Animal Farm Unit To explore how Orwell uses Squealer the pig as a platform for propaganda in Animal Farm. 1. 2. Whole class task Group tasks Napoleon uses Squealer to “brainwash” the farm animals into accepting his decisions and actions. e.g. The building of the Windmill as Napoleon’s idea – even though they know it was Snowball who came up with it. Propaganda is information, ideas, or rumours deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. It is associated largely in politics and crucial to the plot of Animal Farm. As he is in charge of all the propaganda, Squealer uses his skills with language to persuade them that everything is for the best. SELECTION of facts which only support arguments LYING – telling lies e.g. Hitler : “ If you tell a BIG LIE enough and loudly enough people will begin to believe it.” 3. REPETITION – repeating certain words/statements 4. PINPOINTING THE ENEMY – an attempt to unite everybody against an “enemy” tp prevent them thinking for themselves. 5. ASSERTION – bold statements made 6. RHETORICAL QUESTIONS – speaker can’t answer them yet does not wish the listeners to respond. 1. 2. Task One: Using Squealer’s speech, discuss and make notes on the following: How does Squealer anticipate and deal with the accusation that the pigs are creating a privileged class? 2. How does he use pseudo-scientific ‘facts’ that apparently back him up? 3. What reason does he give for the pigs needing milk and apples? 4. How does he make the pigs sound selfless and dedicated? 5. What threat does he finally use that he knows will clinch the argument? 1. Task Two: Each group will be given the list of persuasive tactics from the previous slide. You must highlight the relevant examples before noting down the effect of the technique i.e. How this affects the characters/plot etc. Orwell uses Squealer to: 1. Lie to the animals 2. Repeat certain phrases 3. Blame the enemy i.e. Farmer Jones and Snowball 4. Assert new rules 5. Pose rhetorical questions 6. Select some facts What are the effects of each on the characters and plot of the novel? Remember to focus less on the what and more on the how... This is how you provide appropriate analysis of this theme in a critical essay. Consider and make notes on Napoleon under the following headings: 1. Characterisation i.e. How he comes across 2. Actions i.e. How he bahaves 3. Use of Squealer (continued) i.e. propaganda 4. Treatment of the animals – particularly those executed This chapter is focussed on the continuing rise to power by Napoleon. Lesson focus: What techniques does Orwell use to make Napoleon a strong and dominating character? Lesson focus: How Orwell represents Napoleon in this chapter. In groups discuss the following and make brief noted/key words only: 1. The gap widens/ Napoleon becomes more and more of a leader 2. The Battle of the Windmill 3. The consumption of alcohol Lesson focus: How Orwell makes the reader feel sympathy for Boxer. Consider the following and make notes in your jotters: 1. The diligence of Boxer 2. Boxer’s size and stamina 3. The reason for his departure 4. The reactions of the other animals How does Orwell build to this emotional climax? Lesson focus: How does Orwell create an ambiguous ending to the novel? Narrative 1. What is the function of the narrator? Consider how the story is told and from which view point. 2. What are the advantages of this view point? Make notes on how the animals have been affected by Napoleon’s rise to power. Explain what you suspect will happen next. Explain why you feel this is an effective ending to the novel. Refer to techniques of character, plot, propaganda/theme, climax and turning point. 1. 2. 3. 4. Corruption of power Propaganda/lies Education Terror/rule by fear Old Major Napoleon Snowball Squealer Boxer The turning point serves to change the action and the plot direction changes. The climax is the event which Orwell builds up to – the worst event of the whole novel which is intended to shock the reader – even more so than the execution of the animals. The structure reflects the logical decline of Animal Farm and the rise of Napoleon’s power. Chapters 1 -10 The first starts off positively, but by the last chapter all animals are negative, over-worked and hungry. Remember that the critical essay is marked on four sections: Understanding of the main ideas of text Analysis of the techniques used by Orwell Evaluation of how effective you find these to be Expression – how you express yourself/technical accuracy. You should attempt to join sentences and paragraphs appropriately: Furthermore, in addition to, however, despite this, consequently etc Evaluation comments should show how you have engaged with the text: Clearly, it is obvious, shocking, forces the reader to feel, surprisingly, effectively Choose a task you can complete a FULL essay on. Make sure you have memorised a couple of quotations for each technique and can analyse the use of it e.g. Characterisation 3. Every paragraph (topic sentence) should link back to the task. 4. Your essay should have an obvious line of argument which is developed as the essay progresses to its conclusion. 1. 2. Answers to questions in this section should refer to the text and to such relevant features as: characterisation, setting, language, key incident(s), climax/turning point, plot, structure, narrative technique, theme, ideas, description ... Task: Choose a novel or short story in which two of the main characters have a disagreement which is important to the outcome of the novel or short story. Identify the reasons for the disagreement and go on to show how the effects of the disagreement have an impact on the rest of the novel or short story. The techniques highlighted in bold are the ones we have studied – therefore you should refer to at least three of them in your essay. Using highlighter pens, go through the task and identify EXACTLY what is it asking you to do. Once you have completed that, you should make a rough plan with the techniques you wish to include and how they relate to the question. Using the book and all your notes (as well as planning page), you should complete the essay in 45 minutes. Remember: Introduction: Title Author Refer to Task Conclusion: A summary of the main points of the essay. DO NOT include something you have not already mentioned in main body of essay.