AgApp Student Notes

AU10 Agriscience
Introduction to Agriculture
Understand leadership opportunities
and SAE related to the agriscience
Understand the history, opportunities
and structure of organizations related to
the agriscience industry.
Note: It is recommended that each teacher produce guided notes and/or a visual
presentation for this course.
Activities for each objective are included at the end of the content section for that
objective. These are selected activities and/or ideas for activities from teachers that sent
their material in to be used for this curriculum project. Changes may need to be made to
fit your particular classroom situation.
FFA Student Handbook, 15th ed. (Indianapolis: National FFA Organization, 2011) pp. 326
Official FFA Manual, p. 63- 67
A. History of the National FFA Organization
1. 1917 Smith-Hughes Act established funding for vocational agriculture in high
2. 1920’s – Virginia was the first state to have Futures Farmers clubs for boys.
3. 1928 – FFA became a national organization. A network of teachers guided
the establishment of FFA as a team effort to establish a club for boys with
similar farm interests.
4. 1935 – NFA was formed (New Farmers of America) for black students.
5. 1950 – FFA became one of a few student organizations to receive a Federal
Charter from Congress (Public Law 740).
6. 1965 – FFA and NFA merged.
7. 1969 – Girls were allowed in FFA for the first time.
8. 1988 – Name change from Future Farmers of America to National FFA
organization to reflect the growing diversity in the agriculture industry.
9. 2012 – National Convention completes 7 year run in Indianapolis and returns
to Louisville, Kentucky in 2013 for 3 years.
B. FFA Mission
1. Develop premiere leadership, personal growth and career success.
2. Promotes teamwork, cooperation, and citizenship.
3. Supervised agricultural experience is the component used to help students
learn to keep records, perform practical job skills, and gain opportunity for
work and exploratory experience in Agriscience.
C. Opportunities within the FFA - Career Development Events (CDE’s)
1. Competitive Events - benefits
a. Most events progress from the local (chapter) to the federation,
regional, state and national level.
b. Develops technical and leadership skills as well as confidence.
c. Recognition is received and prize money is often received for 1st
place state finish.
2. Competitive Events – examples
a. Dairy Evaluation – grade and evaluate dairy cattle
b. Poultry Evaluation – grade and evaluate chickens and chicken
c. Livestock Judging – grade and evaluate beef cattle, sheep and
d. Horse Judging – evaluate several classes of horses and present
oral reasons
e. Introduction to Horticulture – knowledge of horticulture and plant
f. Nursery/Landscape – knowledge of the nursery and landscape
industry and plant identification
g. Floriculture – knowledge of floral arrangement , horticulture and
plant identification
h. Creed speaking – recitation of the FFA creed.
i. Prepared Public Speaking – prepare and present a 6-8 minute
speech on an agriculturally related topic of your choice
j. Extemporaneous Public Speaking – present a 4-6 minute speech
on a topic given to you with 30 minutes preparation time
k. Parliamentary Procedure – present a mock business meeting
l. Forestry – identification of trees and forestry tools as well as
measurement of trees.
m. Agricultural Tools and Materials – knowledge and identification of
n. Agricultural mechanics – knowledge of agricultural mechanics as
well as performance of specific mechanical skills
o. Job Interview – performance of a mock interview for an
agriculturally related job
p. Agricultural Sales – knowledge of sales and marketing
q. Farm Business Management – solve business problems and
knowledge of business principles
D. Agricultural Organizations related to the Agriscience Industry
1. Goals
a. Allow professionals the opportunity to network, learn, and communicate.
b. Provide trade shows and journals to update members on new methods,
products, and technology.
c. Uses membership dues to finance commodity advertisement, trade
journals and educational programs and scholarships for members.
2. Types (example)
a. Commodity related (association and portion of mission statement)
1) Corn Growers Association (NCGA) – to create and increase
opportunities for corn growers.
2) North Carolina Pork Producers Council (NPPC) – to promote and
educate to ensure a socially responsible and profitable NC pork
3) North Carolina Nursery and Landscape Association (NCNLA) –
to be a flexible, knowledgeable, responsive, environmentallyconscious organization providing the nursery and landscape
industries with leadership, technological and business
advancement opportunities and information services.
4) American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) – is the world’s
largest breed registry and membership organization.
