Know the Score What are drugs? A drug is any natural or artificially made chemical which is taken for pleasure and that affects your body. Drugs like cannabis, ecstasy, cocaine, speed, heroin, LSD and magic mushrooms are illegal. But many are legal like alcohol, headache tablets, cigarettes and glue. Drugs affect lots of people's lives. Even legal drugs can be dangerous when people become addicted to them, like alcohol or smoking. How Drugs Work All drugs (including alcohol and tobacco) affect the brain. Different drugs have different effects and the same drug can have very different effects at different times, depending on its purity and the person's emotional mood, health, circumstances and surroundings. Drugs may be more harmful for young people because their bodies and brains are still developing. Some drugs are more addictive than others. And some people are much more likely than others to become addicted. Main Types of Drugs Drugs can be grouped into three main types: Uppers - Also known as 'stimulants'. Drugs like speed, ecstasy and cocaine speed the body up and are extremely dangerous. Downers - Also known as 'depressants'. Drugs like heroin, alcohol and solvents slow the body down and can be very dangerous if mixed together. Hallucinogens - Hallucinogenic drugs, like acid and magic mushrooms, alter the way you see, hear and feel things. Illegal drugs What are class are put into A, B and C drugs? three different classes - A, B, and C. Class A drugs are considered to be the most harmful and attract the most serious punishments and fines. Class A drugs These include heroin, cocaine, ecstasy and LSD. If found guilty of possessing Class A drugs you could go to prison for up to 7 years and fined. If you sell Class A drugs you could receive a life imprisonment. Class B drugs These include amphetamines such as speed and barbiturates. People found guilty of possessing a Class B drug could go to jail for up to 5 years and be fined. Those caught and found guilty of trafficking a Class B drug can be sent to prison for up to 14 years. Class C drugs Drugs in this category include cannabis, tranquillisers and anabolic steroids. Maximum penalties for possession are 2 years in jail plus an unlimited fine. Dealing or supplying could get you 14 years in jail plus an unlimited fine. What can drugs do to your body? Illegal drugs can cause things like hallucinations, sickness, depression, liver and kidney problems and fits. Some illegal drugs can kill the first time the person takes them. Taking too much of any drug is called an overdose. A serious overdose of almost any drug can kill you. Which drugs are against the law? Drugs like heroin, cocaine, ecstasy and cannabis are all illegal. People who take them, sell them or are found with drugs on them are breaking the law and could be arrested by the police and sent to prison. Which drugs are dangerous? All drugs, whether legal or illegal, can be dangerous. Some drugs can hurt people suddenly. An illegal drug called ecstacy, for example, kills 60 people a year in the UK. But smoking and drinking too much alcohol can also kill you. Alcohol is said to cause more than 25,000 deaths a year. 120,000 people die every year from diseases caused by smoking. Effects of Drugs Different drugs are taken for different effects. Drugs are split into three general groups: (what are they?) Some examples are: Drug group: Stimulants (Uppers) Drug: Amphetamine, Cocaine Effects: Increase energy, activity, heart rate, blood pressure. Drug group: Depressants (Downers) Drug: Alcohol, Heroin, Solvents Effects: Relieves anxiety and tension. Calms users and slows them down. High doses can make users drowsy and forgetful. Drug group: Hallucinogens Drug: Cannabis, LSD, Magic mushrooms Effects: Cause hallucinations. Drug name: Cannabis Group: Hallucinogen Street name: marijuana/ bongo/ weed/ grass/ pot/ thai sticks/ hash/ reefer/ blow/ draw What it looks like: tobacco-like greenish or brownish leaves mixed with seeds of the cannabis (hemp) plant. Cannabis resin or “hash” is gummy brownish or black substance, which is made into a powder or pressed into slabs or cakes. Hashish is smoked or eaten. Cannabis oil or “hash oil” is a liquid extracted from either the dried plant material or the resin. Immediate effects: Users feel relaxed and may have sharper sense of colours and sounds. Some feel urge to eat. If taken in food, effects can be stronger and harder to control. How does it affect users? How is it taken? Can be smoked or cooked and eaten with food or brewed in tea. Symptoms: bloodshot eyes, giggling, hunger, paranoid