The Reformation

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The Reformation
Many, especially the humanists believed the church was
more interested in worldly matters than spirituality.
Political power and wealth over religious teachings.
Printing press played a large part.
Merchants resented paying taxes to the church in Rome
Popes during the renaissance patronized the arts, spent
lavishly on personal pleasures and were involved in vice.
Pope Alexander VI claimed to have fathered several
children.
Many priests and monks were poorly educated and could
barely read.
Critics
John Wycliff of England and John Hus of Bohemia were some of the first to advocate
church reform.
Erasmus and Thomas More also voiced there opinions.
Martin Luther: took a stand against friar Johann Tetzel for raising money to rebuild St.
Peter’s Cathedral by selling indulgences. Indulgence was money a person could give to
the church in exchange for absolution from sin. Buying their way to heaven.
He wrote 95 Theses against Tetzel and posted them on the door of the church in
Wittenburg.
Someone copied his Theses and took them to a printer. This began the reformation.
Luther:
Salvation could be won only by forgiveness from God. Faith
and good works
The pope and the traditions were false authorities all
church teachings should be based on the words of the Bible
People did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them
all people were equal.
Pope Leo X
Threatened to excommunicate Luther unless he took back his words.
His students cheered as he through the decree in a bonfire.
Charles V ordered him to stand trial and issued the Edict of Worms (vawrmz) no one was
to give him food or shelter.
Frederick the Wise of Saxony hid him for a year. Luther translated the New Testament
into German
His followers had started a separate religion called Lutherans.
Those that did not agree became known as Protestants
Peasants began to revolt in Germany based on Luther’s ideas.
Many raided, pillaged and burned monasteries. Luther
ordered them captured with no mercy.
Princes who remained loyal to the pope signed an agreement
to join forces against Luther’s ideas.
Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife Catherine
Asked the pope to annul his marriage
He refused due to her son being Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor
Henry asked Parliament to end the pope’s power in England
Act of Supremacy
Henry married Anne Boleyn- she had a girl later beheaded.
Married Jane Seymour had a son Edward.
Mary the daughter of Catherine took the throne after
Edward and returned to Catholicism
When Mary died Elizabeth the daughter of Anne
Boleyn took the throne- returned to Protestantism set
the Church of England- the Anglican Church
John Calvin also a Protestant published Institutes of the
Christian Religion
Calvin set up a religion based on predestination that God saves the
“elect” which are very few.
His religion is known as Calvinism.
He believed the ideal religion is a theocracy
John Knox a Scottish preacher and an admirer of Calvin and
created the Presbyterian Church.
In France the Calvin’s were called Huguenots
Anabaptist believed someone should be baptized only when
old enough to decide to be Christians.
Anabaptist became the Amish and the Mennonites