T. Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy Chapter 27 Objective #1 • Explain the growing U.S. involvement in East Asia, and summarize America’s “Open Door” policy toward China. Objective #2 • Discuss the significance of the “proimperialist” Republican victory in 1900 and the rise of Theodore Roosevelt as a strong advocate of American power in international affairs. Objectives #3 and #4 • Describe Roosevelt’s policies in Latin America and Japan • Explain the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Theodore Roosevelt • Vice President for McKinley’s second term • Becomes President after McKinley assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz in 1901. TR Divided the World • Civilized: Anglo-Saxon and/or EnglishSpeaking • Uncivilized: The Rest • Civilized had the responsibility to police the uncivilized • Civilized must spread superior values and institutions • “White Man’s Burden” TR and War • Civilized had to fight wars against uncivilized – Justified to bestow blessings of culture and racial superiority on the vanquished • War between two civilized countries was wasteful and foolish 1900 USA • 75 million people • More populous than many European countries with colonies • TR: this justifies expansion and colonization TR and Politics • First President to use face-to-face negotiations with other leaders • Often took action before Congress could decide things • TR believed Congress was too slow to play a significant role in foreign affairs • Was a very strong President--and returned strength to the presidency Panama: The King’s Crown 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (w/GB). 1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty (US would build canal w/out GB). 1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (Panama Canal) This treaty occurred after US helped Panama gain independence from Colombia. Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904) U.S. in Caribbean • As U.S. economic interests increased, U.S. policy towards “outsiders” strengthens • U.S. wants economic dominance • 1902: Germany and Britain blockade Venezuela over debt – TR demands they accept U.S. arbitration and threatens war – Showed we would use force Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick! The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power . U.S. Intervention in Cuba • Cuba: Platt Amendment attached to new Cuban constitution – Gave U.S. economic rights – Gave U.S. Naval base at Guantanamo Bay – Gave U.S. right to intervene if Cuban sovereignty was threatened • U.S. sent in military when civil war broke out in 1906 • Unpopularity forced U.S. to abolish in 1934 (except giving up Guantanamo) The Great White Fleet: 1907 Constable of the World Russo-Japanese War (1904) • TR hopes countries would negate each other’s power • Japan winning battles • TR fears Japan would try to shut U.S. out of Asian markets • Japan approaches TR to facilitate peace agreement Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy Root-Takahira Agreement (1908) • Japan honors U.S. control of Philippines and Hawaii. • U.S. honors Japanese control of Korea and Manchuria • Japan promised not to further encroach on China. • But, tension grows between U.S. and Japan due to rivalry in Pacific. Gentleman’s Agreement: 1908 A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools.