Cultural Components & Cultural Variation

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Cultural Components &
Cultural Variation
Ms. Blackhurst
Sociology
Culture -- Day 1
Unit Outcomes
Students will:
• Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of
culture through oral, written, and thinking activities.
• Describe how cultural traits and culture items are
used to analyze culture. Students will use traits and
items to analyze culture throughout the course
• Explain how differences between subcultures exist
within a culture.
• Explore the need for communication to transmit
culture.
• Identify the use of signs and symbols in the
transmission of culture.
Culture Unit
• Projects, etc:
– Communication Barriers
– Yearbooks of PTHS
– Gods Must Be Crazy video
– Defying a Norm Project
Culture Unit, Day 1 Plan
Warm-up: Think of at least 10 items/words that we
associate with CULTURE
Class work: 1. Introduce for Culture Unit
2.Culture PowerPoint &
Discussion Activities
3. Tests back??
Homework: None!  (Unless you haven’t
finished the Chapter 2
vocabulary yet!)
Warm-up:
• Pair up with 1 or 2 people
• Come up with at least 10 words that
we associate with culture
• When you finish, write them on the
board please
What is culture?
• Knowledge, values, customs, and
physical objects that are shared by
members of a society
• Culture defines how members in a
society behave in relation to others and
to physical objects
• Unlike most animals, human behavior is
LEARNED and based on our culture
Beliefs & Material Culture
• Material Culture---the concrete, tangible
objects of a culture
• All of these physical aspects of a culture
help to define its members' behaviors
and perceptions.
• Ex: Technology
• Non-Material Culture---ideas, knowledge,
and beliefs that influence people’s
behaviors
• These beliefs, then, determine how the
culture responds to its religious topics,
issues, and events
Think/Pair/Share
• Brainstorm a list of material culture
items
• Brainstorm a list of non-material culture
items
Material culture: art, architecture, jewelry,
weapons, machinery, clothing, food,
music, etc.
societal characteristics shared
by all members within the
group- passed down from
generations
Nonmaterial culture: shared knowledge (ed.
System), language, beliefs and values
(religion), social norms and behaviors
Today:
• List (what you believe) are the four
most important types of non-material
culture
• We will:
– Finish discussion on non-material culture.
– Discussion sheet on Mores/Folkways
Components
of
Culture
Symbols
Language
Values
Norms
Anything that
Stands for
Something else
Standard system
of written and
Spoken symbols
Shared beliefs
About
Good & Bad
Shared Rules
Of Conduct
Shared Rules
Of Conduct
Folkways
Mores
Laws
Common Customs
Morally Significant
Norms
Written Rules
Of Conduct
Social values are standards by which
people define what is desirable or
undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or
ugly
Social Norms are expectations or rules
of behavior that develop from
generations of accepted values
Values
• Broad ideas about what most people in
society consider to be desirable.
• Sociologist Robin Williams in the 1970’s
outlined the basic American Values
Norms
• Norms are based on values
• Norms are the rules defining
appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
• Members of society use them to guide
their social behavior.
• Folkways, mores, and laws
Mores
• Have a greater moral significance
• Violations of Mores endangers the well-being
•
•
•
•
•
& stability of society
Do not kill other people
Do not steal
Do not hurt children
Keep your promises
Pay back borrowed money
Laws
• Many mores are formalized into laws
• Laws against stealing, murder, arson
• Mores against smoking now a law in
public places in Pennsylvania
Folkways
• Rules that cover customary practices without a moral
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
concern
Males—take off hats inside a building
Sending “Thank You” notes
Using proper table manners
Do not eat peas with your fingers
Shake hands when you are introduced to someone
Get to class on time
Do your homework
Do not cut in line
Cultural Etiquette
Country
Custom
England/ Scotland
and Whales
Appointments are essential. You may be ten minutes late
but not ten minutes early!
Greece
Be careful not to praise a specific object too enthusiastically
or the host may insist on giving it to you.
Libya
If you are invited to a Libyan home for dinner, only men will
be present. Take a gift for the host but not for his wife.
Senegal
Never eat food with the left hand, as this is considered
offensive.
Zambia
Avoid direct eye contact with members of the opposite sex—
it may suggest romantic overtures
Saudi Arabia
It is an insult to sit in such as way as to face your host with
the soles of your shoes showing.
China
A visit to a Chinese home is rare—unless the government
has given prior approval.
Think About It!
• Why do we follow our society’s values,
norms, folkways, and laws?
Explain your answer
In pairs (or triplets)…
• Come up with examples of norms…
– These can be folkways and mores!
– I want at least 10 examples!
– And write them down… you’ll use them
later!
Sanctions
Rewards & punishments used to encourage conformity
• Positive: Reward
Cheer, smile, pay raise, head nod, badges,
ribbons, letters to athletes, trophies, public
ceremonies, thumbs up
• Negative: Punishment
grounding for being late, towing a car,
frowns, public ridicule, rejection, fines,
imprisonment, gossip, being ignored, fired,
low grades, office referral
Taboo = social norms that are
so strong that people are
shunned, banished, or executed
if violated
Cultural Universals
• These items are
found in ALL
cultures
• Economy
• Institutions
• Arts
• Language
• Environment
• Recreation
• Beliefs
Values in U.S. Society
(as noted by sociologist Robin Williams)
• (1) Achievement and
•
•
•
•
•
Success
(2) Individualism
(3) Activity and Work
(4) Efficiency and
Practicality
(5) Science and
Technology
(6) Progress
• (7) Material Comfort
• (8) Humanitarianism
• (9) Freedom
• (10) Democracy
• (11) Equality
• (12) Racism and
Group Superiority
• (13) Education
• (14) Religiosity
• (15) Romantic Love
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