Activities Performed

Matter Notes Chapter 9
Lesson 1
Properties of Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
How are mass, volume, weight and density related?
Mass measures how much matter there is in something, and volume
measures how much space matter takes up. Density is the amount of mass
contained in a given volume. Density is a measure of how tightly matter is
packed. It is the amount of mass for each (cm3) milliliter of a substance.
Weight is how strongly gravity pulls on an object. It is the measure of mass on
Earth. (Volumes of liquid are often measured in milliliters (mL)).
Activities Performed: Density/Volume
Explore 1, Gummy Bear/Oil and ice cube
Activities Performed: Surface Tension
Note card over cup of water/Soap boats
Many fluids have a property called surface tension. In water, every particle
pulls itself toward the other particles. This attraction creates a “skin” on the
surface. The skin is what the surface tension means.
What forms can matter have?
Solids-have a definite shape and definite volume
In general, a solid is the densest state of matter.
Liquids-have no definite shape but have a definite volume
In general, a liquid is the second densest state of matter.
Gases-has no definite shape or volume
In general, a gas is the least dense state of matter.
Lesson 2
Elements are the basic building block of all matter. They are pure substances
that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by chemical
The most common elements in space are hydrogen and helium. These two
elements make up 98 percent of the mass of the universe.
The most common elements in the Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and
**In any form matter is alike in one way. All matter is made up of molecules. Example: If you took a single
grain of salt and crushed it into smaller pieces, it would be salt. If you could crush it into even smaller pieces,
the smallest piece that would still look, act, and taste like salt would be a salt molecule. The grain of salt you
first held is made of billions of salt molecules.
Atoms vs. Molecules
-Atoms are the smallest unit of element
-Molecules are groups of more than one atom joined together that act like a
single particle
Electrons-Electrons have one unit of negative electrical charge inside an atom. An electron
has less mass than a proton and neutron. All of the electrons balance the positive charge of
the protons in the atomic nucleus.
Protons-Protons are particles with one unit of positive charge. The number of protons in
an atom is called the atomic number and determines which element it is. (Protons and
neutrons have masses that are approximately the same and are 2,000 times heavier than
an electron.
Neutrons-Neutrons are particles with no electric charge.
Nucleus-The nucleus is the dense center part of an atom.
What are three important properties of chemical elements?
The three important properties of common elements are their state of matter
at room temperature, how they combine with other elements, and whether
they are metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.
Handouts: Atoms Family Album/Model of a Carbon Atom. Be sure you know
how to diagram an atom and label its parts.
Lesson 3 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
About 75% of all
Properties are basically
opposite to those of
Elements at the middle
points Ex: boron, silicon
Poor conductors of heat
and electricity, lack
luster, generally break or
crush rather than bend
Properties are between
metals and nonmetals
Left side of periodic table
Shine when polished,
conduct heat and
electricity well, and can be
shaped without breaking
Metals are malleable and
Many are gases at room
Look like metals but are
not as shiny
Conduct electricity better
than nonmetals
Can corrode when left
Iron is good because it can be combined with other metals. It is very dense.
Aluminum is used in mirrors because it is inexpensive and can be polished to
be reflective. As foil, it traps heat inside by reflecting it. Like copper it can be
used to conduct energy cheaply. It is used in electrical wiring, water heaters,
and radiators. It is easily coated with a thin layer of oxygen to help prevent
corrosion. Aluminum is used for cans because it is easy to mold and is
Gold can be used to make jewelry and coatings for a variety of objects. People
use gold for these things because it can be bent, flattened, or hammered easily
without breaking. It can be used in thin layers.
Gold, certain kinds of silver and titanium are all safe because they are
unreactive in the human body.