all which are healthy for the state be regarded as right and just
Maximam eius et singularem laudem praetermitto.
I pass over his special praise.
35
dominatum et principatum
rule and authority
36
Vide ne veteranos offendas.
See not to offend veterans.
37
ergo aut boni sunt...aut quieti...aut impii
good or neutral or wrong
Nihil enim semper floret, aetas succedit aetati
.
nothing forever
39
id enim bellum gerunt, quod ab omnibus gentibus comprobatur
they are waging a war approved by all nations
posteriores cogitationes
XII.2
decepti, decepti, inquam, sumus
3
praestrinxerat aciem animi D. Bruti salus
second thoughts
been deceived
safety of Brutus dulled me
Cuiusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore perseverare.
5
All make mistakes; only a fool persists in his mistake.
ex pacis patrocinio repentino
from hasty seeking of peace
6
Optimus est portus paenitenti mutatio consilii.
best port for repentance
change of plan 7
Capua...altera Roma
Capua..second Rome
Legionum nostrarum nervos nonne his consiliis incidimus?
8
By these plans are we not cutting the force of our legions?
non solum inscientibus, sed etiam invitis
unknowing and unwilling
9
invitatus ad pacem Antonius, bellum tamen maluit
offered peace, chose war
11
Leges statuimus per vim.
laws passed by force
12
Quod remittamus? An Galliam ultimum et exercitum?
what give? Gaul and army?
13
cum iis facta pax non erit pax
peace with them not peace
14
ut cedamus, abeamus
that we yield, leave
15
nihil esse homini Romano foedius servitute
nothing worse than slavery
mea persona ad istam pacem coniliandum minime fuit deligenda last one to be chosen
17
ad haec Antoniana saxa
to these Antonian rocks
19
Non possum animo aequo videre tot tam importunos, tam sceleratos hostes.
20
I cannot with calm mind see so many evil and wicked enemies.
propter acerbissimum omnium in me odium impiorum
because of wicked hatred of
me
21
Domesticis me parietibus vix tueor sine amicorum custodiis.
guard self with friends
24
sui primum capitis custodem
first guard of self
25
Novi hominis furorem, novi effrenatam violentiam.
know rage and violence
26
Voluntate hospitem, necessitate hostem.
in will friend, in fact enemy
27
In nostra ille numquam veniet, multo minus nos in illius. neither will go to other side
28
ne imperita militum multitudo per me pacem distineri putet lest they think I offer peace
ego sententia, auctoritate, oratione firmavi
aid by influence and speech
29
credunt improbis, credunt turbulentis, credunt suis
Custodiatur igitur vita mea rei publicae.
30
believe own wicked
Save my life for country.
dulce enim etiam nomen est pacis
sweet the name of peace
XIII.1
cuius acta defendimus, actorem ipsum iure caesum fatemur Acts and slaying we defend.
2
cum omnibusne pax esse possit
peace possible with all?
de gravitate Pompeius...de cupiditate Caesar
severity of Pompey...lust of
Caesar
incessum, aspectum, vultum, spiritum
walk, sight, face, spirit
4
collegam et scelerum socium omnium hostem iudicavistis his colleague an enemy
5
non fortitudo solum, verum etiam sapientia
both bravery and wisdom
6
si non spiritu, at virtutis laude vivemus.
live with praise
7
Magnum Pompeium, clarissimum adulescentem
Pompey a famous youth
8
Nemo ab eo civis violatus.
no citizen harmed
Pacem vult M. Lepidus.
Lepidus wants peaee.
9
silentio bellum civile confecerat
had ended civil war
In altero pudor, gravitas, moderatio, integritas
in one restraint and
integrity
10
in illis...libidines, scelera, ad omne facinus immanis audacia
in others lusts, crime,
daring
quasi thesaurum draco
as dragon a treasure
12
Cn. Pompei filius posset et dignitatem et fortunas patrias recuperare
son of Pompey able to regain dignity and fortune of his father
exercitum non suum
army not his own
14
licet autem nemini contra patriam ducere exercitum
None lead army
versus country.
quodsi auctoritatem interponis sine armis, magis quidem laudo
Use authority without
arms.
15
incensi omnes rapimur ad libertatem recuperaneum
desire for freedom
odimus, irati pugnamus
we hate, angry we fight
pati vel difficillima malumus quam servire
suffer before slavery
At periculum est ne opprimamur.
chance of defeat
16
servum quam collegam
slave not colleague
17
O miser...quod non sentis quam miser sis.
O sad, because not know you
are sad.
tam taeter, tam crudelis tyrannus
so foul, so cruel a tyrant
18
si non liber, at tamen tuto
if not free, at least safe
Caesaris...virtus
virtue of Caesar
19
egressus est non viis, sed tramitibus
left not by roads, but by-ways
frenos furoris
reins of fury
20
quis tam barbarus, tam immanis, tam ferus
who so barbarous, so wild
21
Cum hoc pax esse quae potest?
what peace with this man?
Antonius Hirtio et Caesari
Antony to Hirtius and Caesar
22
O Spartace!
O Spartacus!
scurrae filium
son of buffoon
23
et te, o puer
and you, o boy
24
qui omnia nomini debes
owe all to name
25
et ut venefica haec liberetur obsidione
poisoner freed from
siege
homo diruptus dirutusque
'ruptured and ruined' man
26
deliciarum causa loris in convivio caedi
whipped at banquet
numquam curiam incendisset
never have burned curia
27
perire eum non posse, nisi et crura fracta ssnt
die only crucifying
Muribus Deciis
Decii the nibblers
Arbitror me aliquos praeterisse.
omitted some
28
auctoritati cessisset audacia
daring would have yielded to
authority
princeps M. Cato
Cato the leader
30
Victum Ciceronem ducem habuistis.
You had defeated Cicero as
leader.
obrutus vino, unguentis oblitus, nudus
drunk, perfumed, naked
31
de duobus nequissimis Graeculis
from two worthless Greeks
33
At militibus inclusis opem fertis.
You help besieged soldiers.
35
cum Dolabella societatem
alliance with Dolabella
36
bellum contra patriam nefarium suscepisti
undertook evil war against
country
39
cuncta contra te Italia armata est
all Italy armed against you
deceptum Caesarem gloriatus est
boasted Caesar deceived
40
deteriores enim iugulari cupio, meliores vincere
want evil killed, good to win
Tu, tu, inquam, illum occidisti Lupercalibus.
You killed him on Lupercal.
41
impurissimos parricidas
most foul murderers
42
Tu porro ne pios quidem, sed piissimos quaeris.
You seek most dutiful as
allies.
43
Ne Plancum prodere, participem consiliorum.
not to betray my
partner Plancus
44
memorabilis ac divina virtus lucem adfert rei publicae
his virtue gives light to
country
non enim tibi cum Pompeianis, sed cum universa re publica bellum est.
45
war not with Pompeians, but with whole country
ulcisci parati sunt una nobiscum Caesaris mortem
to avenge Caesar's death
46
intellegit maximam pietatem conservatione patriae contineri
greatest duty to save
country
Ad te quisquam veniat nisi Ventidi similis?
only one like Ventidius go to
you
48
cum hoc pacem M. Lepidus
Lepidus make peace with him
49
prius undis flamma
sooner flame than wave
nec facta nec nomen audiat
not hear deed nor name
Optatissimum est vincere.
first wish to win
in unius viri fortissimi et naximi vita
in life of one brave man
XIV.3
vicit dolorem aliquem domesticum patriae caritate
love of country defeated
private grief
4
Bellum inexpiabile infert quattuor consulibus unus omnium latronum taeterrimus.
8
One most foul of all robbers is waging an unforgivable war against four consuls.
tanta multitudine hostium interfecta
so many enemies killed
12
cum fascibus descensurum
I would enter with fasces
14
Quemquamne fuisse tam sceleratum, qui hoc fingeret, tam furiosum, qui crederet?
Was anyone so evil as to suggest this, so mad as to believe this?
P. Apuleius, tribunus pl., meorum omnium consiliorum periculorumque iam inde a
consulatu meo testis 16
Tribune A witness of my plans and dangers from my consulship
iniquissima me invidia liberarit
freed me from foul envy
Si principatus agerteur, quem numquam expetivi
leadership I never sought
18
semper illum hostem, semper hoc bellum
always he enemy, this a war
20
Pharsaliae vero pugnae ne triumphum quidem egit
no triumph after Pharsalus
23
cum imperatores appello...hostes iudico
Call them leaders, judge them
enemies.
24
rei publicae vitam reservavit
saved life for country
26
An vero quisquam dubitabit appellare Caesarem imperatorem?
28
Will any hesitate to call Caesar commander?
O fortunata mors, quae naturae debita pro patria est potissimum reddita!
31
O fortunate death, owed to nature and powerful for country!
ut idem deus urbem hanc gentibus, vos huic urbi genuisse videatur
32
that the same god seems to have born this city for the world, you for this city
In fuga foeda mors est, in victoria gloriosa.
death foul in flight, great in
victory
quae militibus ipsis tribui oporteret, si vivi vicissent, qui morte vicerunt
right to give to soldiers who if they had lived, conquered in death
Ventidius ex mulione...Parthicum bellum
Sch. Iuv.
Ventidius from muleteer to command versus Parthia
Basic information about Vitruvius:
Vitruvius Polio (?): architect and engineer from 50-20 BC
De Architectura in ten books
1) town planning, qualifications of architect
2) building materials
3-4) temples and orders
5) civic buildings
6) private buildings
7) pavement
8) water supply
9) geometry, measuring, astronmy
10) machines
From De Arcitectura of Vitruvius:
de opportunitate publicorum aedificorum
Ipref
ad apparationem balistarum
about the building of public edifices
for repairing balistae
pluribus disciplinis et variis eruditionibus
upon many disciplines and various
training
1
ingeniosum...et ad disciplinam docilem
natural talent and disposition to
learn
facilis, aequus, et fidelis
easy going, fair, trustworthy
ordinatione...dispositione...symmetria et decore
order, arrangement, symmetry,
charm
2
uti in hominis corpore...sic in operum perfectionibus
as in human body, so in form
of works
aedificatio, gnomice, machinatio
building, drilling (?), mechanics
3
firmitas, utilitatis, venustatis
strength, utility, charm
Omnia corpora calore fiunt imbecilia.
Heat weakens all bodies.
4
Sin autem mediterraneo, in oppido medio.
If forts inland, then forum in middle
of of town.
7
de materiae copiis
about supplies of material
II.pref
Homines vetere more ut ferae in silvis et speluncis et nemoribus nascebantur ciboque
agresti vescendo vitam exigebant.
In old habit men were born like wild beasts in woods, caves, or groves. They spent their
lives eating wild fruit.
1
fundatas et latericiis parietibus
houses with foundations of
brick walls
ex terra albida crteosa sive de rubrica
of white clay or red earth
3
de harena...nigra, cana, rubra, carbonculum
about sand...black, white, red, carbon
4
pulveris...circa Vesuvium montem
powder found near Mount Vesuvius
6
de lapidicinis
about quarries
7
structurarium genera...reticulatum...incertum
two kinds of walling: retculate
(netted)and uncertain (mixed)8
ad incendia uti faces
like torches made for fire
rationem compositione
plan of proportion
III.1
peripteros...senas colunas...undenas
peirptos with six by eleven columns
2
crassiores quinquagesima parte
thickened by fiftieth part
3
capita leonina sunt scalpenda
lions' heads to be carved
5
Columnae Corinthiae praeter capitula omnes symmetrias habent uti Ionicae.
IV.1
Corintian columns are proportioned just the same as Ionic except for the capital.
Corinthum...virginlis gracilitatis
Corinthian column has maidenly
aedes rotundae
circular temples
grace.
8
Cellae enim longitudinibus duplies sunt ad latitudines.
cells double in length
Arae spectent ad orientem.
Let the altars look to the east.
9
basilicarum loca adiuncta foris
basilicas should be adjacent
to the forum
V.1
Aerarium, carcer, curia foro sunt contingenda.
Treasury, prison, curia must be next
to the forum.
2
quadratis Graecorim, latine paribus lateribus trigonm
Greeks squared, Roman
equally triangled
8
ambulationem...in pace salubritatis, in bello salutis walkways give health in peace, safety
in war
9
balneae calidissimus aversus ab septemtrionibus
baths in warmest place, faced away
from north
10
tueantur naves in his ab tempestatibus
ships in harbor protected
from storms
12
navaliorum...ad septentrionem
docks to north
Sub septentrione aedificia testudinata et conclusa. In the north buildings should be
covered and closed.
VI.1
uti falsa iudicia oculorum habeat aspectus
eye sight may give false appearances
2
Triclinia verrna et autemnalia ad oriente.
Spring and fall dining rooms should
face east.
4
fabrili subtilitate, magnificentia, dspositione
fine workmanship, magnificence,
arrangement
8
de ruderatione
about rubble paving
VII.1
in montibus et regionibus septentrionalibus
water found in mountains or northern
regions
VIII1
ex imbribus aqua...saubriores
rainwater most healthy
2
aqua calida medicamentosa
warm water healthiest
3
mulina ungula
hoof of a mule
fontes uti vino mixti
springs seemingly mixed with wine
Ita media terra cum mari centri loco naturaliter es conlocata.
IX.1
The earth with the sea has naturally been placed in the middle.
lunam suum propriumque non habere lumen
The moon does not have its own light.
2
scansorium...spirabile...tractorium
(machines moved by) ladders, wind,
traction
X.1
porrecti...rutunditatis
3
ad hauriendam aquam
4
ex proposita sagittae longitudine
10
turres ambulatoreas
13
corvum...gruem
terram, harenam, lapides
16
rationem architectorum
straight, circular
for raising water
from intended length of arrow
moving towers
hook or crane
earth, sand, stones
reasoning of the architects
Basic information about Nepos:
Cornelius Nepos, 99-24 BC, De Viris Illustribus, first surviving biographies in Latin,
Hannibal noteworthy,
Atticus most expabded
From De Viris Illustribus of Nepos:
leve et non satis dignum
trivial and unworthy
pref
omnia maiorum institutis iudicari
all judged by ancestors' usage
Miltiades...gloria maiorum et sua modestia
Miltiades by ancestors' glory and his
modesty
I.1
Loca castellis idonea communiit.
He fortified places suited for camps.
2
Athenas demigravit.
He returned to Athens.
3
Suas copias in campum Marathona deduxerunt.
They led their troops into the plain of
Marathon.
4
Classem LXX navium Athenienses Miltiadi
Athenians entrusted sevemty ships to
Miltiades.
7
In vincula publica coniectus est ibique diem obiit supremum.
He was
chained, imprisoned, and soon died.
Themistocles...a patre exheredatus est.
Themistocles was disinherited by his
father.
II.1
Ille persuasit populo ut ea pecunia claqssis centum navium aedificaretur.
2
He persuaded the people to build a fleet of one hundred ships with that money.
ut moenibus ligneis se munirent
to build wooden walls
Thermopylas...omnes interierunt.
All died at Thermopylae.
3
apud Salamina
at Salamis
ut eius multitudo navium explicari non potuerit
that he couldn't maneuver many ships
4
Unuius viri prudentia Graecia liberata est.
By one man's planning Greece was
saved.
5
Argos habitatum concessit.
He went to Argos to live.
8
Arisitdes...cognomine Iustus
Aristides, named the Just
III.1
Delectus est qui constitueret
chosen to decide (taxes)
3
Pausanias...varius in omni genere vitae
Pausanias, untrustworthy in all
respects
IV.1
non callida, sed dementi ratione
not clever, but insane
3
semianimis de templo elatus
carried half dead from temple
5
Cimon...minus bene vestitum suum amiculum dedit. Cimon gave poorly clad man his own
cloak.
V.6
Lysander Delphicum corrumpere est conatus.
Lysander tried to bribe the
oracle at Delphi.
VI.3
Alcibiades...in vitiis vel in virtutibus
Alcibiades not excelled in vices or
virtues
VII.1
eruditus a Socrate
educated by Socrates
2
Amatus est a multis amore Graecorum.
He was loved in the Greek way by
many.
Omnes Hermae deicerentur praeter unum.
All the Herms except one were
toppled.
3
Capitis damnatum Lacedemonem demigravit.
Condemned to death, he
moved to Sparta.
4
adversas superiores et praesentes secundas res
past misfortune and present fortune
6
ne iuxta hostem castra habeas nautica
Don't place naval camp near
enemy.
8
Telis eminus missis interfecerunt caputque eius ad Pharnabasum rettulerunt.
10
Throwing many spears, they killed him and took his head to Pharnabasus.
Dion...magna, corporis dignitatem
Dion displayed great personal
dignity.
X.1
In lecto cubantem invadunt, colligant.
They attacked him while
sleeping and tied him. 9
Lyco Syracusanus per fenestras gladium dedit.
The Syracusan Lyco though windows
gave him a sword.
Epaminondas non tam magnitudini virium servivit quam velocitati.
XV.2
Epaminondas aimed for swiftness rather than strength.
Paritur pax bello.
Peace is won by war.
5
audacius instaret hostes
too boldly attacked enemy
9
Vixi, invictus enim morior.
I have lived, unconquered I die.
ut acerrimum leonem aut ferocissimum elephantum like dangerous lion or fierce elephant
XVIII.11
Timoleon...ut patriam oppressam a tyranno liberaret Timoleon to free country oppressed
by tyrant
XX.1
Maluit se deligi quam metui.
