6th grade ancient history review Mesopotamia Included in the 2 questions for Egypt • Mesopotamia means land between the two rivers (which provided water and transportation). It was a series of independent city-states (cities that ran themselves and had their own government, rulers, law, religion, etc. with no legal ties to other cities) lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. • The yearly flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers created rich soil allowing for good agriculture and early civilizations. However, the flood was unpredictable. • New agricultural technique arose, such as irrigation through building dams, channels, walls, and ditches. These led to the rise of cities, religion, writing, science and math. • Mesopotamia built temples and held religious festivals to please the gods. • Hammurabi’s Code organized all laws, but was very harsh. "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth." • Mesopotamian's wrote using cuneiform. Cuneiform was first used to keep track of trade. • Main city-states included Sumer (considered the first civilization which included specialized workers, record keeping, religion, government) Babylon, and Assyria. • Sargon of Akkad had the first empire (a group of cities and people brought under one ruler). Hammurabi’s Code of ancient Mesopotamian society was important because it A listed the laws and the corresponding punishments. B explained how government officials were chosen. C established a single currency for use across the empire. D described how to perform formal religious ceremonies. Cuneiform and hieroglyphics were important achievements in the development of A written language. B religious beliefs. C agricultural production. D representative government. Which civilization did not grow up in Mesopotamia? A Babylonia B Assyria C Kush D Sumer What effect did the annual flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have on Mesopotamia? A People were forced to move from the rivers to the desert. B The flooding made the land useless for agriculture. C People were able to farm the land near the rivers. D The government put up walls to keep the water away from crops. What was the most likely effect of advances such as the plow and improved irrigation on early civilizations? A Population decreased. B Crop production increased. C Villages fought over new technology. D More farmers were needed to keep up the supply of food.