Global Economy and Business MOBILITY AND MIGRATION • Prof.ssa Luisa Natale • 2012/13 • Monday and Tuesday 10-12 (A.0.0.5) • http://www.docente.unicas.it/luisa_natale/ • Email [email protected] India: Kolkata (ex Calcutta) about 16 million inhabitants – Source: National Geographic, gennaio 2011 MOBILITY AND MIGRATION • April 2012 • First lesson DEFINITION • “Migration is a fuzzy concept with many definitional problems” WILLEKENS (1984) How to define mobility? How to define migration? What is the relation between mobility and migration? What do we mean for territorial mobility? • Any move from one place to another place, including temporarily, comprised moves between adjacent territories. Moves for sanitary reasons, Moves for city consumers MIGRATION Mobility includes migration, commuting, amenity migration, movement for sanitary reasons, for shopping or for cityconsumer (disco, restaurant, etc) Commuting In short: every journey taken to reach a destination. The displacements under 5 minutes are excluded (by Istituto superiore di formazione e ricerca per i trasporti ISFORT) HOW TO DEFINE MIGRATION? • It is not easy to define migration, we must consider a lot of dimensions. Migration is a multidimensional phenomenon, that it is not possible to identify and define through a single variable • The propensity to migrate depends on a very complex, often interacting set of individual and collective economic, political social, cultural, ecological, psychological, and others factors that vary in time and space • While births and deaths can be defined biologically and marriages and divorces legally, migration is more difficult to define. • Migration entails not only the crossing of international borders but also entails the intention of staying in the country or area of arrival. • Although international migration may in many cases legal procedures, it remains the most difficult of demographic phenomenon to define and measure correctly (United Nations, Demographic Yearbook 1991) • According to “Treccani, Italian Encyclopedic Dictionary ” migration is every move, either permanently or temporarily, of groups of living beings (men or animals) from one territory to another, from one location to another, caused by various reasons, but mainly for necessities of life" • It’s trivial to say that migration involves the movement of a person from a place of departure to a place of arrival, but the possible types of movement vary widely according to how the investigator defines the place of arrival and of departure, the length of absence from the place of departure, the duration of stay in the place of arrival and the reasons for the move. All of these characteristics interact with one another (G. Caselli, J. Vallin, G. Wunsch, 2005) • Golini (2000) developed a typology to account for modern migration. To do so, means referring to “criteriadistance, recurrence, duration, causes, and legality that are prevalent in the literature, but generally taken discretely, when they should be combined. According to the distance There is no minimun distance for migration, and any change of house, region, country, etc. is a geographic migration that lends itself to analysis, but it will vary in the nature of its determinants and consequences Example: in the International migration we consider the distance between the country of origin and the country of arrival. In this case the area of origin and the destination belong to different national territories. According to recurrence and duration • Two inseparable aspect, may also vary widely. Daily, weekly, seasonal migrations tend to be of short duration. • The recommendations of the United Nations (1998) contain the definition of migrant: • any person who changes his or her place of usual residence • “short-term” (staying or intending to stay less than 12 months) • “long-term” (staying or intending to stay at least 12 months). What for usual residence does mean? • “the country in which a person lives, that is to say, the country in which he or she has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest” • Note. Temporary travel abroad for purposes of recreation, holiday, visits to friends and relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage does not change a person's country of usual residence. • Is migration an event “spot” or a process during the individual’s life ? • We use an example to explain this concept: if you live for several months abroad you can stay there as a traveller, as a student or as a migrant. In this continuum you can observe a difference of kind and you can draw the line at the moment when student changes his/her usual residence and becomes migrant • traveller ----------------- student ------------change usual residence --------- migrant • Births and deaths • Migration • • • • • process • repeatable • A person : no migration, one migration, more migrations events not repeatable A birth, a person A death, a person • Spot event • Period of time (months,years According to cause of the move • The migrant is someone who undergoes: Displacements due to job search. Displacements due to the family changes. Displacements due to reasons of education Displacements due to a desire or need to live closer to the place of work Displacements due to the change of house