He preferred to be loved than to be
feared.
3
Hamilcar adulescentulus in Sicilia praeesse coepit exercitui.
XXII.1
As a very young man Hamilcar began to be in charge of an army in Sicily.
bellum renovare Romanosque armis persequi
to resume war and pursue
Romans with arms
Mercenarii milites...desciverunt.
The mercenaries revolted.
2
Plures fame quam ferro interirent.
More died from hunger than sword.
Effecit ut imperator cum exercitu in Hispaniam mitteretur.
3
The senate arranged that he be sent as commander to Spain with an army.
Maximas bellicosissimas gentes subegit.
He subdued great, warlike tribe.
4
Hannibal, Hamilcaris filius, Karthaginiensis
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar, a
Carthaginian
XXIII.1
Cum eo congressus est in Italia, semper...superior. Every time he fought in Italy, he won.
odium paternum erga Romanos
family hatred toward the Romans
Pater meus Hamilcar puerulo me, utpote non amplius novem annos nato, in Hispaniam
imperator proficiscens,
Karthagine Iovi optimo maximo hostibus immolavit. Quae
divina res dum conficiebatur, quaesivit a me vellemne
secum in castra proficisci. Id
cum libenter accepissem atque ab eo petere coepissem ne dubitaret ducere, tum ille,
"Faciam," inquit, "si mihi fidem quam postulo dederis." Simul ad aram me adduxit apud
quem sacrificare instituerat eamque ceteris remotis tenentem iurare iussit nusquam me in
amicitia cum Romanis fore.
2
When I was a boy just nine years old, my father Hamilcar setting out to Spain as
commander, sacrificed hosts to
Jupiter greatest and best. When he was performing
the divine rite, he asked whether I wished to leave with him. When
I willingly agreed and
began to ask him not to hesitate to take me, then he said, "I shall do that, if you give me the oath
I demand." At the same time he led me to the altar where he had made the sacrifice, told
others to leave, and ordered me never to accept friendship with the Roman people.
Hoc quoque interfecto, exercitus summam imperii ad eum detulit.
3
After Hasdrubal died, the army voted him the supreme office.
Omnes gentes Hispaniae bello subegit, Saguntum, foederatam civitatem, vi expugnavit.
He conquered all the races of Spain and attacked Saguntum, a federate city.
Loca patefecit, itinera muniit, effecit ut ea elephantus
ornatus ire posset qua antea
unus homo inermis vix poterat repere.
Has copias traduxit in Italiamque pervenit.
He opened the passes, built roads, and arranged that elephants in full gear cross where
previously one man could
hardly crawl. He led these troops through and came to Italy.
gravi morbo oculorum
severe eye sickness
4
C. Flaminium consulem apud Trasumenum cum exercitu insidiis circumventum occidit.
Near Trasimene he trapped his army in ambush and killed Flaminiuis the consul.
Hinc in Apuliam pervenit. Ibi obviam ei venerunt duo consules, C. Terentius et L.
Aemilius. Utriusque exercitus uno proelio fugavit, Paulum consulem occidit.
From here he came to Apulia. To oppose him came two consuls, Varro and Paulus. In
one battle he put the armies of
both to flight and killed Paulus the consul.
Romam profectus nullo resistente, in propinquis urbi montibus moratus est.
5
Setting out for Rome with no resistance, he delayed in mountains near the city.
Sarmenta in cornibus iuvencorum deligata incendit eiusque generis multitudinem magnam
dispalatam immisit.
He tied shrubbery to the horns of cattle, set it afire, and drove many out in all directions.
invictus patriam defensum revocatus
Unbeaten he was recalled to defend
his country. 6
Paucis diebus apud Zamam cum eodem conflixit. A few days later he fought with him at
Zama.
Karthaginienses bellum cum Romanis composuerunt.
made peace with Romans
7
Navem ascendit clam atque in Syriam ad Antiochum refugit.
He secretly took ship
and fled to King Antiiochus in Syria.
Ad Prusiam in Pontum pervenit.
He came to Prusias in Pontus.
10
Puer, ab ianua prospiciens, Hannibali dixit plures praeter consuetudinem armatos apparere.
12
A boy, looking out the door, told Hannibal that more soldiers than usual were near.
Venenum sumpsit.
He took poison.
M. Cato, ortus municiio Tusculo
Cato, born in a Tusculan town
XXIV.1
Romam demigravit in foroque esse coepit.
He moved to Rome and began a
public career.
Q. Ennium poetam deduxerat.
He had brought the poet
Ennius to Rome.
Scipio...privatus in urbe mansit.
Scipio stayed in Rome as private
citizen.
2
agricola sollers et peritus consultus et magnus imperator et probabilis orator et
cupidissimus litterarum
3
expert farmer, skilled lawyer, great general, capable orator, and greatly devoted to letters
Atticus equestrem obtinuit dignitatem.
Atticus obtained equestrian
rank.
XXV.1
Pater mature discessit.
His father died young.
2
Athenas se contulit.
He went to Athens.
Universos frumento donavit.
He gave grain to all.
Sulla secum habuit Pomponium.
Sulla kept him in his presence.
4
Sicut Ciceroni in omnibus eius periculis singularem fidem praebuit.
he showed a special favor to Cicero in all his misfortunes.
Erat nupta soror Attici Q. Tullio Ciceroni.
Quintus Cicero married Atticus'
sister.
5
optimarum partium
supporter of the optimates
6
Honores non petit.
He did not seek public office.
Neminem suo nomine accusavit.
He accused no one in his name.
Non solum dignitati serviebat, sed etiam tranquillitati
He maintained dignity and
calm.
Attici quies Caesari grata
Atticus' calm neutrality delighted
Caesar.
Uxorem Fulviam omnibus rebus spoliare cupiebant, liberos etiam exstinguere parabant.
9
They wanted to rob Antony's wife Fulvia of her property and even wanted to kill her
children.
non fortunae, sed hominibus amicum
a friend not to fortune, but to
men
De foro discesserat.
He had departed from the forum.
10
de proscriptorum numero exemisse
that he had erased his name from
proscribed
quam plurimis...esset auxilio
to help as many as possible
11
illius liberaltatem neque temporariam neque callidam
his generosity neither time
serving nor calculated
Nullas inimicitias gessit.
He made no enemies.
Sui cuique mores fingunt fortunam hominibus.
Each's habits make his fortune.
plus salis quan sumptus
more taste than expense
13
principem non solum urbis Romae, sed orbis terrarum
ruler not only of city, but also
world
20
Nam mihi stat alere morbum desinere.
For I wish not to nourish my
malady.
21
inimicos ulcisci
to avenge one's enemies
frag.I.1
re publica salva
the country safe
hitoriam...philosophiam
history and philosophy
II.2
Basic information about Vergil (Virgil):
Publius Vergilius Maro born Mantua (Andes), 70-19 BC, educated at Cremona, Milan, and
Rome, ten Eclogues
(Bucolics) shepherds' tales of c. 100 lines each, owing much to Theocritus (c.45-37
BC), fourth and sixth
are more elevated, fourth came to be regarded as prophecy of Christ's birth and
reads like Isiah,
4 books of Georgics (37-31 BC), 12 books of Aeneid (ph 26-19) incomplete, heroic
epic based on Homer,
Eclogues: 1-3, 5-, 7-1- model Theocrotus, blend of Greek and Roman with actual
Roman characters
1) Meliboeus exiled, Tityrus has kept his land
2) Corydon's pursuit of Alexis
3) singing contest of love
4) birth of baby boy will bring new golden age
5) Menalcas and Mopsus sing of death of Daphnis
6) shepherds find drunken Silenus and force him to sing
7) Corydon and Thyrsis sing of pasture
8) sorceress lures Daphnis home
9) Lycidas and Moeris worry over seizing of their land
10) in honor of Gallus
Georgics: 2188 lines in four books,
1: crops: prayers to gods, joys of farming, farm management, hard world
2: fruit trees: vine and olive, graft and transplant, farming better than war
3) animals: flocks, breeding, quick grading, dogs to protect herd
4) bees: a tiny state, king bee as leader, stories of Aristaeus and
Orpheus/Eurydice
vaguely Hesiodic, specifically Alexandrine, much of 4 an epyllion
(Aristaeus, Orpheus and Eurydice),
Homeric traces,
mix of Lucretian and Stoic perspectives
Aeneid: 12,847 or 12,913 lines (Helen episode etc.), 12 books, epic of Rome (many
predictions) in Greek
format, expansion of Homer and many Roman sources to
create the story of Aeneas going from Troy to Italy,
not annalsitic, but Homeric in unity, theories of division
Book 1: Aeneas arrives in Africa
Book 2: Aeneas tells of the fall of Troy
Book 3: Aeneas tells of his wanderings from Troy to Africa
Book 4: love of Dido for Aeneas, her suicide
Book 5: Aeneas in Sicily (games honoring dead Anchises)
Book 6: Aeneas meets his father Anchises in the underworld
Book 7: Aeneas lands at Tiber, friendly association with Latinus
Book 8: new suit of armor
Book 9: episode of Nisus and Euryalus, Turnus unsuccessfully attacks
Trojan camp
Book 10: Turnus kills Pallas, Aeneas kills Lausus, heroic code
Book 11: killing of Camilla and Arruns
Book 12: final duel of Aeneas and Turnus, death of Turnus
ways of dividing Aeneid:
1-6 an Odyssey, 7-12 an Iliad
1-4 leads to rich Carthage, 5-8 leads to poor Italy, 9-12 unity of Trojan and
Italian
even numbered books more exciting, odd numbered more tranquil
influences additional to Homer: Apollonius Rhodius for Book 4, Ennius, Lucretius,
Catullus
pius Aeneas, but note exceptions, why he left Dido, why he killed Turnus, religious
view
From Minor Poems perhaps written by Vergil:
Culex:
ut araneoli
2
Propulit e stabulis ad pabula laeta capellas pastor.
pens to happy meadows.
45
quae lacerant avidas inimico pectore mentes
unfriendly heart
61
Non avidas agnovit opes nec tritia bella
sad wars
81
nec funesta timet validae certamina classis.
fleet.
immanis vario maculatus corpore serpens
164
Et mortem vitare monet per acumina
his tiny sting.
184
Prosiluit furibundus et illum obtritum mori misit.
crushed gnat to death. 187
Respexit serpentem.
190
dignus amor venia
294
Digredior numquam rediturus.
381
like tiny spiders
The shepherd drove his goats from
which tears greedy minds from
He does not know greedy wealth and
nor fears the deadly battles of strong
a huge snake speckled on varied body
And it warns him to avoid death with
He jumped in rage and sent the
He looked back at the snake.
love worthy of pardon
I pass by never to return.
Ciris:
laudis amore
love of praise
1
hominum errores longe lateque per orbem despicere to look over human failings over the
whole world
16
Ergo Palladiae texuntur in ordine pugnae.
Thus are woven in order the battles of
Athena.
29
nam capite asummo rege...roseus crinis
on the top of
his head a red lock
120
Scylla, patris miseri patriaeque inventa sepulchrum Scylla, wretched tomb of father and
country
131
o nimium cupiditis Minon inhiasset ocellis.
upon Minos
idem...parvulus...Iunonis magnae
138
Ille idem oppugnat praecordia Minos.
heart.
272
Quo nunc me, infelix, aut quae me fata reservant?
me, unlucky one?
318
Nihil est, quod texitur ordine, longum.
order.
339
Tum coma Sidonio florens deciditur ostro.
cut.
387
Sacrato foedere coniunx dicta tibi.
agreement.
414
Iam iam scelus omnia vincit.
427
Omnia vicit amor.
437
Incultum solis in rupibus exigit aevum.
rocks.
518
Insequitur Nisus, qua se fert Nisus ad auras,
through the breezes 540
illa levem fugiens raptim secat aetherea pinnis.
her wings.
O gaping with too much lust in eyes
tiny boy...great Juno
That same Minos besieges my
Where now do I go, or what fate holds
Nothing is long which is done in
The hair flowing in Sidonian purple is
You did call me wife by sacred
Now, now crime conquers all.
Love conquered all.
She lives her life rough among lonely
Nisus follows, where Nisus climbs
flee at once she cuts the light air with
Copa:
Copa surisca
Copa the innkeeper
1
ebria fumosa saltat lasciva taberna
drunk dances wantonly in smoky shop
3
Sunt et mora cruenta.
There are red mulberries.
21
non et vasto inguine terribilis
not to be feared despite large groin
24
formosum tenerae decerpens ora puellae
handsome young man stealing kisses
from tender lass
33
Pone merum et talos. Pereat qui crastina curat.
37
Bring out the wine and dice. Let him die who cares for tomorrow.
Mors aurem vellens 'vivite' ait 'venio.'
Death plucking the ear said,
"Live, I am coming."
38
Moretum:
Simylus exigui cultor cum rusticus agri
when Smylus, rustic farmer of small
plot
3
Interdum clamat Scylaben. rat unica custos,
He
calls Scylabe, his only slave,
31
Afra genus, tota patriam testante figura
Ergo aliam molitur opem sibi providus heros.
other resources for himself. 60
Hortus erat iunctus casulae.
African, as her whole body revealed.
The careful hero gathers
There was a garden next to the hut.
Verum hic non domini (quis enim contractior illo?), This was not for the master (who
more careful than he?),
79
sed populi proventus erat.
but was provision for the people.
Simo damnat sua praemia voltu.
He condemns his fare 'with wrinkled
nose.'
108
species nomenque moreti
in fact and name 'moretum' (salad)
118
Egit in segetes et terrae condit aratrum.
He drove then into the fields and
buries his plough in the earth.
Dirae:
Divisas iterum sedes et rura canamus.
Let us sing again of homes
and farms.
2
conversa retro rerum discordia
disharmony of things again turned
6
impia...nec fecunda...non pascua colles
wrong, not fertile, no hills to pastures
9
Desint et silvis frondes et fontibus umor.
Let leaves fail the woods, water fail
the springs.
18
Dulcia non oculis, non auribus ulla ferantur.
Let nothing sweet for eye or ear be
born.
24
Nigro multa mari dicunt portenta natare.
They say many monsters swim in the
Black Sea.
55
Flectite currentes nymphas, vaga flumina, retro.
Wandering rivers, turn back your
flowing waters.
67
civili qui semper crimine crevit
who
grew rich always by civil crime
81
Dulcia rura, valete.
Sweet fields, farewell.
89
Dulcia amara prius fient et mollia dura.
Sweet shall become bitter, soft
become hard.
98
Lydia:
Invideo vobis, agri, discetis amare.
8
Non ulla puella doctior in terris aut formosior.
learned or beautiful. 24
Cur ego crudelem patior tam saepe dolorem?
38
Miserere dolentis.
42
Ausus ego primus castos violare pudores.
Fields, I envy you, you will learn to
love.
No other girl in the lands was more
Why do I suffer cruel pain so often?
Pity the one who grieves.
I first dared to violate chaste purity?
53
Ergo quod deus atque heros, cur non minor aetas?
lesser age?
75
Infelix ego, non illo qui tempore natus,
nature was kind.
qui facilis natura fuit.
Tantam Fata meae carnis fecere rapinam.
my flesh.
79
What god and hero did, why not
I unlucky, not born at that time, when
The fates have made such a wreck of
Priapea:
Vere rosa, autumno pomis, aestate frequentior spicis.
in spring roses, fall apples,
summer more often oars
I.1
Agellulum hunc...mala arceo manu.
I guard this little field from a wicked
hand.
II.3
Viator, hunc deum vereberis.
Traveler, you will fear this god.
16
pauperis tuguri
of this poor hut
III.6
domini hortulum vineamque tueri
to guard master's garden and
vineyard
18
Vicinus prope dives est neglegesque Priapus.
The wealthy neighbor is near,
his Priapus careless.
20
Catalepton:
Occulitur limine clausa viri.
door.
I.2
Subito in medio rerum certamine praeceps corruit.
is pitched headlong. III.7
Nos ad beatos vela mittimus portus.
harbors.
V.8
gener socerque, perdidistis omnia.
have ruined all.
VI.6
villula...et pauper agella
VIII.1
Victor adest.
IX.3
Nunc aliam ex alia bellando quaerere gentem.
nation in warfare.
53
Pingui nil mihi cum populo.
64
mulio celerrimus
X.2
Sed haec prius fuere.
24
Quis deus, Octavi, te nobis abstulit?
from us?
XI.1
She is locked within her husband's
In the midst of struggle for power he
We spread our sails for blessed
Son-in-law and father-in-law, you
small house and smaller farm
A conquerer is here.
Now to seek nation after
nothing for me with fat people
fastest muleteer
But these things are gone.
Octavius, what god has taken you
Hunc superesse patri quae fuit invidia?
8
Iacere me, quod alta non possim, putas,
cannot sail
XIII.1
ut ante, vectari freta
nec ferre durum frigus aut aestum pati
neque arma victoris sequi?
Valent, valent mihi ira et antiquus furor et lingua.
and tongue.
Obesam ad uxorem redis.
30
rudis in vario carmine Calliope
XV.4
What envy that he outlive his father?
Do you think to taunt me, because I
the seas as before
nor endure bitter cold or heat
nor follow the arms of the victor?
Strong are my anger and old rage
You return to your fat wife.