5) North Carolina Christmas Tree Association (NCCTA) – to
promote “real” Christmas trees through marketing and education.
b. Others
1) NC Farm Bureau – gives members a unified voice in agricultural
issues, offers insurance related products, and provides
scholarships and educational opportunities for youth.
2) Carolina Farm Stewardship Assoc. (CFSA) – is a farm driven,
membership based, non-profit, that helps people in the Carolinas
grow and eat local, organic foods……
3) Grange – is a family–oriented organization committed to serving
its members through a variety of programs and services and
promotes agriculture as an essential industry for our economy.
4) FFA Alumni – open to any adult who wishes to support students
in agricultural education.
AU10 Agriscience
Introduction to Agriculture
Understand leadership opportunities
and SAE related to the agriscience
Understand effective leadership and
communication skills.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper p.101-119
FFA Student Handbook, pp.48-55, 12-13
A. Leadership Development in FFA
1. Purpose
a. Develops confidence, character and citizenship.
b. Builds cooperative attitudes that help students work with others.
c. Encourages the improvement of scholarship.
2. Ways and Means
a. Develop an appreciation of FFA traditions
1) Colors- National Blue and Corn Gold
2) Program of Activities (POA) – a calendar of activities that
provides fun opportunities for members, creates a better
chapter and provides service to the local community.
3) Symbols and their meaning:
a) Eagle – National Scope of FFA
b) Plow – Labor and tillage of the soil
c) Owl - Knowledge and wisdom
d) Rising Sun – Progressive nature of agriculture and the
need for cooperative effort to reach common goals.
e) Cross section of ear of corn – Unity, FFA is a national
organization with members from across the U.S. and
Puerto Rico
f) Lettering “Agricultural Education” and “FFA” – signifies
the combination of learning and leadership
b. FFA Motto:
“Learning to Do
Doing to Learn
Earning to Live
Living to Serve”
c. Serving in leadership roles as an FFA Officer
1) President (rising sun) –presides over meetings
2) Vice president (plow) – coordinates all committee work
3) Secretary (ear of corn) – keeps records of all meetings
4) Treasurer (bust of Washington) - keeps financial records
5) Reporter (flag) – promotes FFA through public relations
6) Sentinel ( hand clasp) – welcomes guests and visitors
d. Other opportunities to develop leadership in FFA
1) Leaderships schools, camps and conferences (WLC)
2) Committee involvement (Community service committee)
3) State and National Conventions
4) Competitive events
B. Steps for conducting Business Meetings (Agenda)
1. Call to order by the President. An opening ceremony in FFA meetings is
also part of the meeting, conducted by the officers.
2. Minutes of the previous meeting read by the Secretary and approved by
the body in accordance to organizational by-laws and parliamentary
procedure to remind members of what occurred at the last meeting.
3. Treasurer reports on the financial standing of the club.
4. Report on Chapter Program of Activities (POA) is presented by officers and
committee chairperson.
5. Old Business- also called unfinished business (from last meeting).
6. New Business – presented by members in the form of motions.
7. Adjournment and closing ceremony – Adjournment occurs by either
passing a motion to adjourn or by consensus of the body.
C. Purpose for an agenda
1. The agenda keeps the meeting moving forward.
2. The agenda forms the framework for the development of a good meeting.
D. General Principles of Parliamentary Procedure
1. The use of parliamentary procedure extends courtesy to everyone.
a. Members must be recognized to speak (except in cases of
emergency or to enforce parliamentary law)
b. Members ask the president for recognition to speak by standing
and saying ” Madame/Mr. President” if the president is
2. The use of parliamentary procedure focuses on one thing at a time.
a. There may be only one motion on the floor at a time.
b. The main motion is presented by saying “I move to/that”.
3. The use of parliamentary procedure observes the rule of the majority.
a. Only main motions that have been seconded can be discussed
and take the time of the group.
b. Most motions require a simple majority to pass (ie.16 out of 30).
c. The chapter takes action only after the passing of a motion.
4. The use of parliamentary procedure ensures the rights of the minority.
a. Everyone has the right to voice their opinion during discussion
of a motion regardless of which side they may be on.
b. Therefore, a motion to stop discussion requires a 2/3 vote to
pass (ie. 20 out of 30 would have to vote to end discussion).
