INTRODUCTION PUBLIC RELATIONS involves the cultivation of favorable relations for organizations and products with their key publics through the use of variety of communications channels and tools. THE ROLE OF PR TODAY Building awareness and favorable image for a company or client Closely monitoring numerous media channels Managing crisis that threatens company or product image Building goodwill among an organization's target market through community, philanthropic and special programs and event SEVERAL DEFINITIONS OF PR (British) Institute of Public Relations (IPR) which defines PR as “ the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics”. The Mexican Statement : PR is the act and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both organization and the public interest. CONT. Public Relation Institute of South Africa: “ a planned, deliberate and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics” DEFINITIONS BY PR PROFESSIONALS Fraser Seitel states that PR is a planned process, to influence opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutual satisfaction two- way communication. Frank Jenkins mentions that PR consists of all forms planned communication, outwards and inwards, between an organization and its publics for the purpose of achieving specific objectives concerning mutual understanding. CONT. Glossary of Marketing Definitions from IFLA defines PR as “ the form of communication management that’s seek to make use of publicity and other non- paid forms of promotion and information to influence feeling, opinions or beliefs about the agency\ library and its offerings. PROFESSOR JOHN MARSTON FOUR STEP MODEL ON COMMUNICATION R_A_C_E Research Action Communication Evaluation SHEILA CLOUGH CRIFASI MODEL R-O-S-I-E Research Objective Strategies Implementation Evaluation OTHER APPROACHES R-P-I-E Research Planning Implementation Evaluation GROWTH OF PR Ancient beginnings Early and Later American Experience PR HAS COME OF AGE AS A RESULT OF FIVE GENERAL FACTORS IN THE SOCIETY The growth of large institutions and their sense of responsibility to the public. The increased changes, conflicts and confrontations among interest groups in society. The heightened awareness of people brought about by increasingly sophisticated communications technology everywhere. CONT. The growing power of public opinion and the spread of global democracy. The growth of the Internet and the WWW. PR AND RELATED FIELDS Promotion and Advertising- the terms promotion and advertising are also used interchangeably. Advertising, however, is a component of promotion, marketing and PR. DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING The (British)Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) states that “Advertising present the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost”. That is, through the creative skills of copywriting, illustration, layout, typography, scriptwriting and video- making, etc. This differ from the PR role of informing, educating and creating understanding through knowledge. ADVERTISING ALLOWS YOU TO CONTROL THE FOLLOWING( AT LEST IN NEWSPRINT) Content Location Reach Frequency SOME REAL DIFFERENCES PR is not a form of advertising. PR is neither ‘free advertising’ nor ‘unpaid-for advertising. Every organization is involved in PR but not all organizations use advertising. CONTS. PR embraces everyone and everything, whilst advertising is limited to special selling and buying tasks such as promoting goods and services, buying supplies, recruiting staff or announcing trading results. PR has to do with the total communication of an organization, it is more extensive and comprehensive than advertising. CONTS. In terms of finances, most of the budget in advertising is spent on media and production cost whereas in PR most of the money goes on time, whether this is represented by staff salaries or by consultancy fees. MARKETING Marketing begins with the identification of the customer needs. The (British) Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) defines marketing as the ‘management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitable’. CONT. OF DEFINITION Marketing calls for imaginative enterprise but it also needs the responsibility of PR- mindedness for goodwill will be squandered if the pursuit of maximum profit is at the expense of the customers. CONT. Another definition by Philip Kotler, an expert in marketing for nonprofit organization states that organization’s consumers, read their needs, develop products that meet these needs and build a program of communications to express the organization’s purposes. In theory, marketing goes beyond PR in turning to the consumer for information about the product and services to be developed SOME RELATIONSHIPS PR can be applied to every part of the marketing mix of which advertising is ne ingredient. The marketing mix consist of the 4p’sProduct Place Price Promotion SALES PROMOTION Sales promotion consists of short- term schemes, usually at the point- of –sale but also in direct response marketing, to launch products or to revive or increase sales. Sales promotion consists of ‘below- the- the line 'efforts, that is, the use of media other than traditional mass media, to help move goods out of the stores. PROPAGANDA Propaganda is the means of gaining support for an opinion, creed or belief. It is distinguished by its concentration on matters of the heart and mind. These are emotional, intellectual or spiritual topics such as causes, politics or religion, with which people may not agree. For propagandist it may result in more membership drive or more converts. Propaganda may be used for good, bad or indifferent causes. CONT. Good PR on the other hand should be factual, credible unbiased and free of self-praise. PUBLICITY Publicity results from information being made known or gained as a result of information being published or announced. publicity is a result which may be uncontrollable and may be good or bad for the subject concerned. VALUE OF PUBLICITY For any organization publicity makes great sense in the folloeing areas: Announcing a new product or service. Because publicity can be regarded as news, it should be used advertising commences; Reenergizing an old product Explaining a complicated product CONT. Little or no budget Enhancing the organization’s reputation Crisis response VALUE INPUBLICITY IN ARCHIVES OR LIBRARIES Increase public awareness of your programs, personnel, and services. Increase involvement of public and private partners. Cerate, change, build, or enhance the public image of your archives\information centre. Encourage contributions of money, materials, services, and time. CONT. Win support for city, state, federal, foundation, or individual donor funding of your archives\information centre. Help you to reach new or never before approached audiences, such as non- English speakers. Clarify misunderstanding about archives\libraries do and how they are financed. CONT. Mobilize opinion leaders in your community to become active supporters and advocates of your efforts. Help knit together a vital network of archives\information centres throughout the region, state, and nationwide and help build public and private support for archives\information centres THINGS PUBLICITY CANNOT DO Guarantee exclusively positive coverage. Substitute for quality projects at your archives\information centre. Compensate for poor service delivery CONT. Eliminate the need for strategic planning within your archives\information centre system. Replace effective lobbying FUNCTIONS OF PR Writing and Editing Media relation Publicity Researching CONT. Relationships Employee relations Government affairs relating directly with legislators, local, state, regional officials. Investor relations Marketing communication CONT. Counseling Planning Special public relations Public affairs and issues management Web site development and web interface CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRACTITIONER The PR practitioners must possess the following six characteristics: Pro communication Advocacy Counseling orientation Ethics Willingness to take risks Positive outlook The ROLE OF PR IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Information is valuable recourse like any other corporate resource- human, physical, and financialand needs to be well managed. One definition on information management states that it is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. CONT. Another definition also states that information management entails organizing, retrieving, acquiring and maintaining information. It implies planning, directing and controlling all of the organization’s information-based resources to meet corporate goals and to deliver programs and services.It is a consequences of the premise that an organization’s information holdings and investments in information technology are valuable resources and critical factors in the achievement of its objectives. CONT. A third definition which states that “ Information management describes the means by which an organization efficiently plan, collects, organizes, uses, controls, disseminates and disposes of its information, and through which it ensures that the value of that information is identified and exploited to the fullest extent. “Information Management is to support the organization’s goal to better create and share knowledge. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION MANAGER Information managers work efficiently and effectively with agreed systematic ways of handling information to : Reduce effort to maintain information resources Reduce information overload Retain knowledge that underpins best practice CONT. Improve and increase access to good information that can be re used. Decrease time to locate information Produce smarter and smoother work practices that makes tasks more satisfying Standardize and support consistent collaborative workgroup practices. THANK YOU.