Calliope untrained in varied songs
From Eclogae of Vergil:
Titure, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi
Tityrus, you reclining under cover of
wide beech
I.1
Nos patriae finis et dulcia linquimus arva.
We are done with our country and
flee sweet fields.
3
Deus nobis haec otia fecit.
A god has made this rest for us.
4
Undique totis usque adeo turbatur agris.
On all sides so much disturbance in
the fields.
11-2
Urbem...Romam...putavi stultus ego huic nostrae sililem. I stupidly thought Rome like
ours.
19-20
Impius haec tam culta novalia miles habebit.
A godless soldier will possess these
tilled fields. 70
Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexia.
handsome Alexis.
II.1
O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori.
your bloom. 17
Trahit sua quemque voluptas.
65
The shepherd Corydon burned for
Sed faciles nymphae risere.
III.9
Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures?
are so bold? 16
mihi cantando victus
21
Iovis omnia plena
60
triste lupus stabulis
80
dulce satis umor
But the easy nymphs laughed.
O handsome boy, trust not too much
Each is led by his own pleasure.
What can masters do, when thieves
defeated in singing by me
all filled with Jupiter
terrible the wolf to the pens
sweet enough showers
82
anguis in herba
93
Paulo maiora canamus.
IV.1
Ultima Cumaei venit iam carminis aetas.
has come.
4-5
Magnus ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo.
Inrita perpetua solvent formidine terras.
eternal fear.
14-6
Ille deum vitam accipiet divisque videbit
will see the gods
permixtas heroas et ipse videbitur illis.
by them.
Ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae
of milk and
21-5
ubera nec magnos metuent armenta leones.
lions.
Occidet et serpens et fallax herba veneni occidet.
plant of poison will perish.
Et durae quercus sudabunt roscida mella.
honey.
30
quae temptare Thetim ratibus, quae cingere muris
towns with
32-6
oppida, quae iubeant tellure infindere sulcos.
ground with furrows.
Alter erit tum Tiphys et altera quae vehat Argo
another Argo to carry
delectos heroas; erunt etiam altera bella
wars and again
atque iterum ad Troiam magnus mittetur Achilles.
Omnis feret omnia tellus.
types of food. 39
Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem.
mother with a smile. 60
Cui non risere parentes,
worthy of
62-3
nec deus hunc mensa, dea nec dignata cubili est.
bed.
Tu maior, tibi me est aequum parere.
V.4
Formosi pecoris custos, formosior ipse.
44
Nec lupus insidias pecori nec retia cervis
snake in the grass
For a bit let us sing of greater things.
The final age of the Cumaean sibyl
A order of the ages is born anew.
They will release the earth from
He will take the life of the gods and he
mixed with heroes and he will be seen
She goats will bear home udders full
and the herds will not fear great
The serpent will die and deceitful
Sturdy oak will sweat forth dewy
to test the sea with ships, to surround
walls, to order (men) to cut the
There will be another Tiphys and
chosen heroes. There will be other
great Achilles will be sent to Troy.
Every part of the earth will beat all
Begin, baby boy, to notice your
Whom parents do not smile upon, is
neither a god's meal nor a goddess'
You are older, I should obey you.
fair my flock, fairer me
The wolf plans no ambush for the
herd nor the nets
60-1
ulla dolum meditantur. Amat bonus otia Daphnis. for deer. Good Daphnis loves rest.
Quae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine dona?
What gifts can I give to you for such a
song?
81
In antro Silvanum pueri somno videre iacentem,
in a cave,
VI.14-6
inflatum hesterno venas.
wine.
Carmina quae vultis cognoscite.
25
Incipiant silvae cum primum surgere cumque
39-40
rara per ignaros errent animalia montis.
through mountains unknown.
Thyrsis ovis, Corydon distentas lacte capellas
Corydon goats with milk
VII.3
si quid cessare potes
10
si non possumus omnes
23
Ne vati noceat mala lingua fururo.
to be.
28
Sinum lactis et haec te liba, Priape, quotannis
these sacrificial cakes 33-4
exspectare sat est. Custos es pauperis hortti.
are the guardian of a poor garden.
Aret ager, vitio moriens ssitit aeris herba.
tainted air.
57
Et mutata suos reuierunt flumina cursus.
VIII.4
Accipe iussis carmina coepta tuis.
orders.
11-2
parvam te roscida mala cum matre legentem
your mother 37-8
Nunc scio quid sit amor.
43
saevus amor docuit natorum sanguine matrem
her hands
47-8
cmmaculare manus.
Nunc et ovis ultro fugiat lupus, aurea durae
sturdy oak
52-3
mala ferant quercus.
Non omnia possumus omnes.
The boys saw Silvanus lying in sleep
his veins swollen with yesterday's
Note the songs you want.
when the forests began to rise
and animals wandered rarely
Thyrsis drove his sheep,
if you can stay a while
if we do not have all
Let not his evil tongue harm the bard
Priapus, a bowl of milk and
are enough to expect. You
The field burns, grass thirsts, dying in
And shocked rivers changed course.
Accept these songs we begin at your
a little child picking dewy apples with
Now I know what love is.
Savage love taught a mother to stain
with her children's blood.
Now let lamb put wolf to flight, let
bear golden apples.
No one can do all.
63
An qui amant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt?
dreams?
108
Or do lovers themselves invent their
quoniam fors omnia versat
IX.5
carmina nostra...tela inter Martis
Mars
11-2
Cadit in quemquam tantum scelus?
17
argutos inter strepere anser olores
swans
36
Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque.
51
since chance turns all
Non canimus surdis.
X.8
Ecquis erit modus?
28
Amor non talia curat.
Quid tum, si fuscus Amyntas?
38-9
Et nigrae violae sunt et vaccinia nigra.
hyacinths are black.
Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis
me
44-5
tela inter media atque adversos detinet hostis.
opposing enemy.
Omnia vincit amor et nos cedamus amori.
69
Surgamus.
75
Ite domum satirae, venit Hesperus, ite capellae.
77
We do not sing to the deaf.
our songs amidst the weapons of
Such crime fall on any man?
a goose cackling among songful
Time takes all, even our memory.
Will there be an end?
Love cares not for such trifles.
What if my Amyntas be black?
Violets are black and
Now a mad love for harsh Mars holds
in arms against weapons and
Love conquers all, let us yield to love.
Let us rise.
Goats, go home, evening is coming.
From Georgicon of Vergil:
Quid faciat laetas segetes, quo sidere terram
What makes crops happy, under what
star it is best
I.1-5 vertere, Maecenas, ulmisque adiungere vites
to turn the
land, Maecenas, and to tie vine to elm,
conveniat, quae cura boum, qui cultus habendo
what care for cattle, what care of
breeding for the herd,
sit pecori, apibus quanta experientia parcis,
what skill for hoarding bees,
hinc canere incipiam.
here I shall begin my song.
Liber,Ceres, Fauni, Neptune, Pan, Minerva, Sivane Bacchus, Ceres, Faun, Neptune, Pan,
Minerva, Silvaus
5-20
urbesne invisere, Caesar, terrarumque velis curam whether you wish to watch over cities
or fields, Caesar
25-6
Nec tibi regendi veniat tam dira cupido.
you.
37
Da facilem cursum.
40
an prius ignotum ferro quam scindimus aequor
iron plow
50
pingue solum
64
Alternis idem tonas cessurae novalis.
let them be fallow.
71
Sed tamen alternis facilis labor.
79
Nec nulla interea est inaratae gratia terrae.
83
Umida solstitia atque hiemes orate serenas.
winters.
100
curis acuens mortalia corda
123
In medium quarebant.
good.'
127
praedarique lupos iussit...mellaque decussit foliis.
from leaves
130
Et passim rivis curretia vina repressit.
streams.
132
Navita tum stellis numeros et nomina fecit.
stars.
138
Labor omnia vincit.
145
Quod nisi et adsiduis herbam insectabere rastris
constant hoe
155
et sonitu terrebis aves et ruris opaci
harsh voice and crush
falce premes umbras votisque vocaveris imbrem.
forth prayers for rain
divini gloria ruris
168
veterum praecepta
176
in peius ruere ac retro sublapsa referre
200
Multi ante occasum Maiae coepere, sed illos
May and expected
225
exspectata seges vanis eludit avenis.
straw.
Per duodena regit mundi sol aureus astra.
May such lust for rule not overcome
Give me calm sailing.
before we cut unknown plain with
rich soil
Every other year reap your fields and
By changing the work is easy.
The unplowed earth gives thanks.
Pray for moist summers and clear
sharpening hearts by cares
'Man made gain for the common
ordered wolf to prey, hook honey
And stopped wine running in
Sailors then numbered and named the
Work conquers all.
unless you attack the grass with
and you frighten birds with your
ground with curved sickle and call
glory of divine countryside
rules from olden days
rush to worse and fall back
Many have begun before the end of
crop has eluded them with empty
Through twelve signs o the world the
golden sun rules.
232
Nec frustra signorum oblitus speculamur et ortus. We watch the signs at rising and
setting with reason.
257
frigidus...imber, multa...maturare datur.
At cold rain much can be done
indoors.
279
cum nix alta iacet, glaciem cum flumina trudunt
when snow piles high, when rivers
push out ice
310
Ingeminant austri et densissimus imber.
Winds double and rain thickens.
333
Numquam imprudentibus imber obfuit.
Rains warn before they bring
troubles.
373
fato prudentia maior
prudence greater than fate
416
Hinc ille avium concentus in agris
From this the gathering of birds in
the fields
422
et laetae pecudes et ovantes gutture corvi.
and happy flocks and crows rejoicing
with croaks.
Sol tibi signa dabit.Solem quis dicere falsum audeat?
The sun will give you a sign.
Would he dare be false?
463
Obscenae canes importunaeque volucres signa dabant.
Bad dogs and birds give
signs.
470
Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis
Therefore Philippi saw Roman lines
rush together
489
Romanas acies iterum viere Philippi.
with matching arms.
Exesa inveniet scabra robigine pila,
A farmer will find javelins rusted with
rusty mould
495
aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanis,
or with heavy hoe he will strike empty
helmets,
grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulcris.
and he will wonder at large bones
dug out from tombs.
Hunc saltem everso iuvenem succurrere saeclo
Do not prevent this youth from giving
aid to this
500
ne prohibete.
overturned world. (Augustus)
Quippe ubi fas versum atque nefas: tot bella per orbem,
Right and wrong overturned,
so many wars
505
tam multae scelerum facies.
through the
world, so many faces of crime.
Vicinae ruptis inter se legibus urbes
Neighboring cities with laws
overturned take up arms
510
arma ferunt. Saevit toto Mars impius orbe.
against each other. Evil Mars rages
over the entire world.
tarde crescentis olivae
II.3
arboribus...creandis
9
Et saepe alterius ramos impune videmus
of slow growing olive
of growing trees
Often we see branches of one tree
turn into another.
32-3
vertere in alterius.
Fructusque feros mollite colendo.
Tame wild fruits by tilling.
36
Maecenas
Maecenas
41
Primi lege litoris oram, in manibus terrae.
Choose the edge of the shore, land at
hand.
44-5
Nec cellis ideo contende Falernis.
Don't compete with vintage wine.
96
Nec vero terrae ferre omnes omnia possunt.
All lands cannot bear all fruits.
109
Denique apertos Bacchus amat colles.
Wine loves open hills.
112
ubi aera vincere summum
where no arrows can be shot through
the air at
123
arboris haud nullae iactu potuere sagittae
the top of he trees
Folia haud ullis labentia ventis.
By no wind do its leaves fall.
133
Neque...laudibus Italiae certent.
None rival Italy in praise.
138
Hic ver adsiduum.
Here there is eternal spring.
149
Anne lacus tantos?
Or tell of such mighty lakes?
159
Haec genus acrem virum.
This land breeds fierce men.
167
te, maxime Caesar
you, mighty Augustus
170
Saturnia tellus
land of Saturn
173
vicina Vesaevo ota iugo
shore near the ridge of Vesuvius
224
pinguis tellus...haud umquam manibus iactat fatiscit.
Rich soil never crumbles in
hand.
249
Omnia sint paribus numeris dimensa viarum.
Let all be measured in even rows.
284
Neve tibi ad solem vergant vincta cadentem.
Never let your vineyard slope west.
298
Optima vinetis satio, cum vere rubente
best sowing for vines, when in red
spring the white bird 319
candida venit avis longis invisa colubris.
comes, hated by long snakes.
Tum pater omnipotens fecundia imbribus Aether Then all-powerful father air climbs
down in fertile rains 325
coniugis in gremium laetae descendit.
into the womb of his happy
wife.
parcendum teneris
Spare their weakness.
363
quantum illi nocuere greges durique venenum dentisas herds and their poison of sharp
teeth
388
curandis vitibus
dressing the vines
397
Laudato ingentia rura, exiguum colito.
Praise a large estate, till a
small one.
412
non ulla oleis cultura
no watching for olives
420
O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint
O too fortunate farmers, if they know
their blessings!
458
agricolas! Quibus ipsa, procul discordibus armis, To whom, far from arms, the most just
earth pours forth
fundit humo facilem victum iustissima tellus.
its easy blessings from its
soil.
At secura quies et nescia fallere vita,
But safe rest and a life not knowing
how to deceive,
467
dives opum variarum, at latis otia fundis.
wealthy from various works, but
peace in wide fields.
Et patiens operam exiguoque adsueta iuventus,
Hard working youth accustomed to
light fare, sacred rites 472
sacra deum sanctiqiue patres. Exrema per illos
for the gods and respect for holy
fathers. Among them Justice
Iustitia excedens terris vestigia fecit.
leaving made her last footsteps.
Rura mihi et rigui placeanr in vallibus amnes.
May the countryside and
flowing waters please me in dales. 485
Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas,
Fortunate, he who can recognize the
causes of things.
490
atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum
he who has thrown beneath his feet
all fear and fate's
subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari.
unchanging decree and the howl of
greedy Acheron.
fortunatus et ille, deos qui novit agrestis.
Fortunate he who knows the rural
gods.
Illum non populi fasces,non purpura regum
Him neither the emblems of the
people nor purple robes
495
flexit et infidos agitans discordia fratres.
sways
nor strife driving unfaithful brothers.
Neque ille
He neither grieved and pitied the
wretched nor envied 498
aut doluit miserans inopem aut inidit habenti.
the one possessing much.
What fruit his branches yielded,
Quos rami fructus, quos ipsa volentia rura
what his willing fields yielded, he
took of his own will,
sponte tulere sua, carpsit, nec ferrea iura
and saw neither iron laws nor mad
forum nor
insanumque forum aut populi tabularia vidit.
Sollicitant alii remis freta caeca, ruuntque
rushed to the sword.
in ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum.
kings.
Hic petiit excidiis urbem et miserosque penates
wretched houses
ut gemma bibat st Sarrano dormiat ostro.
sleep on Tyrian coverlet.
Condit opes alius defessoque incubat auro.
buried gold.'
Hic stupet attonitus rostris; hunc plausus hiantem
another is overwhelmed by
per cuneos germinatus enim plebis patrumque
resounding through the
corripuit; gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum,
brothers' blood they rejoice.
exsiloue domos et dulcia limina mutant
sweet thresholds
atque alio patriam quaerunt sub sole iacentem.
alien sun.
512
Agricola...
513
parvos nepotes sustinet.
514
nec requies
516
Interea dulces pendent circum oscula nati,
kisses,
523
casta pudicitiam servat domus, ubera vaccae
the cows drop
lactea dimittunt.
Ipse dies agitat festos.
527
Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini.
532
Pulcherrima Roma
534
septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces.
Aureus hanc vitam in terris Saturnus agebat.
538
Necdum etiam audierant inflari classica, necdum
trumpet, not yet
impositos duris crepitare incudibus ensis.
anvils.
accounting boards o his people.
Others stirred blind straits and
They enter the halls and chambers of
Another plots ruin of the city and
so that he may drink from gems and
Another hides wealth and 'gloats over
This one is stunned by the rostrum;
applause of commoners and fathers
doubled theater; drenched in
in exile they exchange houses and
and they seek country lying under an
The farmer...
He supports his small grandsons.
no rest
Meanwhile his sweet sons hang on his
his clean house preserves chastity,
milky udders.
He himself keeps the holidays.
Sabines of old worshipped this life.
beautiful Rome and its seven hills
enclosed within one wall
Golden Saturn lived on earth this life.
Not yet the earth had heard the loud
swords resounded when laid on hard
primus ego in patriam mecum...rediens...Mantua
Mantua, returning to my home town
III.10
Maecenas
Maecenas
41
Corpora praecipue matrum legat.
Let him carefully chose the bodies of
mothers (to breed). 51
Optima quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi prima fugit. The best day flees first from
mortals.
66
Si qua sonum procul arma dedere,
If anywhere the sound of arms gave
forth, he does not know
83
stare loco nescit, micat auribus et tremit artus.
how to stay, but pricks up his ears, trembles in limbs.
nec mora nec requies
neither delay nor rest
110
Tantus amor laudum, tantae est victoria curae.
So great love of praise, so
great the victory of their care.
112
aequus uterque labor
each work equal
121
Concubitus primos iam nota voluptas sollicitat.
Now the known pleasure stirs first
mating.
130
rursus cura patruum cadere et succedere matrum
Again care for fathers ceases, for
mothers takes place. 138
Post partum cura in vitulos traductur omnis.
