Sub-cultures Dominant Culture The dominant culture in a society refers to the established language, religion, behaviour, values, rituals, and social customs. These traits are often the norm for the society as a whole. The dominant culture is usually but not always in the majority and achieves its dominance by controlling social institutions such as communication, educational institutions, artistic expression, law, political process, and business. Values Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what “ought” to be. Values tend to influence attitudes and behaviour. For example, if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work. Mainstream Mainstream is, generally, the common current thought of the majority As such, the mainstream includes all popular culture, typically disseminated by mass media. The opposite of the mainstream are subcultures, countercultures, cult followings Popular Culture (pop culture) Popular culture (commonly known as pop culture) is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images and other phenomena that are deemed preferred within the mainstream of a given culture Sub-culture In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong. Eg EMO, Goth, surfers, bikies, bodybuilders Counterculture Counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behaviour of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day Examples of sub-cultures How are these groups defined? Values and attitudes Clothing and appearance Age Gender Music Hobbies/pastimes Hang-outs Other?