FINC 626 – Final Team Project David (Dave) Ballantine Papamagatte (Magu) Diagne Jing (April) Hu Xuehong (Echo) Wang 1 Gazprom (OGZPY) Gazprom (OGZPY) is a global energy company. It’s major business lines are geological exploration, production, transportation, storage, processing and sales of gas, gas condensate and oil, sales or gas as a vehicle fuel and generation and marketing of heat and electric power. Gazprom holds the world’s largest natural gas reserves. The company is among Russia’s five largest oil producers and it is the largest owner of power generating assets in the country. These assets account for 17 percent of the total installed capacity of the national energy system. With oil and gas accounting for 70% of export income, the fall in oil prices has caused an increase in the interest rate to 17 percent. According to the World Bank, Russia loses about $2 billion in revenues for every dollar fall in the price per barrel of oil. Similar to overproduction pressure faced by OPEC, Russia will not decrease oil production for fear of losing market share. Since OPEC will not decrease production, Gazprom faces a potential decrease in their worldwide market share. 1.1 Stock Price Valuation We predicted stock price targets using the DDM, 3-Stage, PE and PB valuation models. Most of the model inputs are obtained from zacks.com and yahoofinance.com. Long term growth rates and CAPM beta are calculated from a linear regression model. On February 11 2015 the stock price was $4.69 per share. Book value per share is 256. This value is high because Gazprom executed a massive stock buyback program, greatly decreasing the number of outstanding shares. Decreasing the number of outstanding shares increases the price to book value ratio. Gazprom pay dividends at $0.33 per share. Short term return on equity (ROE) is 8.89%. Long term ROE data is not available so we assumed 7%. Short and long term growth rate data is not available. We assumed Gazprom with grow with the industry short term and long term growth rate of 3% and 10.07% respectively. We estimated a forward 12 month earnings per share of 3. The CAPM beta of 1.89 is calculated from a regression model. The corresponding long term required rate of return is 16.20%. PE, PB and PEG multiples are 1.89, 0.2 and 0.24 respectively. Prices targets range from five to sixty dollars. The PB evaluation price target is $60.21. Due to the stock buyback program this price is an order of magnitude larger than the reference stock price. We did not select such a high target price but use the result as an indication that the stock price will likely increase. The PE evaluation price target is $3.77. We do not expect the stock price to drop to this price. DDM evaluation price target is $5.11. Initially the 3-Stage valuation price was negative. By increasing the stage 3 growth rate to 12% the 3-stage evaluation price is $9.65. At $9.65 the expected return is 105% with an 89% alpha. The stock is a strong buy. 1.2 Stock Options Strategy Our main concern with Gazprom is volatility and uncertainty. The international energy market as whole has behaved erratically in the past several months. OPEC’s decision to increase its oil supply to a surplus had caused oil prices to fall. This has direct implications on Gazprom, because they are also an oil company. Therefore, the uncertainty about future oil prices plays a large part in our uncertainty for the future stock price of Gazprom. The stock price is likely to go up or down. If oil prices fall, the stock will probably decrease. If oil prices increase, then the stock will likely increase. Furthermore, there is geopolitical instability in the Russian region. There has been recent political instability in Ukraine for example. Investors are less likely to invest their capital in international markets where there are political, economic, and social problems. Therefore we have hedged our bets against uncertainty. We believe that there is a good chance of profitability if the strategy is correct. We have chosen the Long straddle option strategy. This is the combination of buying a call and a put at the same time at the same strike price and same expiration. According to our calculations, the cost premium for this option would be $1.65. This is probably a too high estimate for the premium. We could not find data on Gazprom options, so we tried to use other similarly priced companies and make our estimates for Gazprom. We believe the premium would probably be closer to $1. As the stock price moves more than $2 in either direction, we will make a profit. But if the stock price stays within $1 in either direction of the stock price, we will lose money. To be specific, the break even points are about $3.80 on the low end, and $5.80 on the high end. Therefore, our long straddle option position would be a good hedge against stock price volatility that is likely for Gazprom. Please see the profit/loss graph below which indicates our long straddle position. 2 Goldcorp (GG) Goldcorp is a gold producer headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The company employs more than 16,000 people worldwide, is engaged in gold mining and related activities including exploration, extraction, processing and reclamation. Goldcorp’s operating assets include five mines in Canada and the U.S., three mines in Mexico, and two in Central and South America. 