Migration

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Global Economy and Business
MOBILITY AND MIGRATION
• Prof.ssa Luisa Natale
• 2012/13
• Monday and Tuesday 10-12 (A.0.0.5)
• http://www.docente.unicas.it/luisa_natale/
• Email [email protected]
India: Kolkata (ex Calcutta) about 16 million inhabitants – Source: National Geographic, gennaio 2011
MOBILITY AND
MIGRATION
• April 2012
• First lesson
DEFINITION
• “Migration is a fuzzy concept with many
definitional problems”
WILLEKENS (1984)
How to define mobility?
How to define migration?
What is the relation
between mobility and
migration?
What do we mean for territorial
mobility?
• Any move from one place to another
place, including temporarily,
comprised moves between adjacent
territories.
Moves for sanitary reasons,
Moves for city consumers
MIGRATION
Mobility includes migration,
commuting, amenity migration,
movement for sanitary reasons,
for shopping or for cityconsumer (disco, restaurant, etc)
Commuting
In short:
every journey taken to reach a
destination. The displacements
under 5 minutes are excluded
(by Istituto superiore di formazione
e ricerca per i trasporti ISFORT)
HOW TO DEFINE MIGRATION?
• It is not easy to define migration,
we must consider a lot of
dimensions. Migration is a
multidimensional phenomenon,
that it is not possible to identify
and define through a single variable
• The propensity to migrate
depends on a very complex, often
interacting set of individual and
collective economic, political
social, cultural, ecological,
psychological, and others factors
that vary in time and space
• While births and deaths can be defined
biologically and marriages and divorces legally,
migration is more difficult to define.
• Migration entails not only the crossing of
international borders but also entails the
intention of staying in the country or area of
arrival.
• Although international migration may in many
cases legal procedures, it remains the most
difficult of demographic phenomenon to define
and measure correctly (United Nations,
Demographic Yearbook 1991)
• According to “Treccani, Italian
Encyclopedic Dictionary ” migration is
every move, either permanently or
temporarily, of groups of living beings
(men or animals) from one territory to
another, from one location to another,
caused by various reasons, but mainly
for necessities of life"
• It’s trivial to say that migration involves the
movement of a person from a place of
departure to a place of arrival, but the
possible types of movement vary widely
according to how the investigator defines
the place of arrival and of departure, the
length of absence from the place of
departure, the duration of stay in the place
of arrival and the reasons for the move. All
of these characteristics interact with one
another (G. Caselli, J. Vallin, G. Wunsch,
2005)
• Golini (2000) developed a typology
to account for modern migration. To
do so, means referring to “criteriadistance, recurrence, duration,
causes, and legality that are
prevalent in the literature, but
generally taken discretely, when
they should be combined.
According to the distance
There is no minimun distance for migration, and any
change of house, region, country, etc. is a geographic
migration that lends itself to analysis, but it will vary in
the nature of its determinants and consequences
Example: in the International migration we consider
the distance between the country of origin and the
country of arrival. In this case the area of origin and the
destination belong to different national territories.
According to recurrence and
duration
• Two inseparable aspect, may also vary widely. Daily,
weekly, seasonal migrations tend to be of short
duration.
• The recommendations of the United Nations (1998)
contain the definition of migrant:
• any person who changes his or her place of usual residence
• “short-term” (staying or intending to stay less than 12 months)
• “long-term” (staying or intending to stay at least 12 months).
What for usual residence does mean?
• “the country in which a person lives, that is to
say, the country in which he or she has a place
to live where he or she normally spends the
daily period of rest”
• Note. Temporary travel abroad for purposes of
recreation, holiday, visits to friends and
relatives, business, medical treatment or
religious pilgrimage does not change a person's
country of usual residence.
• Is migration an event “spot” or a process during
the individual’s life ?
• We use an example to explain this concept:
if you live for several months abroad you can
stay there as a traveller, as a student or as a
migrant. In this continuum you can observe a
difference of kind and you can draw the line at
the moment when student changes his/her usual
residence and becomes migrant
• traveller ----------------- student ------------change usual residence --------- migrant
• Births and deaths
• Migration
•
•
•
•
• process
• repeatable
• A person : no migration,
one migration, more
migrations
events
not repeatable
A birth, a person
A death, a person
• Spot event
• Period of time
(months,years
According to cause of the move
• The migrant is someone who undergoes:
Displacements due to job search.
Displacements due to the family changes.
