Main forms of lexical cohesion repetition: synonyms superordination: where one word encompasses other meanings (hyponyms) antonyms specific-general/ general specific reference (words referring to the same thing or person, but where one provides greater detail than another) ordered series (words that we recognise as part of a set series minutes, hours,days, week, seasons, etc.) whole-part relations, where one word names a part of an item that another names in full (apple pips) Grammatical Cohesion These are the grammatical words (function) words that are used to link sentences across an entire text. The basic kinds are: Reference - this tells the reader that they can only make complete sense of the word or structure they are looking at if they look somewhere else in the text to complete the information. Words can reference forward (cataphoric) or backward (anaphoric) in a text. Another form of reference is exophoric (this refers to something outside the text, often this is readers themselves – as in the case of 'you' or in the case of the imperative). The opposite of this feature is known as endophoric when all reference is to items or referents strictly within the text. Main grammatical reference words Pronouns: (including ‘there’) Deictics: (e.g. demonstrative pronouns) words that indicate or point out something present in the context. comparative reference (comparison, comparatives, superlatives) substitution this where the writer substitutes one item for another (hissing plume deluge). Ellipsis, in other words missing something out. Surprisingly this can actually help texts cohere because readers themselves fill in the gaps. conjunctions. As their name suggests, these are in a way the most explicit joining devices of a text. The two basic types are co-ordinating conjunctions, which join clauses of equal rank (and, so, but) and subordinating conjunctions, which join clauses of unequal rank (although, until, when, whether, etc) as. Lexical cohesion: repetition These are the elements that inspired the of the hotel of Ruairí and his wife Marie-Thérèse, which is an incredibly and hotel. / The was hard to spot among the cluster of the , the , and a few , as it is perfectly camouflaged by a limestone façade – a long, low that is more like an Andy Goldsworthy creation than a . antonyms A but hotel set among the stone walls of Inis Meáin is helping to bring new life to this Aran island[…] These are the elements that inspired the look of the hotel of Ruairí and his wife Marie-Thérèse, which is an incredibly simple and hotel. The building was hard to spot among the village cluster of the pub, the shop, and a few cottages, as it is perfectly camouflaged by a limestone façade – a long, low building that is more like an than a hotel Semantic field: ,geology, The . are all : thousands of dry stone tiny, empty , most by people long gone, and a few still by the island’s diminishing population of around 200. Other expansive of , too to the when was created from and , still boasts filled with rare, wild . John looked out of the window. He thought he saw a shape in the bushes. Could it be a fox? Mark had told him about the foxes. However, nobody had seen one for ages. coherence Identify the cohesive devices Define cohesive devices used in headline of above article Rio’s Olympic face-lift reveals relics of notorious 19th-century slave market. Archaeologists say find is once-bustling harbour Ruins will be incorporated Into new tourism centre.