Regents Earth Science

```Regents Earth Science
Unit I: Measurement and Change
What is Earth Science?
•
Four Parts of Earth Science:
1. Geology—
2. Meteorology—
3. Astronomy—
4. Oceanography—
How do we study these four parts?
• Observations:
**
From our observations, we can make…
1. Inferences:
You observe a person’s
Breath—you infer…
2. Classification:
Why do we measure objects?
•
Basic Units of Measurement (no math!)
1. Length:
**we will use the Metric System
The longer lines on the metric
ruler are called…
• centimeters
The shorter lines on the metric
ruler are called…
• millimeters
There are……
•
•
•
•
10 millimeters in 1 centimeter
100 centimeters in 1 meter
1,000 millimeters in 1 meter
1,000 meters in 1 kilometer
Measure the turtle from the rear of its shell
to the tip of its nose. Record its length in
both centimeters and millimeters.
• 10.5 cm
• 105 mm
Measure the Lines in cm &amp; mm
2. Mass:
3. Temperature:
Derived Units of Measurement (math is
used)
1. Area:
2. Volume:
• Density:
Block
Material
1
Steel
2
Aluminum
3
Black
Plastic
4
Wood
5
Clear
Acrylic
6
Copper
7
Bronze
Mass (g)
Volume (cm3 )
Density (g / cm3 )
What two factors affect density?
1. Temperature
*
Heat
2. Pressure
*
Pressure
Density Changes with a Phase Change
• Gas to liquid—
• Liquid to solid—
**with only one exception, solids are more
dense than liquids of the same substance
Mr. Belanger’s Math
1.
2.
3.
4.
Determine what the problem is asking for
Look in the ESRT’s to find the formula
Find the Important information
Put the important information into the
formula
5. Round (usually to the nearest tenth)
6. Units (we don’t want naked numbers)
Is there error in all measurements?
• YES!!!
• Percent Error (Deviation)
No Neg. Numbers
Difference from Accepted Value
Percent Error = --------------------------------------------- x 100
Accepted Value
What is Change?
•
…change can be:
1.
2.
What are the two types of changes?
1. Cyclic Change:
•
**
Non-Cyclic Change:
• Rate of Change:
distance,
temperature
Change in Field Value
Rate of Change = ______________________
Time
Speed (mph)
Energy Flow and Change….
• Interface:
…and the most important theme all year
• Dynamic Equilibrium:
Scientific Notation
Formula:
n
M x 10
M = a number anywhere from 1 to 9.99999
n = the number of times the decimal has
been moved
Scientific Notation……
• If you move the decimal to the left, n is
positive
• If you move the decimal to the right, n is
negative
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