Other ways to loan dissertation

• Check the Union Catalogs of the nationwide e.g. RLIN, OCLC’s WorldCat

• Borrow the items via Interlibrary Loan

Other ways to get articles

• Check the Index/Abstract at your library

• Check the Catalog of your campus( Webpac)

• Copy from the library

• Apply Interlibrary Loan from the other libraries

Evaluating Internet Resources

Criterion #1: Authority

1. Is it clear who is sponsoring the creation and maintenance of the page?

2. Is there information available describing the purpose of the sponsoring organization?

3. Is there a way of verifying the legitimacy of the page's sponsor? For instance, is a phone number or address available to contact for more information?

4. Is it clear who developed and wrote the material? Are his/her qualifications for writing on this topic stated?

Evaluating Internet Resources

Criterion #2: Accuracy

1. Are the sources for factual information given so they can be verified?

2. Is it clear who has the responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented?

3. If statistical data is presented in graphs or charts, are they labeled clearly?

Evaluating Internet Resources


Criterion #3: Objectivity

Is the page and the information included provided as a public service?


Is it free of advertising?


If there is advertising on the page, is it clearly separated from the informational content?

Evaluating Internet Resources

Criterion #4: Currency

1. Are there dates on the page to indicate the following:

• a. When the page was written?

b. When the page was first placed on line?

c. When the page was last revised or edited?

1. Are there any other indications that the material is updated frequently to ensure currency of the data?

2. If the information is published in print in different editions, is it clear what edition the page is from?

Evaluating Internet Resources

Criterion #5: Coverage

1. Is there an indication that the page has been completed and is not still under construction?

2. If there is a print equivalent to the Web page, is there clear indication of whether the entire work or only a portion of it is available on the Web?

3. If the material is from a work that is out of copyright (as is often the case with a dictionary or thesaurus), has there been an effort to update the material to make it more current?

Examples (Evaluation)

• Compare these two statistical sites related to

AIDS. Which one of the two do you think is a reliable resource for research about AIDS?





V. How to Write a Research


Research Steps

• Select a topic

• Formulate a Topic Statement

• Find Basic Information

• Broaden or Narrow your Topic

• Locate and Retrieve Materials

• Determine Relevancy of Materials

• Take Notes

• Write the Paper

Select a Topic

• a topic of interest

• assigned topic

• availability of materials on the topic

• time you need to complete your assignment

Formulate a Topic Statement


> Marketing analysis in industry.

Initial topic statement

> Does marketing analysis help industries compete?

Final topic statement

> The use of marketing analysis helps computer companies identify a competitive advantage within the industry


> marketing, computer industry, competitive advantage

Find Basic Information

• Reference Books, such as encyclopedias, bibliographies, directories

• Library Catalogs, for books on your topic.

• Periodical Indexes, for articles on your topic.

• Internet Resources, for Web sites on your topic

Broaden or Narrow your Topic

• Searching related words or synonyms, for example: marketing = advertising, selling

• Searching keywords in different combinations, for example: comparative marketing or industrial marketing and computer industry

• Searching related periodical indexes

• Checking book or article bibliographies or footnotes for additional sources on your topic

too much information ?

• Qualifying the topic by date, by region, or by another aspect of your topic. For example: computer software companies

• Checking other sources for specific aspects of your topic. For example: Encyclopedia of

American Industries

Determine the Types of Information

Resources Needed

• Encyclopedias - Provide excellent background information. There are general encyclopedias such as the

Encyclopedia Britannica

, as well as specialized encyclopedias such as the


Sciences Encyclopedia


• Dictionaries - Provide definitions for unfamiliar terms. There are general dictionaries, and also specialized dictionaries such as computer dictionaries.

Types of Information Resources Needed

• Directories - Provide basic information such as names and addresses. Often used to find company information.

• Books - Usually provide a broad view of your topic and are able to go into depth.

• Articles - Provide current information.

Types of Information Resources Needed

• Bibliographies - When looking at books and journals, look at the bibliographies listed at the end of the articles or book chapters. These bibliographies list all the resources used in that work. Use them to find additional information on your topic.

• Internet Resources/Web Pages - Depending on your topic, you may want to use Web pages as resources.

Select the Appropriate Research Tool

• Library Catalogs - Used to find books and journals, dictionaries and encyclopedias.

• Periodical Indexes - Used to find articles from journals, magazines, and newspapers.

• Internet Search Tools - Used to find Web pages and other Internet resources.

Determine Relevancy of Materials

1. Authority

• Can you identify the author of the article or book?

• Is the author an expert in the field?

