Psych 101 Supplemental Instruction Prenatal Development: 11/12/15 Define the following terms: Temperament - a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. Social Learning Theory – the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. Teratogen – agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Gender Typing – the acquisition of a transitional masculine or feminine role. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. Y Chromosome – the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. Explain Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model – think about the four important terms that describe the nested environments and give examples It is a series of nested enviornments -Microsystem: immediate environment with which child directly interacts. -Family, peers, and school -Mesosystem: The connections that exist among microsystems -parents chaperoning on a school field trip Exosystem – The social settings a child is not a part of, but that still affect him/her -death of a family friend Macrosystem – The general cultural context for all the other systems 8 1 2 Psych 101 Supplemental Instruction Give 4 examples of aspects of environment that could affect an individual IQ 1. How much you read to your child 2. Attending class 3. Poverty 4. Single parent families What are the two types of teratogens and do they have the same effect on neuronal development? Alcohol/Drugs and Radiation Stops vs. wrong places As seen in the “Bringing up Monkey” video, what is the relationship between mothering type and baby type? Can the type of the baby be changed by environmental factors? Mothering type influences the baby’s personality but only to a certain point. Baby type can be changed by environmental factors, but not in extreme conditions. What is the order of fetal development? Give a description and the corresponding weeks of the stage. Germinal Period The germinal period begins at conception and lasts approximately two weeks Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube within 48 hours after ovulation. At about 24 to 30 hours after fertilization, the sperm and ovum unite forming the zygote. Embryonic Period The embryonic period is the second stage of prenatal development and lasts from about 2 weeks to 8 weeks. The major accomplishment during this stage is organogenesis, the process of organ formation. During this phase, cell differentiation intensifies and three layers form from the inner cell mass. Fetal Period The fetal period lasts from 2 months to term (40 weeks). The major accomplishment during this phase is growth. By the 12th week the sex of the fetus is distinguishable.