E. Basic Parliamentary Abilities
Amendable Vote
To introduce
new business
To alter or
change a
motion by
striking out, or
or substituting.
Refer to a
To put motion
into the hands
of a small
To stop debate
Suspend the
Allow the
chapter to act
in a way that
would be
against the
rules of
Point of order
Enforce the
rules of
To end the
*Vote depends on type of rule being suspended.
F. Main motion – Purpose is to present a new idea or item of business (only one
main motion can be on floor or before group at the same time). The steps in
presenting and handling a motion are:
1. Address the presiding officer.
2. Receive recognition to speak.
3. State the motion – “I move to” or “I move that”…..
4. Another members seconds the motion (shows that more than one person
wants the item of business before the group).
5. Motion is discussed by the group.
6. Vote on motion
7. Chair announces result of vote.
G. Voting – four common methods.
1. Voice vote, by saying “aye” or “no”
2. Rising vote, either by standing or by a show of hands.
3. Secret ballot, a written vote.
4. Roll call, with each member speaking their vote when the secretary calls
their name.
H. Gavel – taps are used to signal members of action they should take or to
signal the completion of a parliamentary action.
1. One tap follows announcement of adjournment and signals the end of the
meeting or follows the completion of a business item to signal the item has
been handled, but is also a message to members to be seated.
2. Two taps are used to signal the official start of the meeting and calls the
meeting to order.
3. Three taps are used to signal all members to stand during the meeting and
members are to rise in unison at the third tap of the gavel.
F. Public Speaking
1. Oral communication skills are one of the most important factors in
determining career success.
2. The FFA Creed speech (recitation) gives students the opportunity to
develop basic public speaking skills and to develop confidence without
having to develop their own speech.
3. Oral communication can be improved through practice (and more practice)
and once confidence is gained, agriscience students can move on to more
challenging speeches ( prepared and extemporaneous).
4. Practice improves the speaker’s stage presence. Stage presence is the
speaker’s attitude, confidence, personality, and ease before the audience.
The speaker displays his/her stage presence by personal appearance,
poise, and posture while giving the speech.
G. The FFA Creed
1. History
a. Written by E.M. Tiffany.
b. Adopted at the 3rd National FFA Convention in 1930.
c. Revised in 1965 and 1990.
d. Each of the 5 paragraphs begins with “I believe……”
2. Use
a. Basic statement of beliefs that helps members understand the
importance of FFA.
b. Expresses belief in work ethic, fairness, patriotism, and tradition
that all members can share.
c. New members are required to learn and recite the FFA Creed
prior to being awarded the first degree of FFA membership – the
“Greenhand Degree”
AU10 Agriscience
Introduction to Agriculture
Understand leadership opportunities
and SAE related to the agriscience
Understand the importance of SAE to
work-based learning.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, (Unit 5) pp. 77-99
A. SAE – What is it?
1. An individualized SAE (supervised agricultural experience) is conducted
outside of the regularly scheduled school day.
2. SAE makes up the third part in a total agricultural education program.
a. Classroom /laboratory instruction makes up one part.
b. FFA also makes up one part of an agricultural education
c. SAE makes up the third part.
3. SAE is for every student.
B. Purpose of SAE
1. Provides opportunities to explore a variety of subjects about agriscience.
2. Provides educational and practical experience in a specialized area of
3. Provides opportunities for earning while learning.
4. Teaches students to keep accurate computerized or written records.
5. Win FFA awards (FFA proficiency awards are based on SAE).
C. Types of SAE
1. Exploratory SAE
a. Short duration usually, fits beginning students well.
b. Can help students become literate in agriculture.
c. Develop awareness of agricultural careers.
d. Examples: Observing and/or assisting a veterinarian,
interviewing a landscape contractor, shadowing a greenhouse
employee, observing/assisting a welder, attending a career
2. Entrepreneurship SAE
a. Ownership or part-ownership and assume financial risk.
b. Develop skills necessary to become established in one’s own
c. Types of Entrepreneurship –
1) Production SAE - Raise and sell an agricultural
commodity for profit. Examples: produce vegetables,
grow Christmas trees, raise livestock, dogs, or horses,
grow field or nursery crops.
