Matter Notes Chapter 9 Lesson 1 Properties of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. How are mass, volume, weight and density related? Mass measures how much matter there is in something, and volume measures how much space matter takes up. Density is the amount of mass contained in a given volume. Density is a measure of how tightly matter is packed. It is the amount of mass for each (cm3) milliliter of a substance. Weight is how strongly gravity pulls on an object. It is the measure of mass on Earth. (Volumes of liquid are often measured in milliliters (mL)). Activities Performed: Density/Volume Explore 1, Gummy Bear/Oil and ice cube Activities Performed: Surface Tension Note card over cup of water/Soap boats Many fluids have a property called surface tension. In water, every particle pulls itself toward the other particles. This attraction creates a “skin” on the surface. The skin is what the surface tension means. What forms can matter have? Solids-have a definite shape and definite volume In general, a solid is the densest state of matter. Liquids-have no definite shape but have a definite volume In general, a liquid is the second densest state of matter. Gases-has no definite shape or volume In general, a gas is the least dense state of matter. Lesson 2 Elements Elements are the basic building block of all matter. They are pure substances that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by chemical reactions. The most common elements in space are hydrogen and helium. These two elements make up 98 percent of the mass of the universe. The most common elements in the Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. **Informational** **In any form matter is alike in one way. All matter is made up of molecules. Example: If you took a single grain of salt and crushed it into smaller pieces, it would be salt. If you could crush it into even smaller pieces, the smallest piece that would still look, act, and taste like salt would be a salt molecule. The grain of salt you first held is made of billions of salt molecules. Atoms vs. Molecules -Atoms are the smallest unit of element -Molecules are groups of more than one atom joined together that act like a single particle Electrons-Electrons have one unit of negative electrical charge inside an atom. An electron has less mass than a proton and neutron. All of the electrons balance the positive charge of the protons in the atomic nucleus. Protons-Protons are particles with one unit of positive charge. The number of protons in an atom is called the atomic number and determines which element it is. (Protons and neutrons have masses that are approximately the same and are 2,000 times heavier than an electron. Neutrons-Neutrons are particles with no electric charge. Nucleus-The nucleus is the dense center part of an atom. What are three important properties of chemical elements? The three important properties of common elements are their state of matter at room temperature, how they combine with other elements, and whether they are metals, nonmetals, or metalloids. Handouts: Atoms Family Album/Model of a Carbon Atom. Be sure you know how to diagram an atom and label its parts. Lesson 3 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals Nonmetals Metalloids About 75% of all elements Properties are basically opposite to those of metals Elements at the middle points Ex: boron, silicon etc… Poor conductors of heat and electricity, lack luster, generally break or crush rather than bend Properties are between metals and nonmetals Left side of periodic table Shine when polished, conduct heat and electricity well, and can be shaped without breaking Metals are malleable and ductile Many are gases at room temperature Look like metals but are not as shiny Conduct electricity better than nonmetals Can corrode when left outside Iron is good because it can be combined with other metals. It is very dense. Aluminum is used in mirrors because it is inexpensive and can be polished to be reflective. As foil, it traps heat inside by reflecting it. Like copper it can be used to conduct energy cheaply. It is used in electrical wiring, water heaters, and radiators. It is easily coated with a thin layer of oxygen to help prevent corrosion. Aluminum is used for cans because it is easy to mold and is inexpensive. Gold can be used to make jewelry and coatings for a variety of objects. People use gold for these things because it can be bent, flattened, or hammered easily without breaking. It can be used in thin layers. Gold, certain kinds of silver and titanium are all safe because they are unreactive in the human body.