After birth all care is spent on the
calves.
160
dum mobilis aetas
'while their age is still pliant'
165
Sudabit spatia et spumas aget ore cruentas.
He will sweat and spit bloody foam
from his mouth.
203
Venerem et caeci stimulos avertere amoris
to turn aside desire and goads of
blind love
210
Carpit enim vires paulatim uritque videndo femina. The female 'slowly inflames and
wastes his strength.' 215
Nec mos bellantis una stabulare, sed alter
Nor do the fighting steeds herd
together, but one
224
victus abit longeque ignotis exsulat oris.
defeated leaves and lives in exile on
unfamiliar shores.
Oblitum fertur in hostem.
He is carried toward forgotten
enemy.
236
Omne adeo genus in terris hominumque ferarumque Every race on earth of human or
animal and fish
242
et genus aequoreum, pecudes pictaeque volucres, and flocks of painted birds, all rush
into rage and fire:
in furias ignemque ruunt: amor omnibus idem.
the same love overwhelms all.
Quid iuvenis magnum cui versat in ossibus ignem durus amor?
258
What of the youth in whose bones harsh love instills the great fire?
Et saepe sine ullis coniugis vento gravidae.
Then they are often pregnant by the
wind without mate. 275
Sed fugit interea, fugit inreparabile tempus.
But unstoppable time rushes on.
284
Lanigeros agitare greges hirtasque capellas,
To drive the flocks of sheep and hairy
goats, this the
287
hic labor, hinc laudem fortes sperate coloni.
work, from this, strong farmers, hope
for praise.
densior hinc suboles, hinc largi copia lactis
from here thicker offspring, supply of
more milk
308
Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura carpamus. Let us take the cold fields as the
morning star rises.
324
Omnia secum armentarius Afer agit.
The African shepherd takes all with
him.
343
Vestesque rigescunt
Clothes freeze when worn and
363
indutae, caeduntque securibus umida vina.
they hack frozen wine with axes.
Interea toto non setius aere ninguit.
Meanwhile quickly snow fills the sky.
367
Ipsi in defossis specubus secura sub alta
They themselves in dug out caves live
a restful life
376
otia agunt terra.
under deep earth.
munere sic niveo lanae
snowy gift of wool (gift of
snowy wool)
391
Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postremus.
Make care of dogs your first
thought.
404
Morborum quoque te causas et signa docebo.
I will teach you the causes
and signs of diseases.
440
Corrupuitque lacus, infecit pabula tabo.
It poisoned the lakes, it infected the
fields with its venom. 481
Hinc canibus blandis rabies venit.
Thus madness afflicted calm dogs.
496
Di meliora piis erroremque hostibus illum!
Heaven give better to the good and a
plague to our enemy. 513
Quid labor aut benefacta iuvant?
What do work and service avail?
525
Ergo aegre rastris terram rimantur et ipsis
Thus men painfully turn the earth
with plows and with 534
unguibus infodiunt fruges.
their own nails dig in the seeds.
Iam maris immensi prolem et genus omne natantum And now the offspring of immense sea
and every type of
541
litore in extremo ceu naufraga corpora fluctus
swimming creature the waves
beach on the shore s if
proluit.
shipwrecked bodies.
Inque dies avidum surgens caput altius effert.
Daily she (death) raises her
greedy head higher.
553
Iamque catervatim dat stragem atque aggerat ipsis And now gives death to the herd and
heaps up in stables 556
in stabulis turpi delapsa cadavera tabo.
Verum etiam invisos si quis temptarat amictus,
clothes,
563
ardentes papulae atque immundus olentia sudor
run over
membra sequebatur, nec longo deinde moranti
accursed fire
tempore contactos artus sacer ignis edebat.
the bodies with foul taint.
If anyone tried to wear the tainted
hot blisters and unclean sweat would
foul limbs and not much later the
was eating his infected limbs.
aerii mellis caelestia dona
heavenly gift of honey from skies
IV.1
Maecenas
Maecenas
2
levium...rerum
of a tiny world
3
Magnanimosque duces totiusque ordine gentis
I shall tell of great souled leaders
and of a whole
4
mores et studia et populos et proelia dicam.
world's character, desires, people,
and battles.
In tenui labor, at tenuis non gloria.
Slight the work, not slight the glory.
Principio sedes apibus statioque petenda.
First home and station must be found
for the bees.
8
dulcem nidis immitibus escam
sweet food for cruel chicks
17
liquidi fontes
clear springs
18
Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda.
You must fear each (excess heat or
cold).
37
Non omnis fert omnia tellus.
No land bears all crops.
39
Nam saepe duobus
Strife with great disturbance has.s
often
67
regibus incessit magno discordia motu.
come upon two kings.
trepidantia bello corda
hearts eager for war
69
si parva licet componere magnis
if permitted to compare small with
large
76
Ipsi per medias acies insignibus alis
They through the midst of the battle
line on small wings, 83
ingentis animos angusto in pectore versant,
have great
spirit shut in small hearts and yet they are
usque adeo obnixi non cedere.
determined not to yield.
Elucent aliae et fulgore coruscant
Others shine and burning gleam with
light,
98
ardenre auro et paribus lita corpora guttis.
their bodies covered with gold and
equal drops.
Tu regibus alas eripe.
Tear their wings from kings.
106
Solae communis natos, consortia tecta
Alone they have children in
common, their houses of the 153
urbis habent, magnisque agitnt sub legibus aevum. city they have in common, and they
live under common law.
Et patriam solae et ertos movere penates,
They alone know country and fixed
home, and remembering
venturaeque hiemis memores aestate laborem
coming winter, in summer
they work and
experiuntur et in medium quaesita reponunt.
they put their goods in the middle (in
common?)
Fervet opus.
The work glows.
169
Si parva licet componere magnis,
If it be permitted to compare small
with large,
176
Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi
an inborn love to possess drives on
Athenian bees
munere quamque suo.
each in accord with his own duty.
Omnibus una quies operum, labor omnibus unus. One season of rest for all, one season
of work for all.
184
quod neque concubitu indulgent, nec corpora segnes that they do not indulge in
intercourse nor wear down their
198
in Venerem solvunt nec fetus nixibus edunt.
bodies in love or bring forth children
in pain.
Rege incolumi mens omnibus una est.
If the king be safe, there is one
mind for all.
212
apibus partem divinae mentis
Bees have a part of the divine mind.
220
Sed viva volare , sideris in nuumerum.
But they fly alive and are the number
of stars.
227
Illis ira modum supra est laesaeque venenum
Their anger knows no bound; when
injured,
236
morsibus inspirant.
they breathe poison in their bites.
Animasque in volnere ponunt.
They give up their lives with
their bite.
238
Contusosque animos et res miserabere fractas.
Pity their crushed spirits and broken
property.
240
invisa Minervae...aranea
hateful to Minerva, the spider
246
Arcadii memoranda inventa magistri pandere.
to tell the memorable
invention of Aristaeus
284
Eligitur locus.
A place is chosen.
296
Vitulus...queritur.
A calf is sought.
299
visenda modis animalia miris
animals seen in wondrous ways
309
Cyrene, mater, quae gurgitis huius ima tenes
Cyrene, mother, who rule the depths
of water
321
Aut quo tibi nostri pulsus amor?
Where is your love for me, defeated?
324
qua iuvenis gressus inferret
where the youth's steps went
360
Novit namque omnia vates.
The prophet knows all things.
392
Hic tibi, nate, prius vinclis capiendus.
This one, my son, must be
taken by chains.
396
Sternunt se somno diversae in litore phocae.
The seals lie down to sleep, scattered
on the shore.
432
Non immemor artis
Remembering his talent, the seer
changes himself
440
omnia transformat sese in miracula rerum.
into all miracles of things.
Tibi has miserabilis Orpheus
Unhappy Orpheus stirs these
punishments not deserved, 454
haudquaquam ad meritum poenas, ni fata resistant, if fates did not resist, and rages over
wife wrongly seized.
suscitat, et rapta graviter pro coniuge saevit.
Illa quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina praeceps, She indeed, while she was fleeing
headlong through rivers,
immanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella
doomed girl did not see in the
grass at her feet a huge snake
servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba.
which guarded the banks of the river.
Manisque adiit regemque tremendum
He entered the land of the dead and
the feared king
469
nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda.
not knowing to let human prayers
soften his heart.
Umbrae ibant tenues.
Flimsy shades were going about.
472
Iamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnis,
Now he turned his foot and
avoided all falls,
485
redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras,
and restored Eurydice was coming to
the upper breezes,
pone sequens (namque hunc dederat Prosepina legem),
following behind (for so
Eurydice had decreed),
cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,
when sudden madness seized
the unwary lover,
ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere Manes.
indeed unaware, if the shades knew
how to pardon.
Restitit. Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa
He stopped and his Eurydice under
that very light
immemor heu! victusque animi respexit.
alas unmindful and conquered in
mind he looked back at.
Quis et me miseram et te perdidit?
wretched me and you?
494
ceu fumus in auras
499
Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei.
him.
516
discerptum latos iuvenem sparere per agros.
wide fields.
522
Exitium misere apibus.
534
Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum
wondrous portent of a sudden 554
aspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto
cattle bees buzzed
stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis,
from broken ribs,
immensasque trahi nubes, iamque arbore summa
and at the top of the tree
confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis.
clusters from bending bow.'
From Aeneid of Vergil:
Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
from the shores of Troy
I.1
Italiam fato profugus Lavinaque vent
shores of Lavinia,
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
sea by the power of the
vi superum, saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram,
anger of savage Juno,
multa quoque bello passus, dum conderet urbem
found a city and
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum
Latin race
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.
high Rome.
dolens regina deorum...insignmem pietate virum
noted for piety
9
Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
11
Karthago...dives opum studiisque asperrima belli
14
progeniem...Troiano a sanguine
19
venturum excidio Libyae
What madness has destroyed
like smoke in the breezes
Neither love nor wedding song moved
They threw his ripped limbs over
They have sent this death to the bees.
Then marvelous to say a
they see, through the rotten flesh of
in the entire womb and boiled forth
and an immense cloud went forth,
they flowed together and 'hung in
I sing of arms and a man, who first
as a fugitive came to Italy and the
he much battered on lands and high
gods, because of the remembering
suffering much in war, until he might
bring his gods to Latium, whence the
and the Alban fathers and the walls of
queen of the gods grieving...a man
Such angers in divine minds?
Carthage, wealthy and eager for war
a race from Trojan blood
would come to destroy Libya
22
iudicium Paridis spretaeque iniuria formae,
her rejected beauty 27
et genus invisum et rapti Ganymedis honores
honors seized by Ganymede
Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem!
found the Roman race!
33
Mene incepto desistere victam?
work?
37
Incedo regina.
46
Aeoliam venit.
52
Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum naviat aequor.
the Tyrrhenian Sea.
67
Incute vim.
69
Forma pulcherrima, Deiopea,
you in set
72
coniugio iungam stabili propiamque dicabo.
properly yours.
Mihi iussa capessere fas est.
77
Ponto nox incubat atra.
89
O terque quaterque beati
who died at Troy)
94
Mene Iliacis occumbere campis
Troy
97
Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto.
whirlpool.
118
Sensit Neptunus.
125
Quos ego-135
Maturate fugam...non illi imperium pelagi.
sea.
137
Clauso ventorum carcere regnet.
winds.
141
dicto citius
word
142
Ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est
the people
148
seditio saevitque animis ignobile vulgus.
Furor arma ministrat.
150
pietate ac gravem meritis si forte virum
the judgment of Paris and insult to
and the hated race and the
Such a great task it was to
I defeated should cease from my
I walk as a queen.
The goddess comes to Aeolia.
A race unfriendly to me sails
Strike!
Most beautiful, Deiopea, I will join to
marriage and I will proclaim her
Mistress, your wish is my command.
Black night leaned upon the sea.
O three and four times blessed (those
If only I had fallen on the fields of
A few appear swimming in the vast
Neptune felt it.
Whom I-Get lost, not yours the rule over the
Let him rule in his shut prison of the
faster than the
as when a mutiny often arises among
and the ignoble rabble rages.
Rage provides arms.
if by chance a man serious in piety
and merits
151
Defessae Aeneadae...Libyae vertuntur ad oras.
Aeneas' tired men turn to the shores
of Libya.
157
Aeneas scopulum interea conscendit.
Meanwhile Aeneas climbs a peak.
180
fidus...Achates
faithful Achates
188
Neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum.
We are not unaware of past evils.
198
Dabit deus his quoque finem.
God also will put an end to these
things.
199
Forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit.
Perhaps
someday it will please you to remember this. 203
Tendimus in Latium.
We tend our path to Latium.
205
Curisque ingentibus aeger spem vultu simulat.
Sick with deep cares he pretends hope
with his face.
208
pius Aeneas
dutiful Aeneas
220
Iuppiter...Venus
Jupiter...Venus
223
Quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum?
What did my Aemeas do against you?
231
hinc fore ductores
from here would be leaders
235
Quae te, genitor, sententia vertit?
Father, what opinion has swayed
you?
237
Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum?
What end do you place on these
sufferings, great king?
241
unius ob iram
because of the anger of one
251
Hic pietatis honos?
This the reward of duty?
253
subridens...sator
the father smiling
254
Parce metu, Cytherea, manent immota tuorum
Venus, don't worry, the fates
stand firm for your child.
257
fata tibi; cernes urbem et promissa Lavini
You will see the city and promised
walls of Lavinium.
moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli
You will bear aloft to the stars of the
sky great Aneneas.
magnanimum Aenean. Neque me sententia vertit. No opinion turns me.
tertia...at puer Ascaniius..triginta
three years (Aeneas), thirty years
(Ascanius)
265
Longam...Albam...ter centum
three hundred years Alba Longa
271
Romulus
Romulus
276
Hic ego non metas rerum nec tempora pono.
time.
278
Imperium sine fine dedi.
279
Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar.
beautiful source.
286
Dirae ferro et compagibus artis
bars will be closed. 293
claudentur belli portae.
Maia genitum demittit ab alto.
on high.
297
fati nescis Dido
299
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silva,
middle of the forest,
314
virginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma.
arms.
Sic Venus et Veneris contra sic filius orsus.
Venus
325
Imperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta.
rules.
340
huic coniunx Sychaeus erat ditisimus auri.
wealthy in gold.
343
Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnis,
beyond all others
347
auri caecus amore
349
Inhumati venit imago coniugis.
appeared to her.
353
Suadet tum celerare fugam.
357
surgentemque novae Karthaginis arcem
366
Troiae nomen iit.
376
Sum pius Aeneas.
378
Italiam quaero patriam.
380
data fata secutus
given
382
Perge modo et qua te ducit via derige gressum.
forward.
401
Et vera incessu patuit dea.
by her stride.
405
On them I place no limit in space or
I have given you power without end.
Trojan Caesar shall be born from
The feared gates of war with tight
He sends down Mercury from
Dido not knowing fate
His mother meets him in the
with maiden's face, manner, and
Thus Venus and in turn son born from
Having left the Tyrian city, Dido
Her husband Sychaeus was very
Pygmalion, monstrous in crime
blind with love of gold
The ghost of her unburied husband
Then he urges her to hasten flight.
the rising citadel of New Carthage
The name of Troy has come.
I am dutiful Aeneas.
I seek Italy as homeland.
having followed the fate we were
Go on and where the road leads step
And the true goddess revealed herself
Quid natum totiens, crudelis tu quoque, falsis
How long will you mock your
son with false images?
407
ludis imaginibus?
Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam.
Aeneas wonders at the mass, once
huts.
421
O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt.
O fortunate, whose walls now rise.
437
saeptus nebula
enclosed in a cloud
439
Hic templum Iunoni ingems Sidonia Dido condebat. Here Sidonian Dido was founding a
large temple for Juno. 446
Hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem
Here Aeneas first dared to hope or
safety
451
ausus et aflictis melius confidere rebus.
and trust for the better in difficult
circumstances.
Atidas Priamumque et saevum ambobus Achillem sons of Atreus and Priam and
Achilles hostile to both
458
Quae regio in terris nostri iam plena laboris?
What place on earth is not full of our
work?
460
En Prianus. Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi,
Look Priam. Here are their rewards
for praise.
461
Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt. There are tears of mortal things and
mortal affairs touch mind.
non aequae Palladis
unfair Athena
479
Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles.
Achilles was selling the dead body for
gold.
484
Regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido
Queen Dido most beautiful in
form was entering
496
incessit.
the temple.
Gradiensque deas supereminet omnis.
Striding she stood taller than
the other goddesses.
501
Ilioneus placido sic pectore
thus Ilioneus with calm heart
521
novam...urbem
a new city
522
Parce pio generi.
Spare this pious race.
526
Quid genus hoc hominum?
What race is this?
539
Si genus hominum et mortalia temnitis arma,
If you despise human race
and mortal arms,
542
at sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi,
but trust in the gods aware of
right and wrong acts,
rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter
Our king is Aeneas, than whom no
one is more just.
nec pietate fuit nec bello maiore et armis.
nor more dutiful nor mightier in war
and arms.
Italiam...Sicaniae
Italy or Sicily
Solvite corde metum.
Do not fear.
562
Auxilio tutos dimittam opibusque uyvabo.
I shall release you safe and aid you
with my resources. 571
Urbem quam statuo vestra est,
The city which I am building
is yours.