feelings Cannabis can make users feel relaxed and sometimes euphoric. Users may also experience a more vivid sense of sight, smell, taste, hearing, colours and sounds. Some feel urge to eat. If taken in food, effects can be stronger and harder to control. Glossary: bloodshot налитый кровью giggling: to laugh nervously or foolishly хихиканье Risks Short-term: Damages ability to learn and carry out many tasks,including driving vehicles. Impairs ability to concentrate and conduct complex tasks. Can lead to tiredness and lack of motivation Long term: Regular heavy use can lead to paranoia, schizophrenia /,skɪtsə’fri:niə/ psychosis /saɪ’kəʊsɪs/, depression and anxiety /æŋ’zaɪəti /. Smoked with tobacco leads to lung cancer and bronchitis /brɒŋ’kaɪtɪs/. Very heavy use can lead to withdrawal symptoms. Regular users of cannabis lose interest to work, study and personal relationships. Paraphernalia Paraphernalia may include: Marijuana is rolled in cigarettes commonly known as “joints”. Hashish is smoked in small pipes or water pipes, cigarettes, rollings, plastic bags, clips (roach clips), scales bongs Legal status: Class C Drug name: Cocaine Group: Stimulant Street name: coke, charlie, snow, C, toot, flake, blow, Bazooka, Cake, Coke, Lady What it looks like and how it's taken: Cocaine is a white powder that is snorted or dissolved and injected. The effects Cocaine acts fast and lasts about 30 min. Taking cocaine makes users feel on top of the world, wide-awake and confident. Cocaine can raise the body’s temperature, make the heart beat faster and stave off feelings of hunger. Packed cocaine Drug name: Crack Street name: rocks What it looks like and how it's taken: Crack, a stronger version, comes as rocks or stones and is smoked or injected. The effects The effects of crack smoking are virtually immediate, peaking for about two minutes and lasting for only about 10 minutes. For snorted coke there is a slower time to peak but the effects lasts around 20-30 minutes. Crack Risks Short term: Some users may feel tense and anxious while using and afterwards many feel very tired and depressed. It can also cause fits and sudden death from heart attack or stroke. Smoking crack can cause breathing problems and lung damage. Long term: Frequent use can lead to paranoia, aggression, weight loss and hallucinations. Cocaine and especially crack cocaine are highly addictive. Chronic use also causes severe mental health problems. Legal status: Class A Paraphernalia may include: Razors, blades, mirrors, straws or something to snort through (sometimes specially made for the purpose), glass pipe or tube, plastic bottle or in foil, needles and syringes, small brown glass bottles, tiny spoons Drug name: Ecstasy Group: Stimulant/ Hallucinogen Street name: 'E‘ mitsubishi, diamonds, euros eckies E/ Snackies/ New Yorkers What it looks like and how it's taken: Tablets of different shapes, sizes and colours - often with a designer logo. Taken by swallowing the tablet. Immediate effects: Within 20 minutes to one hour, increases energy and sense of well-being. Sounds, colours and emotions more intense. Lasts up to 6 hours. Risks Short term: Use can lead to overheating and dehydration if users dance without taking breaks or sipping non-alcoholic fluids. This can be fatal. Drinking a pint of liquid every hour and eating a salty snack from time to time are advised. Users can feel tired and depressed for a few days after use. Long term: Ecstasy use has been linked to mental health problems, and liver, kidney and brain damage. Legal status: Class A Drug name: PMA Street name: Chicken Yellow, Chicken Fever, Double Stacked, Mitsubishi Turbo, Red Mitsubishi, Killer. What it looks like and how it's taken: Usually a white tablet which is unusually thick compared to ecstasy, hence the name 'Double-Stacked'. PMA is swallowed. Immediate effects: similar effects to ecstasy although effects last stronger. Risks: Short term: PMA affects the body's temperature control and as it is stronger than Ecstasy the risk of overheating is much greater. Frequent use can also bring on paranoia and depression. Long term: As PMA is quite a new drug. Long term risks are thought to be similar to the risks associated with Ecstasy Legal status: Class A Drug name: Heroin Group: Depressant Street name: Smack, scag, H, junk, gear What it looks like and how it's taken: Brownish-white powder. Some heroin comes in a brown/ black form that looks like hard toffee. Smoked, dissolved or injected. Immediate effects: Slows the brain, heart rate and breathing. Small doses bring a sense