11/12/15: Prenatal Development Worksheet ANSWERS

Psych 101 Supplemental Instruction
Prenatal Development: 11/12/15
Define the following terms:
Temperament - a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Social Learning Theory – the theory that we learn social behavior by observing
and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Teratogen – agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal
development and cause harm.
Gender Typing – the acquisition of a transitional masculine or feminine role.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – physical and cognitive abnormalities in children
caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms
include noticeable facial misproportions.
Y Chromosome – the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with
an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Explain Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model – think about the four important terms
that describe the nested environments and give examples
It is a series of nested enviornments
-Microsystem: immediate environment with which child directly interacts.
-Family, peers, and school
-Mesosystem: The connections that exist among microsystems
-parents chaperoning on a school field trip
Exosystem – The social settings a child is not a part of, but that still affect
-death of a family friend
Macrosystem – The general cultural context for all the other systems
Psych 101 Supplemental Instruction
Give 4 examples of aspects of environment that could affect an individual IQ
1. How much you read to your child
2. Attending class
3. Poverty
4. Single parent families
What are the two types of teratogens and do they have the same effect on neuronal
Alcohol/Drugs and Radiation
Stops vs. wrong places
As seen in the “Bringing up Monkey” video, what is the relationship between
mothering type and baby type? Can the type of the baby be changed by
environmental factors?
Mothering type influences the baby’s personality but only to a certain point.
Baby type can be changed by environmental factors, but not in extreme
What is the order of fetal development? Give a description and the corresponding
weeks of the stage.
Germinal Period
The germinal period begins at conception and lasts
approximately two weeks
Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube within 48
hours after ovulation.
At about 24 to 30 hours after fertilization, the sperm
and ovum unite forming the zygote.
Embryonic Period
The embryonic period is the second stage of
prenatal development and lasts from about 2
weeks to 8 weeks.
The major accomplishment during this stage
is organogenesis, the process of organ
During this phase, cell differentiation
intensifies and three layers form from the inner
cell mass.
Fetal Period
The fetal period lasts from 2 months to term
(40 weeks).
The major accomplishment during this phase
is growth.
By the 12th week the sex of the fetus is