573
Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur.
Trojan and Tyrian will be treated
alike.
Omnia tuta vides, classem sociosque receptos.
You see all is safe, fleet and allies
received.
583
Restitit Aeneas claraque in luce refulsit.
Aeneas stood and was shining in the
bright light.
588
Adsum Troius Aeneas, Libycis ereptus ab undis.
I am Trojan Aeneas, escaped from
Libyan waves.
596
mens sibi conscia recti
mind aware of right
604
Tanti talem genuere parentes.
Such great parents have borne such a
person.
606
primo aspectu...casu deinde viri tanto
first by sight, then by the man's
misfortune
613
Quis te, nate dea, per tanta pericula casus insequitur?
Born from a goddess, what
misfortune pursues you?
615
Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.
Not ignorant of ills I learn to aid the
wretched.
630
Rapidum ad navis praemittit Achaten Ascanio ferat. Aeneas sends quick Achates to ships
to get Ascanius.
644
At Cytherea novas artes, nova pectore versat
But Venus in her heart turns new
plans that Cupid
657
consilia ut faciem mutatus et ora Cupido
with changed face and body come in
place of Ascanius
pro dulci Ascanio veniat donisque furentem
and with gifts enkindle the raging
queen and twist fire
incenat reginam atque ossibus implicent ignem.
in her bones.
Cingere flamma reginam meditor.
I plan to surround the queen with fire.
673
Falle dolo et notos pueri puer indue vultus.
Trick them and as a boy put on
another boy's appearance. 684
Dona Cupido regia portabat Tyriis.
Cupid was carrying royal gifts for the
queen.
695
Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur Iulum.
They admire Aeneas' gifts, they
admire Iulus.
709
inscia Dido
unknowing Dido
718
Nec non et vario noctem sermone trahebat
Unlucky Dido was dragging out the
night with various talk
748
longumque bibebant amorem.
and
drinking in long love.
Immo age et prima dic, hospes, origine nobis
Guest, rather from the
beginning tell us of the treachery
753
insidias Danaum casusque tuorum
of the Greeks and your misfortunes
erroresque tuos.
and your wanderings.
Conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant.
All were quiet and looked at him.
II.1
Infandum, regina, iubes renovare dolorem.
O queen, unspeakable the pain you
bid me renew.
3
Et quorum pars magna fui.
And I was a great part of these things.
6
Breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem...incipiam.
to hear briefly of Troy's last
suffering, I shall begin
11
Ductores Danaum...equum...aediicant.
The leaders of the Greeks build a horse.
14
Uterumque armato milite complent.
They fill he belly with armed men.
20
Nos abisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas.
We thought they had left and by wind
had sought Mycenae. 25
Panduntur portae.
We open the gates.
27
Laocoon ardens summa decurrit b arce.
Hot Laocoon runs down from the
peak of the citadel.
41
Creditis avectos hostis?...Sic notus Ulixes?
You think he enemy left? For this
Ulysses known?
47
Equo ne credite, Teucri.
Don't trust the horse.
48
Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes.
I fear the Greeks even bearing gifts.
Seu versare dolos seu certae occumbere morti.
to overcome tricks or face death
62
Nec si miserum Fortuna Sinonem
If base Fortune has made Sinon poor,
it has not made him 79
finxit, vanum etiam mendacemque improba finget. an empty liar.
Haud ignota loquor.
I speak of things not unfamiliar.
91
Hoc Ithacus vellet et mgno mercentur Atridae.
This Ulysses would want and sons of
Atreus pay much.
104
Sanguine quaerendi reditus.
With blood we must seek our return.
118
Me destinat arae.
They choose me for the sacrifice.
129
Eripui, fateor, leto me et vincula rupi.
I admit it, I broke death and
chains.
134
Ipse vero primus manicas atque arta levari
Priam himself orders the chains and
shackles loosened.
146
vincla iubet Priamus.
Palladis auxiliis
on help of Athena
163
Sin manibus vestris vestram ascendisset in urbem, But if by your hands it had climbed
into your city,
192
Asiam magno Pelopea ad moenia bello venturam. in great war Asia would come to the
walls of Mycenae.
talibus insidiis...dolis lacrimisque coactis
by such tricks and snares and forced
tears
195
Laocoon solemnis tarum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Laocoon was sacrificing a
huge bull at the holy altar. 202
Horresco referens.
I shudder to recall.
204
Laocoonta petunt.
The snakes attack Laocoon.
213
Diviimus muros.
We part the walls.
234
Scandit fatalis machina muros feta armis.
The fatal machine filled with arms
climbs the walls.
237
Utero sonitum quater arma dedere.
Four times arms gave forth a sound
from the belly.
243
non umquam credita Teucris
Cassandra never believed by the
Trojans
247
Inclusos utero Danaos et pinea furtim
Sinon releases the Greeks
shut in the horse and
258
laxat claustra Sinon.
the pine bolts.
Invadunt urbem somno vinoque sepultam.
They invade the city entombed with
sleep and wine.
265
maestissimus Hector...largosque effundere fletus
Very sad Hector pours forth tears.
271
Heu, fuge, nate dea.
Alas, born from a goddess, flee.
289
Hostis habet muros.
The enemy has
taken the walls.
290
Arma amens capio.
I madly take arms.
314
Pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis.
It seems beautiful to die in arms.
317
Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus
The final day and inevitable time has
come for Troy.
324
Dardanidae. Fuinus Troes.
We have been Trojans.
In flammas et in arma feror.
I am carried into flames and arms.
337
Moriamur et in media arma ruamus.
Let us die and rush to arms.
353
Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem.
The only safety for the defeated to
hope for no safety.
Sensit medios delapsus in hostis.
He realized that he had slipped
among the enemy.
377
Adspirat primo fortuna labori.
Fortune smiled upon our first
effort.
385
Dolus an virtus quis in hoste requirat?
Deception or courage who would ask
an enemy?
390
Nihil invitis fas quemquam fidere divis.
Wrong to ask unwilling gods for
anything.
402
Coroebus et sese medium inecit periturus in agmen. Coroebus about to die rushes into
battle.
408
Dis aliter visum.
It seemed otherwise to the gods.
428
Protinus ad sedes Priami clamore vocati.
At once we are
called to Priam's house by shouting.
437
Limen erat caecaeque fores.
There were an entrance and secret
doors.
453
Pyrrhus exsultat telis et luce coruscus aena.
Pyrrhus rejoices in weapons, shining
with bronze light.
470
Instat vi patria Pyrrhus; nec claustra nec ipsi
Pyrrhus presses on with his
father's strength; neither
491
custodes sufferre valent.
bolts nor the guards themselves can
withstand him.
Fit via vi.
Force makes a path.
494
Illum ardens infesto vulnere Pyrrhus insequitur.
Pyrrhus burning with hostile wound
follows.
529
Patrios foedasti funere vultus.
You have fouled a father's face with
death.
539
Reddidit Hectoreum meque in mea regna remisit. Achilles returned Hector's body and
me to my kingdom. 543
Referes ergo haec et nuntius ibis Pelidae genitori.
547
You will report this and go as meseenger to my father Achilles.
regnatorem Asiae. Iacet ingens litore truncus.
once ruler of Asia. The huge trunk
lies on the shore.
557
Obstipui, subiit mihi cari genitoris imago.
I am
stunned, I see the image of my dear father.
560
Tyndarida aspicio.
I see the Tyndarid. (Helen)
569
infestos Teucros et Danaum poenas
(fearing) hostile Trojans and Greek
punishment
572
Scilicet haec Spartam...aspiciet.
She will see Sparta.
577
Occiderit ferro Priamus? Troia arserit igni?
For this Priam fell to the sword, for
this Troy burned?
581
Nate, quis indomitas tantus dolor ecitat iras?
My son, what great sadness stirs your
untamed anger?
594
Anchisen...Creusa...Ascanius
Anchises, Creusa, Ascanius (note
order)
597
Divum inclementia, divum, has evettit opes.
The lack of mercy of the gods has
overturned this wealth.
602
Nubem eripiam.
I shall remove the cloud.
606
Neptunus...Iuno...Athena...pater
Neptune, Juno, Athena, Jupiter (are
destroying Troy)
610
Eripe, nate, fugam finemque impone labori.
Son, take flight and end your work.
619
Dant tela locum flammaeque recedunt.
Weapons make a place for me and
flames retreat.
633
Abnegat excisa vitam producere Troia
My father denies that he
wants to continue living with 637
exsiliumque pati.
Troy destroyed or to suffer exile.
Vos agitate fugam.
You take flight.
640
facilis iactura sepulcri.
easy the loss of tomb
646
Rursus in arma feror mortemque miserrimus opto. Again I rush to arms and most
wretched seek death.
655
Hanc primum tutare domum.
First watch over this house.
677
Haec omina firma.
Approve these omens.
691
Iam nulla mora est, sequor et qua ducitis adsum.
No more
delay, I follow and where you lead I am.
701
Di patrii, servate domum, servate nepotem.
Gods of the fathers, save this home
and grandson.
Cedo equidem nec, nate, tibi comes ire recuso.
Son, I yield and do not refuse to go s
comrade.
704
Ipse subibo umeris nec labor iste gravabit.
708
I myself will support you on my shoulders and the work will not weary me.
unum et commune periculum
one common danger
709
Tu, genitor, cape sacra manu patriosque penates.
Father, take the sacred things and
household gods in hand.
717
Sequitur patrem non passibus aequis
His son follows him with smaller
steps,
724
pone subit coniunx.
his wife follows behind.
Misero coniunx fato mi erepta Creusa.
By wretched fate my wife Creusa was
taken from me. 738
Ipse urbem repeto.
I myself go back into the city.
749
custodes lecti Phoenix et dirus Ulixes
chosen guards Phoenix and
feared Ulysses
762
Infelix simulacrum atque impius umbra Creusae
772
Obstipui steteruntque comae et vox faucibus haesit.
voice choked.
774
Et terram Hesperiam veneies.
(Italy)
781
Sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris.
keeps me on these shores.
788
Tenuisque recessit in auras.
791
Ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum.
around her neck.
Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago.
my hands.
par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno.
dream
ingentem comitum adfluxisse novorum
gathered.
796
miserable vulgus
798
pelago deducere terras
800
Nec spes opis ulla dabatur.
804
Cessi et sublato montis genitore petivi.
went to the mountains.
sad shadow and ghost of Creusa
diversa exsilia et desertas quaerere terras
lands
III.4
Forte fuit iuxta tumulus.
22
Huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae.
28
Nam Polydorus ego.
45
Polydorum obtruncat et auro vi potitur.
by force.
55
auri sacra fames
56
Sacra mari colitur medio gratissima tellus.
land most pleasing. 73
Rex Anius...veterem Anchisen agnovit amicum.
Anchises.
82
Antiquam exquirite matrem.
96
Creta Iovis magni medio iacet insula ponto.
to seek diverse exiles and deserted
I was stunned and my hair stood, my
You will reach the western land.
The great mother goddess
She disappeared into flimsy shadows.
Three times I tried to put my arms
The three times embraced image fled
like light wind and similar to flying
A large crowd of new friends had
wretched rabble
to lead them on sea to lands
No hope of aid remained.
I yielded, picked up my father, and
By chance there was a tomb nearby.
Drops pour forth with dark blood.
I am Polydorus.
He killed Polydorus and took his gold
cursed hunger for gold
In the middle of the sea lies a holy
King Anius recognized his old friend
Seek the ancient mother.
The island of Crete lies in the middle
of great Jupiter's sea. 104
Cnosia regna petamus.
Let us go to the kingdoms of
Cnossos.
115
regnis cessisse paternis Idomenea ducem
that Idomeneus has fled his father's
kingdom
121
tabida...lues et letifer
a disease wasting and foul
133
Tu moenia magnis
Prepare mighty walls for the mighty
and do not
159
magna para longumque fugae ne linque laborem. cease your long labor of flight.
Hesperiam...potens armis atque ubere glaebae
Hesperia, powerful in war,
fertile in earth
164
Sola mihi talis casus Cassandra canebat.
Cassandra alone often sang to me
such fortunes.
183
Strophades, quas dira Caelaeno Harpyiaeque colunt Strophades, which the Harpies
inhabited
210
quam vos dira fames nostraeque iniuria caedis
until dire hunger and your injury to
our blood should force
256
ambesas subigat malis absumere mensas.
you to gnaw with your teeth and eat
your tables.
Placidi servate pios.
Calmly save the dutiful.
266
Effugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia regna,
We pass the cliffs of Ithaca, Laertes'
kingdom,
272
et terram altricem saevi exsecramur Ulixi.
and curse the land that nursed savage
Ulysses.
Celsam Buthroti accedimus urbem.
We reach the high city of
Buthrotum.
293
Priamiden Helenum Graias regnare per urbes
that Priam's son Helenus was
ruling over Greek cities
295
Verane te facies, verus mihi nuntius adfers?
Is this true face and true message
(that you live)?
310
nec victoris eri tetigit captiva cubile
nor ever touched bed of victorious
master
324
Orestes excipit incautum patriasque obtruncat ad aras
Orestes struck him down at
his father's altars.
332
Procedo et parvam Troiam simulataque magnis.
I go forward and see a small Troy in
imitation of greater. 349
Fata viam invenient.
The fates will find a way.
395
Cuncta malis habitantur moenia Graia.
In all towns dwell evil Greeks.
(eastern Italy)
398
Iunonis magnae primum prece numen adora.
Adore first with prayer the will of
great Juno.
437
Illa tibi Italiae populos venturaque bella expediet. She will reveal people of Italy and
wars to come. (sibyl) 458
Cum procul obscuros colles humilemque videmus When from afar we see hazy hills and
low Italy,
522
Italiam. Italiam primus conclamat Achates
Italy Achates is the first to shout,
Italiam laeto socii clamore salutant.
Italy my men greet with joyful shout.
Ignarique viae Cyclopum adlabimur oris.
Unaware we drift toward the shores
of the Cyclops.
569
Attolitque globos flammarum et sidera lambit.
Etna throws globes of flames and
licks the stars.
574
dira illuvies...ceterum Graius
dreadful filth, yet a Greek
593
Tollite me, Teucri, quacumque abducite terras.
Trojans, take me to whatever lands
you wish.
601
Sum patria ex Ithaca, comes infelicis Ulixi,
I am from the land of Ithaca,
companion of
613
nomine Achaemenudes.
of unlucky Ulysses. My name is
Achaemenides.
O miseri, fugite atque ab litore funem rumpite.
O wretches, flee and cut your ropes
from the land.
640
Videmus...pastorem Polyphemum.
We see the shepherd Polyphemus.
657
monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen adepmtum
horrid
monster,deformed, huge. lost an eye 658
Lanigerae comitantur oves, ea sola volptas.
Wooly sheep go with him, his only
joy.
660
Clamorem immensum tollit.
He raises a loud shout.
672
Aetnaecos fratres...concilium horrendum
companions on Etna, horrid group
678
Genitorem, omnis curae casusque levamen,
My father, relief of all care and
misfortune,
709
amitto Anchisen,
I lose Anchises.
Hic labor extremus.
This was my last work.
714
Conticuit tandem factoque hic fine quievit.
At last he was silent and having
finished sat.
718
At regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura
But the queen long touched by
heavy care feeds the wound IV.1
vulnus alit venis et caeco carpitur igni.
in her veins and is plucked by blind
fire.
Nec placidam membris dat cura quietem.
nor does her
longing give any calm rest for her limbs. 5
Anna soror, quae me suspensam insomnia terrent. Anna sister, what dreams frighten
restless me
.
9
Genus esse deorum.
He is of divine race.
12
ne vinclo vellem sociare iugali
I did not wish to join in
marriage bond.
16
Solus hic inflexit sensus.
He alone has turned my will.
22
Agnosco veteris vestigia flammae.
I recognize the traces of former
flame.
23
Nec dulcis natos Veneris nec praemia noris?
know neither sweet children nor
reward of love
33
Placitone etiam pugnabis amori?
Will you fight even with a love which
pleases?
38
Interea et tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.
Meanwhile the
silent wound lives under her heart.
67
Uritur infelix Dido totaque vagatur urbe ffurens.
Unlucky Dido burns and raging
wanders in the entire city.
68
Nunc media Aeneam secum per moenia ducit.
Now she leads Aeneas along the
walls.
74
Incipit effari mediaque in voce resistit.
She begins to speak and in mid voice
stops.
76
Illum absens absentem auditque videtque.
She absent sees and hears him
absent.
83
Communem hunc ergo populum paribusque rogamus.
Let's rule common people
equally.
102
regnum Italiae Libycas averterent oras
to turn the kingdom of Italy to
Libyan shores
106
Venatum Aeneas unaque miserrima Dido
Aeneas and stricken Dido prepare to
go to the same
117
in nemus ire parant.
grove to hunt.
Desuper infundam et tonitru caelum omne ciebo. I will pour down rain and stir entire
sky with thunder.
122
Speluncam Dido dux et Troianus eandem devenient.
Dido and the Trojan leader
will come to the same cave. 124
Insequitur commixta grandine nimbus.
The rain follows mixed with hail.
161
Speluncam Dido dux et Troianus eandem deveniunt.
Dido and the Trojan leader
come to the same cave.
165
Coniugium vocat; hoc praetexit nomine culpam.
She calls it marriage, hides her fault
with a word.