of warmth and well-being; larger doses make users drowsy and relaxed, and free from worry and pain. Risks Paraphernalia may include: Needles, syringes, spoon, lighter or candle Short term: There is a real risk of drug overdose, possibly leading to coma or death. Heroin is often mixed with domestic household substances and other additives which can be harmful. Long term: Heroin is highly addictive. Injecting can damage veins; sharing needles can spread hepatitis and HIV. Legal status: Class A Drug name: LSD Group: Hallucinogen Street name: Acid What it looks like and how it's taken: Comes in small squares of paper, often printed with designs, or as tiny tablets called microdots and dots. Tablets are swallowed. It is a myth that LSD can be absorbed through the skin. Immediate effects: Hallucination—the 'trip'. Starts within an hour and can last 8 12 hours or longer. Surroundings seem altered, colours brighter, sounds different or new, movement and time may seem to speed up or slow down. Risks Short term: Trips cannot be controlled or stopped. A bad trip can be terrifying, which requires help and reassurance from others. Long term: Users may have 'flashbacks' where they relive a trip without taking the drug again. Legal status: Class A Drug name: Methadone Group: Depressant Street name: meth, linctus What it looks like and how it's taken: Comes as a green, amber or blue mixture liquid, or as white tablets. Usually swallowed, but it can come in tablet or injectable form. Immediate effects: Effects similar to heroin, although less intense but longer acting. Risks Short term: Drug overdose, possibly leading to coma or death, if taken by someone not used to the drug. Methadone should only be taken as part of a prescribed and supervised programme to treat addiction to opiate drugs, especially heroin. Long term: Methadone can be addictive, and it should never be given or sold to someone else. Legal status: If possessed without a prescription or supplied illegally, classified as Class A. Drug name: Amphetamines Group: Stimulant Street name: Speed, whizz What it looks like and how it’s taken: Grey or white powder that is snorted, swallowed, smoked, injected or dissolved in drink.Tablets are swallowed. Immediate effects For 3 or 4 hours users feel excited, confident, alert and full of energy.Reduces appetite and ability to sleep. Risks Short term: Some users may feel tense and anxious while using and afterwards many feel very tired and depressed. The drug can cause sudden death from heart attack or stroke. Long term: Frequent high doses can cause panic, hallucination and weight loss. Heavy long-term use places strain on the heart and can cause mental illness. Amphetamines are addictive. Legal status: Class B; Class A if prepared for injection Paraphernalia may include: Possibly needles and syringes. Drug Name: methylamphetamine Group: stimulant Street names: Crystal Meth, Ice, glass, Tina and Christine, yaba What it looks like and how it’s taken: produced in tablets, powder, or crystalline forms. It can be swallowed, sniffed/snorted, smoked or injected. The tablet form is sometimes referred to as 'yaba' and the crystalline smokeable form often referred to as ‘ice’. Legal status: was reclassified as a Class A drug on 18th January 2007. It is illegal to have, give away or sell. Immediate effects: Can act on the brain and nervous system. Like cocaine has stimulant properties but is much longer acting. ‘Ice’ – like ‘crack cocaine’ can be easily smoked and can rapidly lead to high blood levels. It’s also long-acting compared to crack so it’s an extremely powerful and addictive stimulant. Drug name: Group: Hallucinogen Street name: Shrooms, Magic mushies What it looks like and how Mushrooms it’s taken: Grow wild throughout Scotland and are eaten raw, dried, cooked in food, or stewed into a tea. Immediate effects: Similar to LSD but the trip is milder and shorter, usually lasting about 4 hours. Risks Short term: Stomach pains, sickness and diarrhoea. Can complicate mental illnesses. Legal status: Unprepared not controlled under the misuse of drugs legislation. Classified as Class A when prepared for use (dried or stewed). Solvents, glues, gases, aerosols Group: Depressant What it looks like and how it's taken: Butane gas cigarette lighter refills, disposable cigarette lighters, aerosol sprays (hairsprays, air fresheners), whipped cream cans and glue tins or tubes. Breathed in through a cloth or sleeve. Gas to be squirted straight into the back of the throat. Immediate effects: Similar to being very drunk. Users feel dizzy, giggly