Focus Activity Check the board for what you need to hand in. Left Hand Side of your notebook - On a new Page and # My car broke down and I brought it to my mechanic. Describe in your own words how the mechanic would go about fixing my car using the scientific method. HOMEWORK: CHECK THE BOARD WHAT IS PHYSICAL SCIENCE? Science- way of learning about the natural world by gathering information Chemistry: study of properties of matter and how matter changes Physics: study of matter and energy and how they interact Fill in any notes that you do not already have What do scientists use to begin the thought process of a law or theory? We use the scientific processing skills! These process skills use the 5 senses WHAT ARE THESE SCIENTIFIC PROCESSING SKILLS? Observation Inference Prediction MYSTERY FOLDER ACTIVITY DO NOT open the folder until the class has completed the WHOLE activity! On the LEFT SIDE of your notebook answer the following questions. 1. What colors do you observe? 2. What textures do you observe? 3. What do you think the picture is? Observations- using 1 or more of your senses (hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, feeling) to gather information. There are 2 types of observations- qualitative and quantitative. OBSERVATION Get up and move around the room. Take a marker board and dry erase marker. A-Write down 5 qualitative- “think quality” observations you make. B-Write down 5 quantitative- “think quantity” observations you make. QUALITATIVE OR QUANTITATIVE? Quantitative The pencil is 15 cm long. Qualitative I have brown hair. Qualitative He is left-handed. Qualitative I have a large shirt. There are 3 clouds in the sky. Quantitative There is 15ml of water in the graduated Quantitative cylinder. INFERENCES An EXPLANATION of your observations Uses background knowledge Example: Observation- The ground is wet. There are many dark clouds in the sky. Background KnowledgeDark clouds usually indicate rain. Rain makes things wet. Inference- It just rained. OR A storm just passed. There can be many different inferences based on what you know and what you observe! MAKE AN INFERENCE 1. Observation- A call interrupts class and calls a student from the room. 2. Observation-A former rock and roll band member has poor hearing. 3. Observation- The classroom lights are off. 4. Observation- All middle school students are bringing lunch from home. FOCUS ACTIVITY: INFERENCES Make an inference about this picture.- 3 minutes ELEPHANT OBSERVATIONS Long ago in a distant land, 6 blind men lived together. All of them had heard of elephants, but they had never “seen” one. When they heard that an elephant and his trainer would be visiting their village, they all wanted an encounter with this beast. They made their way to the site where the elephant was being kept. Each blind man touched the elephant and made his observations. The observations are as follows. ELEPHANT OBSERVATIONS One man touched the elephant’s side and said, “ An elephant is like a wall” Another man touched the trunk and said, “An elephant is like a snake.” Another man touched a tusk and said, “An elephant is like a spear.” Another man touched a leg and said, “An elephant is like a tree.” Another man touched an ear and said, “An elephant is like a fan.” The last man touched the tail and said, “An elephant is like a rope.” Talk with your partner to answer these questions *Did the blind men make appropriate inferences? Explain. *How might the blind men improve their inferences? *One of the characteristics of science is that scientists communicate their ideas, observations, results, and inferences with each other. Why is this a good idea? PREDICTION A forecast about what YOU think will happen in the future based on past experiences or evidence. Example- Evidence- It’s cold out. There are dark clouds approaching. It's winter. Prediction- It's going to snow! NOW THAT YOU KNOW THE PROCESS SKILLS…USE THEM!!! Science is about solving problems. -A Problem -Something appears to be missing What is it? BE SPECIFIC!! How do I solve it? Where do I start? 1)Look for clues 2)Find Pattern 3)Take measurements * The more specific you are, the better able you will be to solve it. Strategy - Plan, Logical Sequence. 1) Use what you know, eliminate possibilities. 2) Patterns: Find them; Use tables or graphs. 3) MODEL: represents what you are trying to explain. Representation - Not an exact replica of the “real” thing’. 4) Break it down into simpler steps. ALL OF THESE THINGS LEAD US TO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY Step 1: Ask a question Step 2: research your topic and develop a hypothesis Step 3: Design an experiment Step 4: Collect and interpret your data Step 5: Conclude and Communicate your results HYPOTHESIS IF/THEN statement Is a possible answer for the question that is posed. Is not a fact MUST be testable by an observation or experiment SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY IN ACTION Step 1: Pose a question Will an M&M left in water change the color of the water? Step 2: Research and Develop a Hypothesis What we know- when M&Ms melt in our mouths or hands- the color comes off. Hypothesis: IF I put an M&M in water and leave it, THEN the water will change color. Step 3: Design an experiment *Test your hypothesis in an organized way. *Create a STEP by STEP procedure than can be replicated by others. *Create a control for comparison Step 4: Collect and interpret data Create data tables and graphs of your data Step 5: Conclude and Report your results Was your hypothesis correct or not? What evidence do you have? Communicate with others. VARIABLES When creating an experiment you need to determine what the variables are. Variables- Factors that can affect an event Manipulated (Independent) Variable- ONE factor that you change purposely. Responding (Dependent) Variable- the factor that changes in response to the value of the manipulated variable. -THE RESULT. Control –An experimental setup used for a comparison Constant- Variables that are the same in all setups NAME THE VARIABLES What are some variables that might affect the attendance at a football game? What are variables that might affect the number of books sold by a door-to-door salesman? HELICOPTER HAPPENING Cut out the pattern given to you and follow the directions to create your “helicopter” Drop your helicopter from the same height several times. On the LEFT side of your notebook answer these questions: 1. Record your observations and inferences 2. What are some possible variables that could affect how it flies? 3. Test one of your variables- does it make a difference? NAME THE VARIABLES Problem/Question- Does Brand A fertilizer cause flowers to grow more than Brand B? Hypothesis: IF I put beans in Fertilizer A, THEN the beans will grow faster than in Fertilizer B. Set up A Set up B 1 Cup of Fertilizer A 1 Cup of Fertilizer B 2 Bean Seeds 2 Bean Seeds 1 Cup of water 1 Cup of water Check 1 week later Check 1 week later. What is the manipulated variable? (What YOU change) What is the responding variable? (The RESULT of you changing the manipulated variable) Which are the constants and what is the control? WRITING HYPOTHESES 1. Manipulated Variable: Length of String telephone Responding Variable: Clarity of sound 2. Manipulated variable: temperature of solution Responding variable: dissolving time of powdered drink mix. 3. Problem: How does the number of hours practicing riding a bike affect the performance of riding a bike? FOCUS ACTIVITY 1. 2. Name 4 variables that might affect the amount of books sold door to door. Write a hypothesis for the following situations (If/Then) 1. Manipulated/Independent variable- hours spent shooting free throws 2. Responding/dependent variable- accuracy of shots 1. 2. Manipulated/Independent variable- amount of air in tires Responding/dependent variable- miles driven per gallon of gasoline H/W – Quiz on H Day (Thursday) TENNIS BALL LAB Directions 1) Problem:/Question What can we vary to change the bounce height of a tennis ball? 2) Define the following terms and identify what each is from the lab Variable: Constants Control: Independent Variable Dependent Variable 3) Form a Hypothesis: Choose one variable and make a hypothesis about the relationship between the ?? variable and the height the ball will bounce. 4) Materials Tennis Ball Meter Stick 5) Procedure: Plan the experiment, write step-by-step directions 6) Answer the questions at the bottom of your lab.