Displacements due to reasons of education
Displacements due to a desire or need to live closer to
the place of work
Displacements due to the change of house
Displacements due to catastrophes and others acts of
nature
Displacements due to war, repression, climate changes
According to the legality
• Migration is more
or less controlled
by law (refugees)
• A distinction may
therefore be
drawn between
legal and illegal
migration.
• In Italy according to law of immigration,
migrants can be distinguished between:
A. Regular
B. Undocumented foreign …
… illegal foreign who entered and stay outside
the rules. Illegal entry gives rise to a clandestine
presence
Conversely legal entry gives rise to a regular
presence but the groups passing from one
condition to another
... non regular who at the expiration of the
permit remain in the country without renewing
the authorization
Schematic graph of the composition of the foreign
population
Non regular
Regular whit residence
permit
(expiration of the
residence permit)
Naturalised
Not update
Illegal foreigners
Resident enrolled in population
register
28
Foreigners in Italy according to the legality
Source, Blangiardo 2011 in Comitato per il Progetto Culturale della
Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Il Cambiamento demografico, 2011, page 75
Categories
2003
2005
2007
2009
2010
Total
2.300
3.183
3.982
4.834
5.334
Residents (de
jure popul.)
1549
2402
2939
3891
4235
Regular not
resident
251
338
694
521
645
Irregular
500
443
349
422
454
Numbers in thousands
Summary
Three types of territorial mobility (Golini, 2000)
• Migratory mobility : any voluntary change of
residence
• Pseudo migratory mobility: compelled by natural
catastrophes and others acts of nature.
Displacements due to war, repression
• Non migratory mobility: tourism, and other moves
Migratory mobility
Displacements due to job search.
Displacements due to the family changes.
Displacements due to reasons of education.
Displacements due to a desire or need to live
closer to the place of work
Displacements due to the changement of house
Pseudo-migratory mobility
• Displacements due to catastrophes and
others acts of nature.
• Displacements due to war, repression,
climate changes, earthquakes
Non -migratory mobility
• Commuting due to work or study reasons
• Amenity dispacements, more directed by
sanitary reasons, more for shopping or for
city-consumer (disco, restaurants, etc)
• No change of usual residence
This typology is only one classification
among others advanced by other
investigations
• In the words of Daniel Courgeau (1988) “… the study
of spatial mobility involves identifying the changes
occurring over time in the relations an individual or
social group and space”
• A theoretical reference model needs to be constructed
as a basis for analyzing and explaining migration and
for identifying the singular or conjoint linkages
between the migration process and its various factors
The life space (espace vecu)
all places where the individual
carries out its activities
The life space (espace vecu)
Place of amenity
(weekend)
Place of
residence
Place of
work
The life space (espace vecu)
Place of amenity
(weekend)
Place of
residence
Displacement
Place of
work
Change of usual residence = migration (according Golini)
No change of life space = no migration (according Courgeau)
Problems
• The life space is an interesting definition, but is
difficult to applied to the real life
• Hence the interest in developing other
definitions based on different aspects of the
mobility, discriminating between migration and
displacements of different nature
• it is a necessary step between conceptualization
of the phenomenon and statistical practice
Other classification
International migration can be
distinguished according to:
• the direction of travel (in migrated into
the country or out migrated from the
country)
• rule of identification to the country of
destination
In-migrated into the country
Immigration of nationals or of individuals
originating of the country: “rientri” or “rimpatri”
(return migration)
Immigration of foreigners or of individuals
not originating of the country
Out-migrated from the country
Emigration of nationals or of individuals
originating of the country
Emigration of foreigners or individuals not
originating of the country
40
Which is the rule of identification
to the country of immigration?
1.
Country of birth (UN 2002, 158 Paesi su 210)
2. Citizenship
3. Place of residence
Citizenship seems to be the best criterion for
detecting foreign immigration (H. Zlotnik,
1987)
1.
42
EXAMPLE
• Migration is a multidimensional phenomenon. It’s not
so easy to explain this concept
• If we look at page 2 the figure gleans migration
biographies of the authors of book “Exploring
contemporary migration”
• Now they work in the same place – the Department of
geography in Swansea - but everyone has experience
quite different migration paths in the past. A variety of
factors have influenced their life-cycle and is difficult
to draw out from this “case study” the key to illustrate
the migration phenomenon
EXERCISE
Now you should draw a figure that
demonstrates your migration
biographies
MATERIALS
“Determinants of migration. Introduction” (pp.
261-264), in G. Caselli, J. Vallin, G. Wunch,
Demography, Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 2, Elsevier,
2006
P.Boyle, K.Halfacree and V.Robinson, Exploring
Contemporary Migration, Longman, first edition,
1998: Chapter 1 and 2.
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