Displacements due to catastrophes and others acts of nature Displacements due to war, repression, climate changes According to the legality • Migration is more or less controlled by law (refugees) • A distinction may therefore be drawn between legal and illegal migration. • In Italy according to law of immigration, migrants can be distinguished between: A. Regular B. Undocumented foreign … … illegal foreign who entered and stay outside the rules. Illegal entry gives rise to a clandestine presence Conversely legal entry gives rise to a regular presence but the groups passing from one condition to another ... non regular who at the expiration of the permit remain in the country without renewing the authorization Schematic graph of the composition of the foreign population Non regular Regular whit residence permit (expiration of the residence permit) Naturalised Not update Illegal foreigners Resident enrolled in population register 28 Foreigners in Italy according to the legality Source, Blangiardo 2011 in Comitato per il Progetto Culturale della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Il Cambiamento demografico, 2011, page 75 Categories 2003 2005 2007 2009 2010 Total 2.300 3.183 3.982 4.834 5.334 Residents (de jure popul.) 1549 2402 2939 3891 4235 Regular not resident 251 338 694 521 645 Irregular 500 443 349 422 454 Numbers in thousands Summary Three types of territorial mobility (Golini, 2000) • Migratory mobility : any voluntary change of residence • Pseudo migratory mobility: compelled by natural catastrophes and others acts of nature. Displacements due to war, repression • Non migratory mobility: tourism, and other moves Migratory mobility Displacements due to job search. Displacements due to the family changes. Displacements due to reasons of education. Displacements due to a desire or need to live closer to the place of work Displacements due to the changement of house Pseudo-migratory mobility • Displacements due to catastrophes and others acts of nature. • Displacements due to war, repression, climate changes, earthquakes Non -migratory mobility • Commuting due to work or study reasons • Amenity dispacements, more directed by sanitary reasons, more for shopping or for city-consumer (disco, restaurants, etc) • No change of usual residence This typology is only one classification among others advanced by other investigations • In the words of Daniel Courgeau (1988) “… the study of spatial mobility involves identifying the changes occurring over time in the relations an individual or social group and space” • A theoretical reference model needs to be constructed as a basis for analyzing and explaining migration and for identifying the singular or conjoint linkages between the migration process and its various factors The life space (espace vecu) all places where the individual carries out its activities The life space (espace vecu) Place of amenity (weekend) Place of residence Place of work The life space (espace vecu) Place of amenity (weekend) Place of residence Displacement Place of work Change of usual residence = migration (according Golini) No change of life space = no migration (according Courgeau) Problems • The life space is an interesting definition, but is difficult to applied to the real life • Hence the interest in developing other definitions based on different aspects of the mobility, discriminating between migration and displacements of different nature • it is a necessary step between conceptualization of the phenomenon and statistical practice Other classification International migration can be distinguished according to: • the direction of travel (in migrated into the country or out migrated from the country) • rule of identification to the country of destination In-migrated into the country Immigration of nationals or of individuals originating of the country: “rientri” or “rimpatri” (return migration) Immigration of foreigners or of individuals not originating of the country Out-migrated from the country Emigration of nationals or of individuals originating of the country Emigration of foreigners or individuals not originating of the country 40 Which is the rule of identification to the country of immigration? 1. Country of birth (UN 2002, 158 Paesi su 210) 2. Citizenship 3. Place of residence Citizenship seems to be the best criterion for detecting foreign immigration (H. Zlotnik, 1987) 1. 42 EXAMPLE • Migration is a multidimensional phenomenon. It’s not so easy to explain this concept • If we look at page 2 the figure gleans migration biographies of the authors of book “Exploring contemporary migration” • Now they work in the same place – the Department of geography in Swansea - but everyone has experience quite different migration paths in the past. A variety of factors have influenced their life-cycle and is difficult to draw out from this “case study” the key to illustrate the migration phenomenon EXERCISE Now you should draw a figure that demonstrates your migration biographies MATERIALS “Determinants of migration. Introduction” (pp. 261-264), in G. Caselli, J. Vallin, G. Wunch, Demography, Analysis and Synthesis, Vol. 2, Elsevier, 2006 P.Boyle, K.Halfacree and V.Robinson, Exploring Contemporary Migration, Longman, first edition, 1998: Chapter 1 and 2.