172
Fama, malum qua non aliud velocius ullum
Rumor, fastest of all evils
174
ad regem...Iarbam
to King Iarbas
196
amens animi et rumore accensus amaro
mad and angered by bitter rumor
203
An te, genitor, cum fulmina torques, nequiquam horremus? When you thunder, in vain do
we shudder?
208
ille Paris cum semiviro comitatu
that Paris with his half male
companions (eunuchs?)
215
Famamque fovemus inanem.
We worship an empty threat.
218
Vade, age, nate, voca Zephros.
My son Mercury, come, call the
winds.
223
Italiam regeret, genus alto a sanguine Teucri
to rule Italy, to lead on a race from
the blood of
230
proderet ac totum sub leges mitteret orbem.
Teucer and to force the entire world
under our laws.
Naviget.
Let him sail.
237
Aenean fundantem arces ac tecta novantem conspicit.
He sees Aeneas building new
towers and houses.
260
Quid struis?
What are you building?
271
cui regnum Italiae Romanaque tellus debentur
to whom a kingdom in Italy
and Roman land are owed 275
Ardet abire fuga.
He burns to flee.
281
Quo nunc reginam ambire furentem audeat affatu? How would he dare to approach the
raging queen in talk? 283
Classem aptent taciti.
Let them make ready the fleet
secretly.
289
At regina dolos (quis fallere possit amantem?) praesensit.
296
But he queen sensed his tricks. (who can fool a lover?)
Dissimulare etiam sperasti, perfide?
Did you hope to fool me, traitor?
305
Mene fugis?
You flee me?
314
Oro,...exue mentem.
I beg, change your mind.
319
si quis mihi parvulus aula luderet Aeneas
if there were a small Aeneas to play in
my hall
328
Nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae.
It will never shame me to remember
Dido.
335
Neque ego hanc abscondere furto speravi (ne finge) fugam. nor did I hope to flee by trick,
don't think that
337
Italiam, haec patria est.
Italy, this is my homeland.
345
Testor utrumque caput.
I swear by both our heads. (lives?)
357
Italiam non sponte sequor.
I follow Italy unwillingly.
361
Nusquam tuta fides. Eiectum litore, egentem
Nowhere is trust safe. Cast
out from the shore, helpless 373
excepi et regni demens in parte locavi.
I took him in and madly gave
him part of my kingdom.
Neque te teneo neque dicta refello.
I do not hold you, I do not debate you.
380
I, sequere Italiam ventis, pete regna per undas.
Go, follow Italy wih the winds, seek
rule through waves. 381
pius Aeneas
dutiful Aeneas
393
I, soror, atque hostem supplex adfare superbum.
Sister, go beg the haughty enemy.
424
Tempus inane peto, requiem spatiumque furori.
I ask vain time, rest, and a space to
relieve my rage.
433
Fata obstant.
The fates oppose.
440
Mens immota manet.
His mind remains unmoved.
449
Infelix fatis exterrita Dido mortem orat.
Unlucky Dido begs death from the
fates.
450
voces et verba vocantis visa viri
voices and words seeming of her
husband calling
460
Abolere nefandi cuncta viri monumenta iuvat.
I want to burn all signs of that
unspeakable man.
497
Ergo iussa parat.
Therefore Anna prepares the ordered
things.
503
Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem. But die, as you deserve, turn aside
sorrow with sword. 547
Rumpe moras. Varium et mutabile semper femina. Don't stop. Woman is a varied and
changeable thing.
569
Praecipites vigilati, viri, et considite transtris.
Men, be awake at once and sit
on the benches.
573
Idem omnis simul ardor habet.
The same urge catches all.
581
Nostras audite preces.
Hear our prayers.
612
Sed cadat ante diem mediaque inhumatus harena. Let him fall early and unburied in the
middle of sand.
620
Exoriare, aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor.
May you rise, some avenger from our
bones.
625
Imprecor, arma armis, pugnent ipsique nepotesque. I beg, arms with arms, let them fight
and their sons.
629
Annam, cara mihi nutrix, huc siste sororem.
Dear nurse, bring my sister Anna
here.
634
Vixi...urbem praeclaram statui.
I have lived, I have established a
famous city.
655
Moriemur inultae, sed moriamur.
We shall die unavenged, but let us
die.
659
Illam media inter talia ferro
In the midst of such things her maids
see her fallen on
663
conlapsum aspiciunt comites.
Me fraude petebas?
675
Exstinxti te meque, soror.
682
Ter sese attollens cubitoque adnixa levavit.
elbow.
690
ter revoluta toro est oculisque errantibus alto
sought light
quaesivit caelo lucem ingemuitque reperta.
groaned.
Tum Iuno omnipotens, longum miserata dolorem.
pain.
693
misera ante diem
697
mille trahens varios adverso sole colores
opposite the sun
701
Dilapsus calor atque in ventos vita recessit.
passed into the winds. 705
the sword.
Were you trying to trick me?
You have killed both of us, sister.
Three times rising she leaned on her
Three times she rolled on the bed and
from sky and having found it
Then almighty Juno pitied her long
wretched before her day
Iris showing a thousand varied colors
Then all heat dispersed and the life
Iam infelicis Elissae conlucent flammis.
Walls gleam with flames of unhappy
Dido.
V.3
Superat quoniam Fortuna , sequamur.
Since Fortune has won, let us
follow her.
22
Iamque dies, nisi fallor, adest,quem semper acerbum
Unless I err, this is the day,
which I will hold
49
semper honoratum (sic di voluistis) habebo.
always bitter, always honored, o the
gods have willed.
haud equiden sine mente, reor, sine numine divum indeed, I think, not without the mind
and will of the gods 56
Prima citae Teucris ponam certamina classis.
I will ordain contests, first of
ships.
66
quattuor ex omni delectae classe carinae
four ships chosen from the fleet
115
In mare praecipitem puppi deturbat ab alta.
He heaves him into the sea from the
high stern.
175
Attullit ipse viris optatum casus honorem.
Chance conferred the honor they
sought upon the men. 201
vitam pro laude pacisci
to bargain life for praise
230
Possunt quia posse videntur.
They can because they think they can.
251
rapido contendere cursu
to compete in foot race
291
Nisus et Eurylus primi
Nisus and Eurylus first
294
levi cum sanguine Nisus labitur infelix
when unlucky Nisus slipped in a bit of
blood
328
mnere victor amici primi
first assured his friend of victory
337
celeri certare sagitta
to compete with swift arrow
485
Hinc primum Fortuna fidem mutata novavit.
Here first changed Fortune broke
faith.
604
Mecum infaustas exurite puppis.
With me burn accursed ships.
635
Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque sequamur. Let us follow fate whether it ebbs or
flows.
709
His habeant terris sine moenia fessi.
Let the weary have a city in these
lands.
717
Lectos iuvenes, fortissima corda, defer in Italiam. Lead chosen youths, bravest hearts,
to Italy.
729
Ditis tamen ante infernas accede domus.
Approach the lower houses of Dis.
731
Tum genus omne tuum et quae dentur moenia disces.
Then you will learn of your
race and city given to you. 737
Quem fugis?
Whom do you flee?
742
animos nil magnae laudis egentes
souls with no desire for fame
751
Liceat Laurentem attingere Thybrim.
Let them reach Laurentine Tiber.
797
Unum pro multis dabitur caput.
One life will be given for many.
815
princeps...Palinurus
pilot Palinurus
833
Mene huic confidere monstro?
Me to trust this monster?
849
Liquidas proiecit in undas praecipitem.
He threw him headlong into the sea.
859
O nimium caelo et pelago confide sereno,
O too trusting of the sky and calm sea
,
870
nudus in ignota, Palinure, iacebis harena.
you will lie naked on unknown sand,
Palinurus.
Cumarum adlabitur oris.
VI.2
At pius Aeneas arces...antrum immane petit.
and immense cave. 9
Non indebita posco regna meis fatis.
66
Ipsa canas oro.
prophecies.
76
They drifted to the shores of Cumae.
Dutiful Aeneas goes to the heights
I demand kingdoms owed to my fates.
I beg you yourself sing these
Sed terrae graviora manent, in regna Lavini
But worse things remain on land, into
the kingdom of 84
Dardanidae venient, mitte hanc de pectore curam, Lavinium the Trojans will come, put
aside this fear from your
sed non et venisse volent. Bella, horrida bella
heart, but they will wish they hadn't
come. Wars, horrid wars
et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno.
and the Tiber foaming with much
blood I see.
Alius Latio iam partus Achilles.
Another Achilles has been born for
Latium.
89
Causa mali tanti coniunx iterum hospita coniunx
The cause of such evil a wife again
hospitable
93
externique iterum thalami.
again to foreign bed.
Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito,
Do not yield to evils, but on the
contrary boldly go
qua te fortuna sinet.
where fortune will allow.
Ire ad conspectum cari genitoris.
to go to the sight of my dear father
108
Gnatique patrisque, alma, precor, miserere.
Dear, I beg, pity both son and father.
116
At mi genus ab Iove summo.
I too am descended from highest
Jupiter.
123
facilis descensus Averno
easy the descent to the underworld
126
auricomos quam quis decerpserit arbore fetus
before anyone plucks golden
fruit from the tree
141
Primo avulso non deficit alter.
One plucked, another arises.
143
Carpe manu, namque ipse volens facilisque sequetur
Pluck with your hand, for
easily and willingly it will follow.
146
Vident indigna morte peremptum Misenum.
They see Misenus taken in
undeserved death.
163
tristi cum corde
with sad heart
185
Corripit Aeneas extemplo avidusque refringit cunctantem. Aeneas plucked it and broke it
delaying.
210
spelunca alta
deep cave
237
Procul este, profani.
'Back, ye unhallowed.'
258
Nunc animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo.
Aeneas, show your spirit and
courage.
261
Ille ducem haud timidis vadentem passibus aequat. He follows the advancing leader with
bold steps.
263
pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas
to reveal things buried deep in earth
and fog
267
tenuis sine corpore vitas
slight lives without body
292
sed cruda deo viridisque senectus
but sturdy, green old age of a god
304
Quidve petunt animae?
What do these souls seek?
319
Haec omnis quam cernis inops inhumataque turba est.
This crowd which you see is
weak and unburied. 325
Centum errant annos volitantque haec litora circum. They wander and flit here for a
hundred years.
329
Sortemque animo miseratus iniquam.
I pity in mind their unfair lot.
332
gubernator...Palinurus
pilot Palinurus
337
Prospexi Italiam.
I saw Italy.
357
Ferro invasisset praedamque ignara putasset.
They attacked by sword, in ignorance
thinking me a prize. 361
Da dextram misero et tecum me tolle per undas
Give your hand to me and take me
with you through waves
370
sedibus ut saltem placidis in morte quiescam.
that at least I may rest in
death in calm abodes.
dira cupido
dreadful desire
373
Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando.
Cease to hope that fates of the gods
are turned by prayer. 376
Fare quid venias, iam istinc, et comprime gressum. Right there, tell me why you have
come, stop.
389
Troius Aeneas, pietate insignis et armis,
Trojan Aeneas, renowned in duty and
arms,
403
ad genitorem imas Erebi descendit ad umbras.
has gone down to the lowest shadows
of Erebus to his father.
Si te nulla movet tantae pietatis imago
If image of such piety does not
move you, recognize
at ramum hunc...agnoscas.
this branch.
Ingentem Aeneam...incolumis vatemque virumque exponit.
413
Charon transpoted huge Aeneas, both prophetess and man, across the river.
Melle soporatam et medicatis frugibus offam obiecit.
He tossed Cerberus a morsel
drugged with honey and meal.
420
Evaditque celer ripam irremiabilis undae.
425
He quickly escapes the bank of the waters from which none return.
Quam vellent aethere in alto
How they would wish to bear poverty
and hard work.
436
nunc et pauperiem et dyros praeferre labores.
Lugentes campi...durus amor crudeli tabe peredit.
442
Fields of mourning where 'stern love has consumed with cruel
wasting.'
Inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido
Among them Phoenician Dido fresh
from her wound
450
errabat silva in magna.
was wandering in the great
forest.
Infelix Dido...venerat exstinctam...
Ill-fated Dido, rumor had come to me
that you were dead... 456
funeris heu tibi causa fui?
Alas, was I the
cause of your death?
Invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.
Unwillingly, o queen, I departed from
your shore.
460
Quem fugis?
Whom do you flee?
466
Illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat.
She turned away and held her eyes
fixed to the ground. 469
Respondet curis aequatque Sychaeus amorem.
Sychaeus answers to her cares and
equals her love.
474
Nec minus Aeneas, casu percussus iniquo,
No less Aeneas, struck by her unjust
misfortune,
prosequitur lacrimis longe et miseratur euntem.
follows her at a distance with tears
and pities her going.
bello clari
famous in war
478
Circumstant animae dextra laevaque frequentes.
The souls stood, crowding him on
right and left.
486
Ingenti trepidare metu.
(The Greek heroes') souls
trembled in great fear.
491
Deiphobum videt et lacerum.
He sees mangled Deiphobus.
495
Sed me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaenae
But my fates and that Spartan woman
511
his mersere malis.
have sunk me in these evils.
Summa Danaos ex arce vocabat.
She called the Greeks from the top of
the citadel.
519
Egregia interea coniunx arma omnia tectis emovet. My peerless wife removes all
weapons from my house.
523
haec iter Elussium nobis
Here lies our path to the underworld.
542
I, decus, i, nostrum, melioribus utere fatis.
Go, our charm, use better fates.
546
Quae scelerum facies?
What forms of crime?
560
supra atra silex iam iam lapsura
over him (Tantalus) a black stone
about to fall
602
Quae maxima turba est, quique ob adulterium caesi. The largest crowd, those slain for
adultery.
611
Inclusi poenam exspectant.
Shut in they await their punishment.
614
Sedet aeternumque sedebit infelix Theseus.
Unlucky Theseus sit and will sit
forever.
617
Discite iustitiam moniti et non temnere divos.
Warned learn justice and do
not despise the gods.
620
Vendidit hic auro patriam dominumque potentem He sold his country for gold and
imposed on it
imposuit, fixit leges pretio atque refixit.
powerful master, he fix and unfixed
laws for a price.
Hic thalamum invasit natae vetitosque hymenaeos This one invaded his daughter's bed
and dared to take forbidden
ausi omnes immane nefas ausoque potiti.
sex. Each dared monstrous crime
and attained it.
Carpe viam et susceptum perfice munus.
Take the road and finish the task you
have undertaken.
629
Devenere locos laetos et amoena virecta
They came to happy places and
pleasant meadows
638
fortunatorum nemorum sedesque beatas.
and happy homes of fortunate groves.
Trheicus...sacerdos
Thracian priest (Orpheus)
645
Hic manus ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi.
660
Here is a band who had suffered wounds in fighting for their country.
Quae regio Anchisen, quis habet locus?
What region does Anchises inhabit?
670
Nulli certa domus.
fixed home to no one
673
Camposque nitentis desuper ostentat.
From above Musaeus shows us
shining fields.
677
At pater Anchises...inclusas animas superumque ad lumen ituras lustrabat.
679
But father Aeneas was examining the imprisoned souls about to go to the upper light.
Ubi vidit Aeneaan, vicit iter durum pietas?
684
When he saw Aeneas, he said, "Has your piety conquered this hard
road?"
famae venientis amore
by love of coming fame
689
tua tristis imago
your sad shade
695
Animae, quibus altera fato corpora debentur.
Souls, to whom fate owes second
bodies.
713
Quae lucis miseris tam dra cupido?
What mad desire for the light drives
these sad ones?
721
Spiritus intus alit.
The spirit within nourishes.
726
carcere caeco
734
Ergo exercentur poenis.
punishments.
739
Pauci arva laeta tenemus.
744
Scilicet immemores supera ut convexa revisant
the dome above
750
rursus et incipiant in corpora velle reverti.
bodies.
Itala de gente
757
illa incluta Roma imperium terris
to all lands.
781
Augustus Caesar, divi genus, aurea condet saecula.
golden age.
792
virtutem extendere factis
806
Aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra?
settling Italy?
807
Heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae
among each other, if they
828
attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt.
and killing.
Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera
more softly (I believe) 847
(credo equidem) vivos ducent de marmore vultus,
from marble,
orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus
pointer describe the
describent radio et surgentis siders dicent.
stars.
Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, mememto
other people
(hae tibi erunt artes) pacisque imponere morem,
this rule of peace,
parcere subiectis et debellare superbos.
down the proud.
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
beauty and shining arms,
861
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu.
eyes of sad appearance.
Si qua fata aspera rumpas.
fates
882
Tu Marcellus eris.
famae venientis
blind prison
Thus they are trained by
We few possess these happy fields.
so that, unmindful, they may revisit
and begin to wish to be returned to
from the Italian race
Famed Rome shall extend its power
Augustus Caesar will establish a
to extend courage by deeds
or does fear stop us from
Alas what great war they will stir
reach life's light, what great battle
Others will pound breathing bronze
and they will bring forth living faces
they will plead cases better and with
motions of the sky and predict rising
You, o Roman, remember to rule
(this will be your talent) to impose
to spare the defeated and to war
(He saw) a youth of outstanding
but forehead too gloomy and
if by any way you may break your
You will be Marcellus.
of glory to come
889
bella...gerenda
890
Sunt geminae somni portae.
893
Portaque emitit eburnea.
