How do We Cite? What are the Formats? How are the Citations

How do We Cite? What are the
Formats? How are the Citations
By: John Hagee, Jennifer Barnes,
Shanna Todd, and Keisha McCullough
MLA In-Text Citations
• You need parenthetical references to
recognize when an idea or fact has been
taken from a source.
• The text either names the author of the
source or doesn’t. The parenthetical
reference includes at least a page number (if
the source has page numbers)
• In-text citation refers the reader to the works
cited section of the paper.
Parenthetical Citations are Used For
• Direct quotes
• Paraphrasing
• Summarizing
Tip- If it’s not your idea
then give the credit to
whose it is!! Give credit
when credit is due!!
Author Name in the Text
• If the author’s name is
used in the sentence,
then only the page
number is necessary.
• ex. In Robinson
Crusoe by Daniel
Dafoe, the main
character learns how to
eat on the island (53).
Author’s Name NOT in the Text
If you do not use the author’s name in the
sentence, then you put the author’s last
name and page number in parentheses.
ex. Recent research indicates that greasy food
does not cause digestive problems
(Biernacki 83).
If NO Author is Given
"If the author is unknown, use a shortened
form of the title in your citation" (Harris 179).
ex. Vitamin C is one of the most important
vitamins to boost the immune system
("Vitamins and Their" 2).
With a Verbatim Quote
"A reference directly after a quotation follows
outside the quotation mark but before the
period" (Harris 179).
ex. According to Hagstrom, Warren Buffett
thinks "growth and value investing are joined
at the hip" (95).
If it's an Online Source
• For Internet sources,
start with the first word
of the citation in your
Works Cited list.
• ex. If you want to study
one of the world's
oldest civilizations, you
can learn about China
Note on online sources:
• Online sources should be alphabetized by
author, or by title if no author is listed. This
determines what you use in the in-text
Work Cited
• Harris, Muriel. The Writer’s FAQs. 3rd ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007.
• Kilborn, Judith. “MLA Parenthetical Documentation.”
The Write Place. 16 Mar 2004. Saint Cloud State
University. 22 Jun 2008
The End