• Is the source an acknowledged authority?

• Can you identify the publisher?

• If so, is this a well-respected or well-known publishing house for the topic being searched?

Determine Relevancy of Materials

2. Accuracy

• Are the sources for factual information given so they can be verified?

• Is the information correct?

• Are there inconsistencies in the information, particularly statistical data?

Determine Relevancy of Materials

3. Objectivity

• Is the presentation objective?

• Or is the viewpoint biased?

4. Currency

• Is the material up-to-date?

5. Coverage

• Is the information presented complete?

• Or is data missing?

Take Notes

• Taking notes that include major points of the books and journal articles will save time and effort.

• Keep a record of all the materials you use.

Write down the complete citation, including the author, title, publication date, page numbers, and other information.

Citation format

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style

- This style is used most often in the humanities (literature, languages, etc.). The

MLA Style Manual

, 4th edition, provides information on how to cite resources using the MLA style.

American Psychological Association (APA) Style

- This style is used in the sciences, including the social sciences

(psychology, business, etc.). It is the style used by all students in the UMUC Graduate School of Management and Technology.

The Publication Manual of the American

Psychological Association

, 4th edition, provides information on how to cite resources using the APA style.

Citing Electronic Resources: APA Style

• American Psychological Association. (1999, June 1).

Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the

American Psychological Association

, [Announcement].

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Retrieved June 10, 1999 from the World Wide Web:


• Author, I., Author, I., & Author, I. (Date). Article title.

Journal Title, volume

(issue), pagination or indicator of length. Retrieved month day, year from MdUSA database

(Database Name) on the World Wide Web:

Citing Electronic Resources: MLA Style

• Author. "Article Title." Journal Title

Volume.Issue (Year): Pagination or length.

Supplier. Database. Access date <URL>


Research is a process

• The research steps contained in this library information guide can be used in any library.

Make your research interesting

• Pick a topic that you would enjoy learning more about.

Plan ahead

• No library has everything written on every subject.

Check early in your search process to see if the material you need is readily available.


Avoid plagiarism

• Keep a list of the sources you use and give credit to other people's words and ideas.

Help is available if you need it

• Ask at the Reference Desk if you need help. Other library information guides are also available to assist you in your research.

Budget your time

• You cannot do your best work when you start your assignment the night before it is due.

Writing your paper

• Step 1. Chose your topic

• Step 2. Find Information

• Step 3. State your thesis

• Step 4. Make a tentative outline

• Step 5. Organizing your note

• Step 6. Write your first draft

• Step 7. Revised your outline and draft

• Step 8.Check List


Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence.

Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.


• All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital

Roman numeral.

• The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing.

• A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper.

• Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other.

Example of an outline

?I. Shakespeare's life

– A. Early life in Stratford

• 1. Shakespeare's family

– a. Shakespeare's father

– b. Shakespeare's mother

• 2. Shakespeare's marriage

– B. The Elizabethan Theater

• 1. The Globe Theater

– a. History of the Globe

– b. Owners of the Globe

– c. Structure of the Globe

• 2. Acting companies

– a. Men and boys

– b. Sponsorships

– II. Shakespeare's plays

• A. Hamlet

• B. Romeo and Juliet

Include in your outline an




• INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper?

State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem?

Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.


• This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the to find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.


• Restate your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.



Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic.

Make sure the information you have gathered is accurately recorded. Devise your own method to organize your notes.

• One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline.


• IA3b - meaning that the item

"Accessing WWW" belongs in the following location of your outline:

I. Understanding the Internet

A. What is the Internet

3. How to "Surf the Net

“ b. Accessing WWW


• Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.

• Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.

Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor on a computer, create filenames which match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper.


• Read your paper for any errors in content. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.


• 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?

• 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?

• 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?

• 4. Are all sources cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing?

• 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments?

• 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?


• 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?

• 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?

• 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?

• 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?

• 5. Varying lengths of sentences?

• 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next


• 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?

• 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?

• 9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?

• 10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use "cannot" instead of "can't", "do not" instead of "don't"?

• 11. Did I use third person as much as possible?

Avoid using phrases such as "I think", "I guess", "I suppose", "I believe", etc.

• 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective?

• 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?

Other useful references

VI. Discussion


• The Teaching Library.

• Library Research Methods.

• Library Research at Cornell: A Hypertext Guide.

• Research Methods.

• Basic Steps In Library Research.

• ICYouSee: T is for Thinking

• Evaluating Quality on the Net.

• A Research Guide for Students.

• Element of Style

Good Luck & Have a nice trip