Political Ideologies

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Political Ideologies
Political Ideological Views of
The Role of Government &
Social Change
Defining Political Ideologies
 Political Ideologies – sets of political values held by
individuals regarding the basic goals of government and
politics.
Traditional Ideological Spectrum
 This political identification no longer accurately/completely
describes various political positions.
 Ex.) Both Joseph Stalin & Gandhi would be considered on this
spectrum to be ‘left/liberal’ because they agree with a strong(er)
government and collective social programming.
 However are they the same politically or ideologically?
 NO !!
Updated Ideological Spectrum
 Political Compass Version
 Accounts for beliefs related
to:
1.
2.
Role of Government
(Economics)
Social Change
Political Ideologies
Role of Government
1.) Liberalism
• Emphasis on individual political & economic freedom
• Maximize freedom for all people – speech, religion, association
• Citizens have the right to disagree with government/leaders
John Locke
Thomas Malthus
Adam Smith
Thomas Jefferson
Conservative Ideology
 Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a
constant force, performing a timeless function in the
development of a free society, and corresponding to a deep
and permanent requirement of human nature itself.
 Political mood or movement aimed at preserving older or
traditional values, economic systems, and laws.
Edmund Burke the
British Conservative.
Political Ideologies
Role of Government
2.) Communism
• Value equality over freedom
• Rejects idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity
• State ‘takeover’ will eliminate inequalities & exploitation
• Individual liberties must yield to the needs of society/state
Mao Zedong
Vladimir Lenin
Ho Chi Minh
Joseph Stalin
Political Ideologies
Role of Government
3.) Socialism
• Value equality
State = strong role in regulating economy
• State = provide social benefits
• Value freedom
• Private Ownership
• Free Market Principles
•
Karl Marx
Hugo Chavez
Political Ideologies
Role of Government
4.) Fascism
• Devalue individual freedoms
• Reject the value of equality
• Accept inferiority/superiority
• State has the right to mold society & economy
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Political Ideologies
Social Change
(1) Radicalism
• Rapid, dramatic changes need to be made to the existing society
• Current system cannot be saved; must be overturned; replaced
Russian Revolution (1917) is seen
as a Radical-led revolution of the
Russian government and society.
Political Ideologies
Social Change
(2) Liberalism
• Supports Reform & gradual change
• Political/Economic systems are not broken/lost, just need to
be repaired/improved
When applying the story of the
Tortoise & the Hare to social
change, Liberalism would be
similar to the Tortoise.
Political Ideologies
Social Change
(3) Conservatism
• Less supportive of change than
radicalism and liberalism
• The state is very important for law
& order
• See change as disruptive and
dangerous
Political Ideologies
Social Change
(4) Reactionary
• They oppose both revolution & reform
• Also find the status quo unacceptable
• Want to turn back the clock
• Re-institute earlier political, social, economic institutions that once
existed
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