Radio 13 - Pegasus @ UCF

#1 Purpose of Commercial
Broadcasting, Cable, Satellite
or Internet:
Attract Audiences
Who, then, influences the kinds of
programs which will do this?
Advertisers Set the Trend
Programs follow the trend
Consumer Targets
• Males and females 18-34
• Females 25-54
• Marketing studies indicate they wield
the most spending power
• They may also have the most
disposable income
Bottom Line Thinking:
• Programmers want the best shows for
the best price
• The aim is to get the most valuable
viewers for the least cost
• All other considerations secondary
• What does that say about us?
Programs and Cost
Parsimony Principle
• Sparing use of material (stretching plot)
• Replay (summer reruns, scheduled
• Repurposing (Network shows appear on
cable channels owned by the same
media corporation)
• What is lost/what is gained
Birth of a Program
• Network tells studios what audience it
wants to target (studios already know)
• Studios pull concepts off the shelf,
make a pilot, show it to the Net
• Net may like it, ask for changes, or ask
for a few episodes
• Only 25% make it on the air
• Darwinian, market based and dumb
Deficit Financing
• Studios retain rights to the program and
to its distribution
• First purchase by Net rarely covers
production costs
• Resale to cable and individual TV
stations is called off-network syndication
• That’s where the REAL money is.
• Are we getting the market point?
Any non-local programs not
currently licensed to a network
• Off-network: have appeared or may still
be running on a broadcast network
• First-run: originally designed for
syndication never seen on a network
• How do new creative enterprises get in
How Syndication Works
• Industry showcases new offerings (but
most deals happen before hand)
• Station leases a syndicated program for
a certain # of runs or a time period
• Lease fee is cash or barter (free time) or
a combination of both
• Some contracts specify a time slot
The Barter Dilemma:
Trading advertising for programming
• Progams come off the satellite with
spots already inserted
• Reduces # of local availabilities [avails]
• Stations may also be forced to pay cash
• Smaller markets/lower rated stations
pay more--spots are less valuable
Who’s doing the Syndicating?
• Studios like Paramount and Buena
Vista (with off-network syndication they
can make a profit)
• Production Companies like King World
(their programs cheaper to produce)
• Syndicators may bundle a genre
together and offer packages of same
• Local broadcast stations may pay extra
for exclusivity on a given program
Rules and Regs
• fin/syn: elimination of this rule allowed the
mergers of networks with production
companies and syndication firms
• (Financial Interest and Synication Rules)
• Huge debates about access related to
fin/syn rules.
• The networks have freer reign again
Radio Syndciation
Syndicated formats
Syndicated features
Talk show, business, consumer advise
A growth in niche programming
A shrinking diversity
Less local content
Much less jobs available
Radio: Syndicated Formats
Playlists are
via Satellite
Radio: Syndicated Features
Rush Limbaugh
Howard Stern
DividingTV Dayparts
Early Morning (News and Info)
Morning (Talk and Info)
Noon (News)
Afternoon (Soaps)
Early Fringe/News Block (varies)
Local Access
Prime Time
Late Fringe/News Block
Late Night….. Overnight
Radio Dayparts
Morning Drive
Afternoon Drive
Radio Format Clock p. 235: we will
discuss March 20
TV Program Sources
Major Hollywood Film Studios
A few Minor Hollywood Studios
A few Major/Minor Independent
• Some foreign syndicators
Feature Films
• 1st reach audience through theatres
• More money made through video
• More money made through premium
cable movie channels (HBO)
• Even more money made through rights
to broadcast networks
• More money still… reruns on cable
networks (Turner)
Network Programming
Block programming
Strong lead-in
Hot switching
Radio Program Strategies
• Schedule program elements in 60
minute cycles (CNN was the first TV
network to utilize this strategy)
• Try to match audience activities and
• Counterprogramming, stripping,
Program Promotion
• Image: promote a station’s or network’s
news philosophy or experience
• Topical: promote specific news
segments or entertainment episodes
• Program: Generic
• Billboard: lineup of what’s on tonight
• Radio/TV “tradeouts” (may involve