# Measuring Matter Lesson 1 What is Matter? Mass and Volume

```Measuring Matter
Lesson 1
What is Matter?
Mass and Volume
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Matter is anything, living or nonliving, that has mass and
takes up space.
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Mass is the amount of material that an object has in it,
while volume is amount of space an object takes up.
Physical Properties of Matter
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Matter can be described by its physical properties, such as
color, shape, size, mass, and state.
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The three states of matter are a solid, liquid, and a gas.
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A solid has shape and volume of its own.
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A liquid has a certain volume but no definite shape.
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A gas has no shape or volume of its own.
Mixtures and Solutions
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In a mixture, two or more substances are mixed together
but can easily be separated, (a salad)
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A solution is a mixture where one substance spreads evenly
throughout the other. (Kool-Aid)
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Lesson 2
How Are Length and Volume Measured?
Measuring Length
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Length is a physical property of matter.
It measures the distance between two points.
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In the metric system, length is measured in meters, centimeters,
millimeters, and kilometers.
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1 meter =100 centimeters
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1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
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1 kilo meter = 1000 meters
Measuring Volume
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The volume of a solid with a regular shape can be measured by
multiplying the object's length times its width times its height.
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lxwxh
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A cubic meter is a basic unit for measuring volume.
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A graduated cylinder can be used to find the volume of an
irregularly shaped solid that does not absorb water.
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Lesson 3
How Do You Find Mass and Density?
Measuring Mass
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Mass is not the same as weight.
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Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an
object. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force
acting on an object.
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You can find the mass of an object by balancing it
with an object of known mass.
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Large objects are measured in kilograms, smaller
objects in grams, and very small objects in milligrams.
Density
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Density is another property of matter. It refers to
how much mass is in a certain volume of matter. (Oil will
float on top of vinegar because it has less mass than the
vinegar.)
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If two objects have the same mass, but one is larger,
the smaller object has the greater density.
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What Are Physical Changes?
Lesson 4
Physical Changes in Matter
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When matter undergoes a physical change, one or more
of its physical properties are changed in some way, but the
matter itself does not change into a different kind of matter.
Heating and Cooling Matter
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Matter changes state when it is heated or cooled beyond
a certain temperature.
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When ice is heated to 0 C, it melts, or changes from a
solid to a liquid.
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When water is heated to 100 C, it boils, or changes from
a liquid to a gas. A change of state is a physical change
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The melting point is the temperature at which a solid
substance becomes a liquid.
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The boiling point of a material is the temperature at
which it boils. This is also the temperature at which a material
changes from a liquid to a gas.
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The freezing point of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
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What Are Chemical Changes?
Lesson 5
Chemical Changes in Matter
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A chemical change produces a completely different kind of
matter.
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The matter may have different properties from the original
matter. (Cooking pancakes is an example of a chemical change.)
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Eating pancakes or other foods produces a chemical change in
Rusting, Tarnishing, and Burning
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Rusting, burning, and tarnishing are examples of chemical
changes.
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Rust is formed when oxygen joins with iron.
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Tarnish forms when air mixes with copper, silver, and certain
other metals and causes the metal to look less shiny.
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The reaction between oxygen gas and hydrogen gas releases a
lot of energy that causes an explosion. (The space shuttle uses this
chemical change to propel into orbit.)
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