and light-headed. Some hallucinate. Effects last from a few minutes to 30 minutes. Risks Short term: Hangover for a day or two. Nausea, vomiting, blackouts, bad cough, spots/sores around mouth, persistent cold and heart problems. Inhaling with a plastic bag can cause suffocation. It is extremely dangerous to squirt gas into the mouth as this can cause sudden death. Never chase anyone sniffing solvents as their heart may suddenly stop beating. Long term: Damage to brain, liver, kidneys, nervous system, lungs and reproductive organs. Legal status: It is illegal for retailers to sell butane gas refills to anyone under 18. Paraphernalia may include: plastic bag. Drug Name: Tranquillisers Group: Depressant Street name: Jellies, tranx, benzos. Brand names include: Valium, Librium, Mogadon What it looks like and how it's taken: Tablets or capsules. Can be swallowed or injected. Immediate effects: Relieves anxiety and tension. Calms users and slows them down. High doses can make users drowsy and forgetful. Risks: Short term: Dangerous mixed with alcohol or other drugs. Long term: Regular use can damage short term memory and reduce energy. Almost all tranquillisers are addictive. Withdrawal symptoms include depression, insomnia and panic attacks. Legal status: If possessed without a prescription or supplied illegally, classified as Class C. Drug Name: 2CB & 2-CT-7 Legal status: Class A Group: Hallucinogens Street name: 2CT-7 is known as T-7, 7-up, seventh-heaven, Tripstacy. What it looks like and how it’s taken: white powder or tiny 5mg pills. Normally swallowed, they can also be snorted. Immediate effects: Most people take several at a time and effects can last from 4-8 hours. The more you take, the more intense and uncontrollable the experience. Risks: bring on headaches, nausea, vomiting, panic attacks and, at high doses, even delirious states. The Consequences Class A Drugs: Ecstasy, acid, cocaine, heroin & methadone, mushrooms (if prepared), speed (if prepared for injection). Possession: Up to 7 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both Production or dealing: Up to life imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both. The Consequences Class B Drugs: Speed, Ritalin (without prescription), Pholcodine Possession: Up to 5 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both. Production or dealing:Up to 14 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both. The Consequences Class C Drugs: Cannabis, tranquillisers & some painkillers (without prescription), GHB. Possession: Up to 2 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both Production or dealing:Up to 14 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine or both. Drugs and Driving: The Effects Driving under the influence of drugs can seriously affect your driving ability, increasing your risk of having an accident and endangering both your life and the lives of others. The effects of driving under the influence of drugs include: Impaired co-ordination Distorted visual perception Over-confidence Loss of concentration Inappropriate driving Reduced ability to judge distances and speeds Warning signs of possible drug use Warning signs of possible drug use include: • sudden changes in mood from happy and alert to sullen and moody • aggressive or irritable behaviour which is out of character • a loss of interest in school, sport or other activities • unusual sleep patterns or difficulty in sleeping • unusually secretive behaviour or lying • money going missing or belongings being sold • unusual objects found, such as powders, capsules, scorched tinfoil, empty plastic bags smelling of glue or repeatedly folded small pieces of paper. DRUG ENFORCEMENT DEPARTMENT Drug Enforcement Department is an autonomous structural division in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Its units are responsible for preventing and combating illicit trafficking in drugs, psycho tropic substances, precursors, as well as detecting the sources, routs, places of sale and consumption areas. purpuse Much attention is paid to locate clandestine laboratories specialized in production of synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs; starting and ultimate points of drug transit channels; criminal groups of drug traffickers as well as their inter-regional and international ties; and ceasing of their activities. Meanwhile a close cooperation with foreign law enforcement agencies is being established. The Department conducts anti-drugs propaganda, creates conditions for medical treatment and social rehabilitation of drug addicts.