2.1 Stock Price Valuation The stock price of Goldcorp is $22.83, and the book value per share is $23.93. The trading price is less than its book value. The P/B ratio is less than 1. It tells investors that the asset value may be overstated, or that the company is earning a very poor return on its assets. If the former is true, investors are well advised to steer clear of the company’s shares because it is highly possible that the asset value will face a downward correction by the market, leaving investors with negative returns. If the latter is true, there is a chance that new management will prompt a turnaround in prospects and give strong positive returns. Even this happens rarely, a company trading at a price less than book value can be broken up for its asset value, earning shareholders a profit. The short-term ROE is negative, clearly reflecting that the company does not perform well recently, and that it is experiencing a capital loss. However, the world gold market is becoming better. So we predict that the Goldcorp will have a turnaround in the future. We estimate that the long-term ROE will be 2%. Given the good trend, investors can consider buying the stocks of gold market. The short-term earnings growth rate is 10%, which is relative high. Even though the return is not ideal, compared to the condition of previous years, it becomes better. The whole market is recovering, and the company has a bright prospect. However, we cannot say that the happy tendency will last for a long time. With the consideration of uncertainty in the future, we expect the earnings growth rate would drop to 5.7%. We do the regression between the annual return of the stock and the return of S&P500, and then we obtain the beta, which equals to 0.65. The beta is less than one, meaning that GG has a lower volatility than the market. We also do the regression to get the required rate of return, which is 7.56%. It is relatively high and an ideal return. Investors have high possibilities to earn their money back. We calculated the price multiples to get three price valuations. We get 32.61 for PE, 0.13 for PB, and 1.45 for PEG. The three numbers are in accord with what we said above: the company had a poor earning during the past 12 months. We predict that the dividend growth rate will be constant in the short-term, and float in the long-time period. Therefore, we use DDM to estimate the intrinsic value for short time and use 3-stage model to evaluate the long-term intrinsic value. The result of DDM is $25.35, and the consequence of 3-stage model is $21.86. The current price is about $23. It reflects the company’s intrinsic value well. The gold market is expected to recover. The future stock price may increase. Since the current price matches the value of the Goldcorp, it has a great probability that the price won’t change a lot. However, due to the recovery of the market, the earnings of the company are expected to increase a lot. The target PE and PB are $22.83 and $3.04, representing better earnings. The alpha is 3.5%. Investors can earn 3.5% more than the industrial level. According to the analysis above, our target price for Goldcorp is $25.35, and the expected return is 11%. Moreover, we offer the company a rating of B, and recommend investors to buy its stock. 2.2 Stock Options Strategy Based on the Goldcorp data from Yahoo! Finance the stock price of GG has an increasing trend and the gold industry has a promising future. So we predict that the stock price of Goldcorp and also gold industry will go up in the following days. So we decided to choose protective put strategy to save more money. Following summarizes the protective put strategy position: With the stock price decreasing by $5 step by step, there is a minimum return with put option of -20.6%. When price is lower or equal to $18.54, the return with put strategy is stable at this level. This position gives us a guarantee that we won’t lose much money when stock price is too low. Also, when price is higher than or equal to $28.54, the return with put strategy is positive and there is little evidence between returns with put option and returns without put option, which is 1.3% to 1.4%. Therfore we conclude that the influence of this protective put strategy at higher price level is relatively small. It is a good signal of our strategy. Following is the price/returns graph which indicates the protective put strategy: We observe from the above graph that there is a positive relationship of the stock price and the returns. In addition, when price is lower than $23.54, the relationship line of stock price and return w/put is horizontal, which indicates a steady level. And after that, the return w/put line and return w/o put line nearly duplicate with little difference, which reflects the figures in the chart above. With this protective put strategy, we guarantee our return at a minimum level when price continues declining. And we will lose less when price goes up. That’s why we choose the protective put strategy for Gordcorp.