898
Ille viam secat ad navis sociosque revisit.
returns to his comrades.
wars to be waged
There are twin gates of sleep.
He leaves through the ivory gate.
He hurries the road to the ships and
Proxima Circaeae raduntur litiora terrae.
They shave past the near shores of
Circe's land. VII.10
hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoeno
Through this grove the Tiber with
pleasant stream flows.30
Dicam horrida bella.
I will tell of horrid wars.
41
Maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo, maius opus moveo. A greater order of things, I present a
greater work.
44
Rex arva Latinus et urbes...in pace regebat.
King Latinus was ruling fields and
cities in peace.
45
filia...iam matura viro
a daughter now ripe for a man
53
pulcherrimus...Turnus
most handsome Turnus
55
Ne pete conubiis natam sociare Latinis.
Do not give your daughter to Latin
wedlock.
96
Etiam mensas consumimus.
We are
eating even our tables.
116
Hic domus, haec patria est.
Here is our home, here our
homeland.
122
debita moenia condant
to found their promised city
145
donaque ferre viro pacemque exposcere Teucris
to bear gifts for the hero and ask
peace for the Trojans 155
his ortus ut agris Dardanus
that Dardanus was born from these
fields
206
Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus.
We ask a small place and shore for
our ancestral gods. 229
externa ab sede
from foreign home
255
viribus occupet orbem
to rule the world by force
258
Est mihi nata.
I have a daughter.
268
generos externis adfore ab oris
Sons will come from foreign shores.
270
saeva Iovis coniunx...heu stiprem invisam
Jupiter's savage wife...alas, that
hated race
287
Medias acies mediosque per ignes invenere viam. In the midst of fire and battle they
have found a way.
296
Ast ego, magna Iovis coniunx,,,vincor ab Aenea. I, the great wife of Jupiter, am
defeated by Aeneas.
308
Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo.
312
If I cannot move the powers above, I will summon those below.
Sere crimina belli.
Sow the crimes of war.
339
Amatae
to Amata
343
Latinum contra stare videt.
She sees Latinus stand firm against
her.
373
Turnus
Turnus
413
I nunc, ingratis offer te, inrise, periclis.
Mocked one, go now, offer yourself
for thankless dangers. 425
Bella viri pacemque gerent.
Men will wage war and peace.
444
Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras.
At such words Allecto burned in
anger.
Saevit amor ferri et scelerata insania belli, ira super. Love of sword
and insane crimes of war rage through him. 461
Tutari Italiam, detrudere finibus hostem.
Guard Italy and drive the enemy from
our lands.
469
claris dextra factis
with famous deeds of right hand
474
Causa fuit belloque animos incendit agrestis.
This the cause which enkindled rural
minds for war.
482
cervus...ingens
a large deer
Accendamque animos insani Martis amore.
I shall fire their minds with love of
mad war.
550
Terrorum et fraudis abunde est.
Enough of terror and deceit.
552
Teucros in regna vocari.
The Trojans are called to rule.
578
Contra fata deum, perverso numine poscunt,.
Against the decrees of the gods, with
divinity overturned, 584
certatim regis cicumstant tecta Latini.
they
insist and surround the king's house.
Funere felici spolior.
I am robbed of a happy death.
599
contemptor divum Mezentius
Mezentius, despiser of the gods
648
filius huic iuxta Lausus
next to him his son Lausus
Virbius
Virbius
762
Turnus
Turnus
783
Camilla...bellatrix
803
Camilla, female warrior
Simul omne tumultu coniurat trepido Latium.
uprising.
VIII.4
Mittitur et Venulus Diomedis ad urbem.
9
tristi turbatus pectora bello
29
Ne siste.
39
Neu belli terrere minis.
40
Haud incerta cano.
49
Hos castris adhibe socios et foedera iunge.
make an alliance.
56
caeruleus Thybris
64
Viridique in litore conspicitur sus.
83
audax...Pallas
110
Pacemne huc fertis an arma?
114
Euandrum petimus.
119
Tum regem Aeneas dictis adfatur amicis.
friendly words.
126
Sed cunctis altior ibat Anchises.
others.
162
Iuncta est mihi foedera dextra.
169
semihominis Caci
194
Alcides aderat.
204
Pedibus timor addidit alas.
224
Exim se cuncti divinis rebus ad urbem
to the city.
306
perfectis referunt. Ibat rex obsitus aevo.
Talibus inter se dictis ad tecta subibant
approached the house
359
All Latium rose in sudden
Venulus is sent to the city of Diomede.
disturbed in heart by sad war
Don't retreat.
Don't be frightened by threats of war.
I sing of things not uncertain.
Take them for allies in camp and
sky-blue Tiber
A sow is seen on he green shore.
bold Pallas
Do you bring peace or arms?
We are looking for Evander.
Then Aeneas addressed the king with
But Anchises walked taller than
I join in league with you.
of half human Cacus
Hercules was here.
Fear added wings to his feet.
Then with rites finished all returned
The king went slowly, beset by age.
Talking to each other they
pauperis Euandri passimque armenta videbant
of poor Evander and all about they
saw cattle mooing
Romanoque foro et lautus mugire Carinis.
in the Roman forum and neat
Carinae.
Aude, hospes, contemnere opes.
Guest, dare to despise wealth.
364
Ergo eadem supplex venio. genetrix nato
Thus I come as a suppliant, a mother
for her son.
382
amplexu molli
in tender embrace
388
Ille repente accepit solitam flammam.
Suddenly the familiar flame
took him.
389
Arma acri facienda viro.
You must make arms for a fierce hero.
441
Filius huic Pallas, illi comes ibat Achates.
Pallas his son walked with him,
Achates with Aeneas. 466
Nobis ad belli auxilium pro nomine tanto exiguae vires.
Little strength for such a
name to help in war. 472
Quid memorem infandas caedes, quid facta tyranni effera? Why tell tyrant's sad
slaughter and wild deeds? 483
Ego omnis furiis surrexit Eturia iustis.
All Etruria rose in just fury.
494
Pallanta adiungam.
I shall give you Pallas as ally.
515
primis et te miretur ab annis
so that he may admire you from early
years
517
Obstipuere animis alii, sed Troius heros
The others were stunned, but the
Trojan hero recognized
530
agnovit sonitum et divae promissa parentis.
the sound and his divine parent's
promises.
Volcaniaque arma per auras laturam auxilio.
to bring as help Vulcan's arms
through the breezes
535
O mihi praeteritos referat si Iuppiter annos,
If Jupiter could restore my bygone
years,
560
Sin aliquem infandum casum, Fortuna, minaris,
But, Fortune, if you threaten some
awful misfortune,
578
nunc, nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam.
now, now mat I end my cruel life.
En perfecta mei promissa coniugis arte munera.
Behold the perfect gifts by promised
art of my husband.
612
res Italas Romanorumque triumphos
Italian story and Roman triumphs
(depicted on shield) 626
Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas
Rome and unlawfully taken Sabines
635
argenteus anser
silver goose
655
Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar
Augustus Caesar leading Italians into
battles
678
Antonius...Aegyptia coniunx
688
Miratur rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet,
things rejoices in the 730
attollens umero famamque et fata nepotum.
and fates of his descendants.
Antony and his Egyptian wife
He wonders and not knowing these
sight, raising on his shoulder fame
Irim de caelo misit Saturnia Iuno audacem ad Turnum.
Juno sent Iris down from sky
to bold Turnus.
IX.2
Aeneas urbe et sociis et classe relicta
Aeneas left behind his city, allies, and
fleet and goes to
8
sceptra Palatini sedemque petit Euandri.
the power of the Palatine and
Evander's home.
Quid dubitas?
Why do you hesitate?
12
Turbata arripe castra.
Take the disturbed camp.
13
Hostis adest.
The enemy is here.
38
Turnus...urbi improvisus adest.
Unexpectedly Turnus is present in the
city.
48
Prisca fides facto, sed fama perennis.
Old faith in the deed, but story
eternal.
79
Troianos haec monstra petunt.
These portents attack the
Trojans.
128
Sunt et mea contra fata mihi, ferro sceleratam excindere gentem, coniuge praerepta.
136
My fates are opposite, by sword to cut down criminal race, my wife stolen.
Nisus ait, "Dine hunc ardorem mentibus addunt,
Nisus said, "Euraylus, do the gods
bring this desire to our
184
Euryale, an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido?
minds
or does harsh urge make each a god?
Somno vinoque soluti procubuere.
Awash in sleep and wine they lie
overwhelmed.
189
Est hic, est animus lucis contemptor et istum
Here is a soul despising the light and
that honor,
205
qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis, honorem.
where you strive, is bought well with
life.
Tua vita dignior aetas.
Your age is more worthy of life.
212
Solare inopem.
Console the helpless.
290
Sensit enim nimis caede atue cupidine ferri. Absistamus. His friend was full of lust to
fight. Let's go.
354
Excedunt castris et tuta capessunt.
They leave the camp and go toward
safe places.
366
Et galea Euryalum sublustri noctis in umbra
The helmet in the gleaming shadows
of night betrayed
372
prodidit immemorem radiisque adversa refulsit.
heedless Euryalus and shone back
with its rays.
Euryale infelix, qua te regione reliqui?
Unlucky Euryalus, where
have I left you?
390
An sese medios moriturus in hostis
Or about to die should I rush into the
midst the enemy
400
inferat et pulchram proderet per volnera mortem? and take a beautiful death through
wounds?
Tu tamen interea calido mihi sanguine poenas
You at least will pay the
penalty with hot blood
422
persolves amborum.
for both.
exterritus, amens, conclamat Nisus, mea fraus omnis.
frightened, mad, Nisus shouts,
all my guilt.
424
Tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum.
He loved his unlucky friend too much.
430
Moriens animam abstulit hosti.
Dying he took his enemy's life.
443
Fortunati ambo.
Both fortunate.
446
Tum primum bello celerem intendisse sagittam
Then Ascanius is said first to have
stretched swift arrow 590
dicitur, ante feras solitus terrere fugacis, Ascanius. in war, who before usually only
frightened those fleeing.
I, verbis virtutem illude superbis.
Go, mock courage with haughty
words.
634
Macte nova virtute, puer; sic itur ad astra,
Punish with new courage, boy. that is
the way to the stars. 641
exclusos duro in certamine
shut out in harsh fight
726
Olli subridens sedato pectore Turnus
Turnus smiling upon him with calmed
heart
740
Sed furor ardentem caedisque insana cupido
But rage and insane urge for killing
drove the
760
egit in adversos.
burning man against the enemy.
Tum demum praeceps saltu sese omnibus armis
Then at last he leaped into the river
with all arms.
815
in fluvium dedit.
Conciliumque vocat divum pater atque hominum rex
The father of the gods and
king of men called an assembly.
X.2
Abnueram bello Italiam concurrere Teucris.
I had forbidden Italy to fight with the
Trojans.
8
Aeneas ignarus abest.
Aeneas unknowing is away.
25
nascentis Troiae
27
Nil super imperio moveor.
42
Quid pestem evadere belli iuvit?
of war?
55
Tum regia Iuno acta furore gravi.
rage.
62
Italiam petiit fatis auctoribus.
67
pacem orare manu, praefigere puppibus arma
take arms against the ships 80
Quae causa fuit consurgere in arma
90
Europamque Asiamque et foedera solvere furto?
nullo discrimine
108
Sua cuique exorsa laborem
his suffering or
111
fortunamque ferent. Rex Iuppiter omnibus idem;
all.
fata viam invenient.
Nec spes ulla fugae.
121
Media Aeneas freta nocte secabat.
the middle of the night.
147
Hic magnus sedet Aeneas secumque volutat
159
eventus belli varios.
of recently born Troy
Further I am not moved by power.
How does it help to escape the plague
Then queen Juno was driven by deep
He sought Italy with fate as author.
to beg peace with hand, to
Why did Europe and Asia rise in arms
and break treaty with theft?
with no distinction
Each taking his own path will bear
fortune. King Jupiter is the same for
The fates will find a way.
There was no hope of flight.
Aeneas was cutting the straights in
Great Aeneas sits and considers
the varied events of war.
At puer Ascanius muro fossisque tenetur.
But the boy Ascanius is hemmed in by
wall and ditches.
236
Spes addita suscitat iras.
Fresh hope breathes forth anger
263
In manibus impius Mars ipsse viris.
Mars himself is in brave man's hand.
280
Audentis Fortuna iuvat.
Fortune helps the daring.
284
Dum furit, incautam crudeli morte sodalis excipit.
386
While he rages, he rushes uncautiously because of friend's cruel
death.
At non caede viri tanta perterrita Lausus.
but Lausus not frightened by such
death of men
426
quis Fortuna negaret in patriam redditus
to whom Fortune denied return to
home
435
maiore sub hoste
under a greater enemy
438
Solus ego in Pallanta feror.
I alone am carried against Pallas.
442
Aut spoliis ego iam raptis laudabor opimis
I shall be praised either for best
spoils taken or
449
aut leto insigni.
for noteworthy death.
lacrimasque effundit inanis.
He poured forth useless tears.
465
Stat sua cuique dies, breve et irreparabile tempus Each has his set day, a brief and
irretrievable time
467
omnibus est vitae; sed famam extendere factis,
of life is given to all, but to extend
one's fame by deeds,
hic virtutis opus.
this is the work of courage.
Etiam sua Turnum fata vocant.
For his fates call Turnus.
472
Una eadem via sanguis animusque sequuntur.
On one same road blood and life
follow.
487
Pallantem remitto.
I send back Pallas.
492
Quidquid solamen humandi est largior.
I grant whatever solace a burial may
be.
493
Quo nunc Turnus ovat spolio gaudetque potitus.
Now Turnus triumphs and rejoices to
possess spoils. 500
Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque futurae
mind not knowing fate of men and
future lot
et servare modum, rebus sublata ssecundis.
or how to preserve middle, having
lost favorable things.
Turno tempus erit, magno cum optaverit emptum There will be a day for Turnus when
he will wish to have
intactum Pallanta et cum spolia ista diemque oderit. left Pallas unspoiled and he will hate
that day.
Agit ferro, te, Turne, superbum caede nova quaerens.
514
Turnus, he drives with sword, pursuing proud with new slaughter.
Istic nunc, metuende, iace.
Lie there now, one to be feared.
557
altibus linquere feris
left for wild birds
559
Morere et fratrem ne desere frater.
Die and let not brother desert
brother.
600
tenuem sine viribus umbram in faciem Aeneae
flimsy ghost without strength and
face of Aeneas
636
Quo fugis, Aeneae?
Where do you flee, Aeneas?
649
Illum autem Aeneas absentem in proelia poscit.
Aeneas demands him in battle.
661
Te quoque fata
will soon possess
740
prospectant paria atque eadem mox arva tenebis.
Mezentius ira, "Nunc morere."
742
longe fallente sagitta
754
Caput inter nubilia condit.
767
Ingemuit cari graviter genitoris amore.
father.
789
Fallit te incautum pietas tua.
812
Exsultat demens.
813
Tum vita per auras
shadows
819
concessit maesta ad Manes corpusque reliquit.
Aeneae nagni dextra cadis.
Aeneas.
830
Tantaene me tenuit vivendi, nate, voluptas
846
uno in corde pudor mixtoque insania luctu
mixed with grief
871
Nam venio moriturus et haec tibi porto dona prius.
gifts to you first.
881
Hostis amare, quid increpitas mortemque minaris?
threaten death?
900
Corpus humo patiare tegi.
ground.
904
Haec loquitur iuguloque haud inscius accipit ensem
received the sword 907
undantique animam diffundit in arma cuore.
flowing blood over his arms.
Equal fates look over you and you
Maxima res effecta, viri.
XI.14
Nunc iter per regem nobis murosque Latinos
Latin walls.
17
Infelix, nati funus crudele videbis?
funeral of your son?
53
miserabile corpus
59
Hastam alii galeosque ferunt. Nam cetera Turnus
The victor Turnus
91
victor habet.
A great act has been done, men.
those same fields.
Mezentius in anger said, "Now die."
arrow deceiving from afar
He hides his head in the clouds.
He groaned with deep love of dear
Your duty makes you rash.
The youth rejoices madly.
Then the life left sadly through the
to the underworld and left the body.
You fall at the right hand of great
Son, did such joy of living hold me?
in one heart shame and madness
For I come to death and I carry these
Bitter enemy, why do you mock and
Permit my body to be buried in the
He spoke thus and hardly knowing
to his throat and sheds his life in
Now for us lies journey to king and
Unlucky, will you see the cruel
pitied corpse
Others carry the spear and shields.
has his other things.
qui nos fugiatis amicos
that you flee from your friends
109
Drances infensus iuveni Turno
Dranes hostile to the youth Turnus
122
Quaerat sibi foedera Turnus.
Let Turnus seek his own allies.
129
nova gloria in armis et praedulce decus primo certamine
154
new glory in arms and especially sweet delight in first battle
Non vitae gaudia quaero
I do not ask for joys of life (not right),
180
(nec fas), sed gnato manes perferre sub imos.
but to go to my son under the lowest shades.
solum posci in certamina Turnum
Turnus alone is called to battles.
221
maesti magna Diomedis ab urbe
sadly from the great city of Diomede
(return envoys)
226
fatalem Aenean
fated Aeneas
232
huad laeta fronte Latinus
Latinus with sad face
238
Contigimusque manum qua concidit Ilia tellus.
