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Regents Earth Science Unit I: Measurement and Change What is Earth Science? • Four Parts of Earth Science: 1. Geology— 2. Meteorology— 3. Astronomy— 4. Oceanography— How do we study these four parts? • Observations: ** From our observations, we can make… 1. Inferences: You observe a person’s Breath—you infer… 2. Classification: Why do we measure objects? • Basic Units of Measurement (no math!) 1. Length: **we will use the Metric System The longer lines on the metric ruler are called… • centimeters The shorter lines on the metric ruler are called… • millimeters There are…… • • • • 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter 100 centimeters in 1 meter 1,000 millimeters in 1 meter 1,000 meters in 1 kilometer Measure the turtle from the rear of its shell to the tip of its nose. Record its length in both centimeters and millimeters. • 10.5 cm • 105 mm Measure the Lines in cm & mm 2. Mass: 3. Temperature: Derived Units of Measurement (math is used) 1. Area: 2. Volume: • Density: Block Material 1 Steel 2 Aluminum 3 Black Plastic 4 Wood 5 Clear Acrylic 6 Copper 7 Bronze Mass (g) Volume (cm3 ) Density (g / cm3 ) What two factors affect density? 1. Temperature * Heat 2. Pressure * Pressure Density Changes with a Phase Change • Gas to liquid— • Liquid to solid— **with only one exception, solids are more dense than liquids of the same substance Mr. Belanger’s Math 1. 2. 3. 4. Determine what the problem is asking for Look in the ESRT’s to find the formula Find the Important information Put the important information into the formula 5. Round (usually to the nearest tenth) 6. Units (we don’t want naked numbers) Is there error in all measurements? • YES!!! • Percent Error (Deviation) No Neg. Numbers Difference from Accepted Value Percent Error = --------------------------------------------- x 100 Accepted Value What is Change? • …change can be: 1. 2. What are the two types of changes? 1. Cyclic Change: • ** Non-Cyclic Change: • Rate of Change: distance, temperature Change in Field Value Rate of Change = ______________________ Time Speed (mph) Energy Flow and Change…. • Interface: …and the most important theme all year • Dynamic Equilibrium: Scientific Notation Formula: n M x 10 M = a number anywhere from 1 to 9.99999 n = the number of times the decimal has been moved Scientific Notation…… • If you move the decimal to the left, n is positive • If you move the decimal to the right, n is negative