We grasped the hand by which Troy
fell.
245
Munera...vertite ad Aenean.
Turn those gifts to Aeneas.
281
Stetimus tela aspera contra contulimus manus.
We have stood opposite his weapons
and fought closely. 282
Experto credite.
Trust the one who has been through
it.
283
Ambo animis, ambo insignes praestantibus armis, Both outstanding in spirit and arms,
he in piety.
291
hic pietate prior.
(ambo: Hector and Aeneas, hic:
Aeneas)
Considant...et moenia condant.
Let
hem settle and build their walls.
323
frigida bello dextra
hand cold for war (Drances)
338
Nulla salus bello, pacem te poscimus omnes.
No safety in war, all of us demand
peace from you.
362
violentia Turni
the violence of Turnus
376
Procubuit moriens et humum semel ore momordit 'has fallen in death and bit the dust'
418
Ibo animis contra.
I will go opposite him bravely.
438
Solum Aeneas vocat. Et vocet oro.
Aeneas calls him alone. I pray he do
so.
442
Illi armis in regna ruunt.
They rush to arms against our
kingdom.
461
comes Lavinia virgo, causa mali tanti
comrade maiden Lavinia, cause of
such misfortune
479
Cingitur ipse furens certatim in proelia Turnus.
In rage Turnus prepares himself for
battle.
486
Spe iam praecipit hostem.
In hope he sights his enemy.
491
Silvis insedit iniquis.
He sits in the dangerous woods.
531
Infelix fugit in iaculo stridente Camilla.
Unlucky Camilla flees the hissing
arrow.
583
aeternum telorum et virginitatis amorem
eternal love of weapons and chastity
683
telo cecidise Camillae
to have fallen by the weapon of
Camilla
689
Sequiturque sequentem.
She pursues the pursuer.
695
Hic amor, hoc studium.
This your love, this your eagerness.
739
telum ex insidiis
weapon from ambush
(Arruns)
783
Non exuvias pulsaeve tropaeum
I seek no spoils or trophy of defeated
maiden.
790
virginis aut spolia ulla peto.
succedat pugnae Troianosque arceat urbe
to succeed me in battle and ward off
Trojans from city
826
vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras.
and the life fled with a moan
indignant to the shadows.
831
Pars claudere portas,
Some close the gates,
883
nec sociis aperire viam nec moenibus audent
and do not dare to open a path for
their colleagues nor
accipere orantes.
receive them begging.
Monstrat amor verus patriae.
True love of country shows the way.
892
Deserit obsessos colles.
He deserts the ambushing hills.
902
Silvaque evadit opaca
He escapes from shady woods, thus
both are carried to the walls sic ambo ad muros rapidi totoque feruntur
quickly in full
force not far from each other.
agmine nec longis inter se passibus absunt.
Concidunt castris ante urbem et moenia vallant.
They settle in camps in front of the
city and build walls. 915
Turnus ut infractos adverso Marte Latinos
in spirit with XII.1
defecisse videt
When Turnus sees the Latins, broken
war going badly, have surrendered
Accenso gliscit violentia Turno.
Violence gleams in fired Turnus.
9
Nulla mora in Turno.
There is no delay in Turnus.
11
desertorem Asiae
deserter of Asia
15
Olli sedato respondit corde Latinus.
Latinus answered him with calm
heart.
18
me natam nulli veterum sociare procorum
(was wrong) for me to marry her to
any of the old suitors 27
Arma impia sumpsi.
I took up wrong arms.
31
Quo referor totiens? Qyae mentem insania mutat? Why turn back so often? What
madness changes my mind? 37
Respice res bello varias, miserere parentis longaevi. Consider fortunes of war, pity an
aged father.
43
In te omnis domus inclinata recumbit.
On you our entire sinking
house rests.
59
flagrantis perfusa genas
blushing )Lavinia)
65
Tales virgo dabat ore colores.
Lavinia blushed.
67
Illum turbat amor figitque in virgine voltus.
Love disturbs him and he looks at the
maid's face.
70
Nostro dirimamus sanguine bellum.
Let us settle the war with our blood.
70
saevus in armis Aeneas
Aeneas savage in arms
107
fata docens
teaching them their fates
111
Turnum et tua moenia texi.
I have protected Turnus and your
walls.
148
imparibus...fatis
unequal fates
149
Forsam miseros meliora sequentur.
Perhaps better days for the
unfortunate.
153
auctor ego audendi
I, the author of your daring
159
Tu Saturnua coniunx, iam melior, ia, diva, precor. You Jupiter's wife, goddess, I pray
more kindly
178
Non ego nec Teucris Italos parere iubebo
I will not order the Italians to obey
the Trojans
189
nec mihi regna peto. Paribus se legibus ambae
nor do I seek kingdoms. Under
equal laws let both unconquered
invictae gentes aetena in foedera mittant.
races live under eternal compact.
Sacra deosque dabo.
I will give rites and gods.
suppliciter venerans demisso lumine Turnus
Turnus worshiping as a suppliant
with downcast eyes 220
patria amissa dominis parere superbis
our country lost, to obey
haughty masters
236
Nunc arma volunt.
Now they want arms.
242
Hoc habet, haec melior magnis data victima divis. He's had it, a better victim is given to
the gods.
296
casusne deusne
whether chance or god
321
Pressa est insignis gloria facti.
'hidden is the fame of that
high deed'
322
Dat fortia corpora leto.
He gives brave bodies to
death.
328
mutas agitare inglorius artes
to silently work the mute arts
397
Hic Venus...dictamnum
Here Venus offers ditany.
411
Maior agit deus.
A greater god does this.
429
Disce, puer, virtutem ex me verumque laborem,
Boy, learn from me courage and true
work,
435
fortunam ex aliis.
fortune from others.
Vidit ab adverso venientes aggere Turnus.
From opposite rampart Turnus sees
them coming.
446
Tremefacta refugit.
Juturna flees in fear.
449
Turnum...solum in cetamina poscit.
Turnus alone he demands for battle.
467
Tanton placit concurrere motu,
Did it please you to rush together in
such turmoil,
503
Iuppiter, aeterna gentes in pace futuros?
Jupiter, nations to live forever in
peace?
Non segnius ambo Aeneas Turnusque ruunt per proelia.
Quickly both Aeneas and
Turnus rush to battle. 525
nec Priami regnorum eversor Achilles
nor Achilles who overturned
Priam's kingdom
545
ad muros urbique advereeret agmen
to turn his men on the town (Venus'
idea)
555
Iuppiter hac stat.
Jupiter stands
on this side.
565
Urbem...eruam et aequa solo fumantia culmina ponam.
I will uproot the city, level
columns to ground. 569
Regina...et nodum informis leti trabe nectit ab alta. The queen tied a knot of infamous
death from a high beam.
603
interea extremo bellator in aequore Turnus
meanwhile Turnus on the edge of the
plain
614
An fratris miseri letum et rudele videres?
brother's cruel death? 636
Turne, in te suprema salus, miserere tuorum.
your people.
653
Obstipuit...Turnus.
665
Quo deus et quo dura vocat Fortuna, sequamur.
us follow.
677
Stat conferre manum Aeneae.
Quecumque est fortuna mea est.
694
Tros Aeneas et Daunius heros concurrunt clipeis.
together with shields. 723
Turnus in ensem ei ferit.
him with the sword.
729
Ergo amens diversa fuga petit aequora Turnus.
all parts of the plain. 742
Turni de vita et sanguine certant.
Turnus.
765
Indigetem Aenean scis ipsa et scire fateris
the land is fated
784
deberi caelo fatisque ad sidera tolli.
Ulterius temptare veto.
806
digna indigna pati
811
Et nunc cedo ecquidem pugnasque exosa relinquo.
fighting.
818
Sit Romana potens Itala virtute propago.
with Italian courage. 827
Supra ire deos pietate videbis.
the gods in duty.
839
Iuno...laetata
841
Haec pro virginitate reponit?
878
Multa gemens et se fluvio dea condidit alto.
into the deep river. 886
Quid iam, Turne, retractas?
889
Non me tua fervida terrent
me,fierce one,
894
dicta, ferox, di me terrent et Iuppiter hostis.
enemy.
axum antiqum ingens
effect)
897
Cunctanti telum Aeneas fatale coruscat.
Or you should see your wretched
Turnus, you are our final safety, pity
Turnus stood stunned.
Where God and cruel fortune call, ket
'Resolved am I to meet Aeneas.'
Whatever fortune there be, it is mine.
Trojan Aeneas and Turnus rush
Turnus strikes
Thus madly Turnus takes flight over
They fight for the life and blood of
You know and admit that Aemeas of
to be raised to the stars.
I forbid you to do more.
'enduring fair and foul'
I yield and hated I withdraw from
Let there be Roman stock powerful
You will see them go above
happy Juno
This he gave me for my virginity?
Groaning the goddess threw herself
Turnus, where do you retreat?
Your blazing words do not frighten
the gods frighten me and Jupiter as
huge ancient stone (he throws to no
At wavering Turnus Aeneas shines
the fatal weapon.
921
Incidit...ingens ad terram...Turnus.
927
Dauni miserere senectae et me...redde meis.
me back.
934
infelix umero cum apparuit alto balteus
high shoulder
941
Tune hinc spoliis indute meorum eripiare mihi?
escape me?
947
Hoc dicens ferrum adverso sub pectore condit
sword into his chest 950
fervidus. Ast illi solvuntur frigore membra
vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras.
indignant to the shadows.
Vergil's (supposed) Epitaph:
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc
me, the Muaea hold me,
Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces.
Huge Turnus falls to the earth.
Pity my aged father Daunus and give
The dooming belt appeared on his
You clad my friend's spoils should
Saying this, in rage he plunged the
But his limbs are released with cold
and the life fled with a moan
Mantua bore me, the Calabri took
I sang of fields, farms, and heroes.
Brief information about Tibullus:
Albius Tibullus (c. 50-19), probably equestrian rank, 3 books (the last not his), book 1:
loves for Delia and Marathus
book 2: love for Nemesis, honors Messala, love of rural setting book 3: poems by
Lygdamus and Sulpicia
From Elegiae ofTibullus:
Divitias alius fulvo sibi congerat auro.
gold.
I.1.1
Me mea paupertas vita traducat inerti.
lazy life.
5
Non ego laudari curo, mea Delia; tecum
so long as
57
dummodo sim, quaeso segnis inresque vocer.
lazy and idle.
Celari vult sua furta Venus.
2.34
Quid Tyrio recubare toro sine amore secundo
purple without happy 75
prodest cum fletu nox vigilanda venit?
with tears?
Non domus ulla fores habuit, non fixus in agris.
markers
3.43
Nec iurare time. veneris periuria venti
winds carry the
4.21
irrita per terras et freta summa ferunt.
Let others heap up riches of tawny
May my poverty give me a
I do not care to be praised, my Delia;
I am with you I may be called
Venus wishes her thefts be hidden.
What use to rest on Tyrian
love, when you must sleep the night
no locked doors, no boundary
Do not fear to take an oath. The
vain lies of love over the lands
and high seas.
tacitis pedibus
9.3
Quis furor est atram bellis accersere mortem?
death in wars?
10.33
Ferrea non venerem sed praedam saecula laudant.
II.3.35
Pretium si grande feras, custodia victa est.
yours.
4.33
Fore cras semper ait melius.
6.20
nec fidum femina nomen
III.4
didicit fallere si qua virum
Difficile est imitari gaudia falsa.
6.33
Periuria ridet amantum Iuppiter.
49
Nil opus invidia est.
IV.13
Nescis quid sit amor.
know what love is.
L.IV.73
Sed peccasse iuvat...cum digno digna fuisse
worthy man. S.I.9
on silent feet
What rage to summon black
The iron age praises booty, not love.
If you pay a large bribe, the guard is
It says tomorrow will be better.
faithless name of woman
if by any she deceive man
It is difficult to imitate false joys.
Jupiter laughs at the lies of lovers.
I want no envy.
You don't
I delight in my sin...to be worthy of a
Basic information about Propertius:
Sextus Propertius (c. 50-15 BC) mistress Cynthia (Hostia), four books (28, 26, 23, 16
possible publication dates
1: Cynthia monbiblos 2: tributes o Augustus 3: more variety, rejects Cynthia 4)
aetia, some Cynthia
heavy use of mythology (cf. Tibullus), claims by many that he is obscure
From Elegiae of Properius:
Cynthia primus suis miserum me cepit ocellis.
me.
I.1.1
tardus Amor
17
non sani pectoris
26
naturaeque decus mercato perdere cultu
purchased artifice
2.5
Nudus Amor formam non amat artificem.
8
Una si qua plaacet, culta puella sat est.
Cynthia first with her eyes trapped
slow-witted love
unhealthy heart
to destroy charm of nature with
Bare Love does not like artful form.
If she pleases one, she's dressed
enough.
26
Non est illa vagis similis collata puellis.
She is not like wandering girls.
5.7
Nescit amor priscis cedere imaginibus.
Love does not yield to pedigree.
23
Sed me complexae remorantur verba puellae.
But the words of embracing
girl delay me.
6.5
Non ego sum laudi, non natus idoneus armis.
I was born for neither praise
nor arms.
29
Saepe venit magno faenore tardus amor.
Late love often pays heavy penalty.
7.26
Tu potes insolitas, Cynthia, ferre nives?
Can you
endure unfamiliar snows, Cynthia?
8A.8
Medio flumine quaeris aquam.
In mid stream you look for water.
9.16
tu mihi sola domus
You alone are my home.
11.23
Litora quae fuerunt castis inimica puellis.
shores hostile to chaste girls
29
Non sum ego qui fueram.
I am not what I was.
12.11
Desine iam revocare tuis perfidia verbis.
Cease to recall treachery with your
words.
15.25
Omniaque ingrato litore vota cadunt.
All my vows fall on heartless shore.
17.4
Molliter et tenera ponerent ossa rosa.
and softly cover my bones with fresh
roses
18.21
Non ego nunc tristis vereor...Manes.
I do not fear sad shades.
19.1
Traicit et fati litora magnus amor.
Great love crosses the shores of
death.
12
Saepe imprudenti fortuna occurrit amanti.
Love often meets the unsuspecting
lover.
20.3
Me genuit terris fertilis uberibus.
Fertile with abundant fields it bore
me.
22.10
Nos contra angusto versamus proelia lecto.
II.1.40
Solus amor morbi non amat artificem.
a doctor.
58
breve in exiguo marmore nomen
plaque
2.72
Huic misero fatum dura puella fuit.
wretched one.
78
Lilia non domina sunt magis alba mea.
lily.
3.10
Romana accumbes prima puella Iovi.
We battle in narrow bed.
Love is only disease not liking
short-lived name on small marble
Harsh girl was death for this
My lady is more beautiful than the
first Roman girl to recline with
Jupiter
32
Sed nunc immeritum velavit aranea fanum.
But now spider webs cover
undeserving shrines. 6.35
Omnia vertuntur.
All things change.
8.7
Tunc igitur veris gaudebat Graecia nuptis.
Then Greece rejoiced in faithful
brides,
9A.17-8
tunc etiam caedes inter et arma pudor.
then shame existed between
slaughter and arms.
Solus ero, quoniam non licet esse tuum.
I will be alone, since I may not be
yours.
46
Maxima de nihilo nascitur historia.
Great history is born from nothing.
II.1.16
extremi funeris atra dies
black day of funeral
4
Cinis hic docta puella fuit.
'This dust was a learned maid.'
6
Haec in amore rota est.
Thus turns love's wheel.
8
tota nocte receptus amans
taken in an entire night as lover
14.28
Nox tibi longa venit nec reditura dies.
A long night comes for you
and day not to return. 15.24
Verus amor nullum novit habere modum.
True
love knows no limit.
30
mentiri noctem, promissis ducere amantem
to lie the night, to lead lover with
promises
17.1
Ut natura dedit, sic omnia recta figurat.
As nature gave, so every figure is
right.
18D.25
Ambos una fides auferet, una dies.
One pledge, one day will carry off
both.
20.18
Nullus amor vires eripit ipse suas.
Love itself does not remove one's
strength.
22A.28
Noli nobilibus, noli consuesse beatis.
Go not with the noble nor the rich.
24.49
Nulla diu emina pondus habet.
No woman has weight.
25.22
Mendaces ludunt flatus in amore secundi.
'Fair winds mock and deceive us in
love.'
27
Saepe meum nomen iam peritura vocas.
About to die you call my name often.
26A.12
Et maris et terrae caeca pericla latent.
Blind dangers hide on land
and sea.
27.6
Ista senes licet accusent convivia duri.
Let harsh old men denounce
those banquets.
30B.1
Vino forma perit, vino corrumpitur aetas.
Beauty and age are corrupted by
wine.
33B.33
Semper in abstentis felicior aestus amantes.
33C.1
Nulla tamen lecto recipit se sola libenter.
alone.
3
Nescio quid maius nascitur Iliade.
born.
34.66
Cynthia quin vivet versu laudata Properti.
Propertius' verse.
93
better heat toward absent lover
Non datur ad Musas currere lata via.
III.1.14
Arma deus Caesar dites meditatur ad Indes.
rich India.
4.1
Oculi sunt in amore duces.
6.2
Omnia non pariter rerum sunt omnibus apta.
9.7
Pacis Amor deus est, pacem vener