2) Agribusiness SAE – Students own and operate an
agricultural related business. Examples: lawn
maintenance or landscaping business, crop scouting
service, pet sitting service, feed sales, computer service
for farms, horse riding lessons business.
3. Placement SAE
a. Students obtain a job with an employer (often with the help of
their instructor).
b. Typically paid an hourly wage.
c. Examples: Placement in Production – on a farm, greenhouse,
nursery or other production facility. Placement in Agribusiness –
at a veterinary clinic, florist, feed store, landscaping business.
4. Improvement SAE
a. Activities are done to improve the appearance, convenience,
efficiency, safety or value of a home, farm or other facility.
b. No wages earned.
c. No ownership necessary.
d. Benefit by learning skills.
e. Examples: landscape parent or grandparent’s home, building a
fence, building a storage shed, growing herbs or vegetables in
containers on a porch or patio, assist with landscape
maintenance at an apartment complex.
5. Analytical SAE
a. Students choose an agricultural problem not easily tested by
b. Gather and evaluate data.
c. Examples: Develop marketing plan for poinsettia crop, research
and present project on effects of temperature change on corn
yields in South America.
6. Experimental SAE
a. Students conduct and an agriculturally related experiment using
the scientific method.
b. Examples: Compare the effects of various rates of nitrogen on
poinsettias. Compare the effects of various feeds on average
daily gain in lambs.
c. This SAE can be used to compete in the State Agriscience Fair.
7. Supplementary SAE
a. Activities are short-term activities with little or no planning
b. Skill specific, non- wage earning.
c. Examples: Learning to prune peach or apple trees, changing
hydraulic fluid in a tractor, mowing a baseball infield or putting
green, trimming sheep feet, bottle feeding dairy calves.
AU10 Agriscience
Introduction to Agriculture
Understand global agriculture.
Understand the history of global
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, 4th ed., Cooper, pp. 6-8,33-36, 296-7 643647 Lely Astronaut A3 Milking Robot
A. Agriscience defined:
1. Agriscience is the application of scientific principles and new technologies to
2. Also considered an applied science because it applies knowledge of biology,
chemistry and physics in practical ways.
a. Agronomists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to control
b. Entomologists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to
control insects.
c. Agricultural engineers use physics to develop new, more efficient
3. Agriscience employs the scientific method to solve problems in agriculture.
(scientific method is covered in Objective 3.02)
B. Agriculture defined:
1. Agriculture is concerned with the production, processing, marketing
and distribution of all agricultural products, related supplies and
2. Examples:
a. Cattle – production- farmer, cow-calf, feeder steers, processingslaughter facility, rendering, beef, leather, marketing- butcher,
grocery, steaks, transportation – plane, rail, truck, related
supplies and services- veterinarian, feed dealer,
b. Wheat – production -farmer, grain, processing- grain mills, flour,
marketing - bakery, bread, transportation - grain trucks, rail,
related supplies and services – fertilizer dealer, crop scouting,
machinery dealer, GPS
c. Roses – production - flower grower, roses,
processing/marketing – harvesters, wholesale and retail florist,
transportation – plane, truck, floral delivery driver, related
supplies and services – glass vase sales, greenhouse
manufacturers, floral designers
C. Agribusiness defined:
1. Agribusiness refers to commercial firms (businesses) that have
developed with or stemmed out of agriculture.
2. Examples of Agribusiness:
a. Farm related: Chemical Company, Tractor Manufacturer,
Pharmaceutical Company (veterinary medicines)
b. Horticulture related: Landscape or nursery business, Seed
company, Mower Manufacturer
D. Renewable natural resources defined:
1. Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew
2. Examples of natural resources
a. Wildlife – deer, songbirds, birds of prey, fish, rabbits
b. Forests – trees, grasses,
E. Progress in U.S. Agriculture
1. Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force produce the food
and fiber to meet the needs of our nation.
2. There has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved
in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012.
3. Major inventions/improvements and inventors/researchers
a. Jethro Tull is credited with inventing the first horse drawn
seed drill in England in 1701.
b. Cotton gin (1793) - Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to
transform cotton to a usable product by removing the
cottonseed from the cotton fiber.
c. Iron plow (late 1700’s and early 1800’s) Thomas Jefferson
and his son-in-law Thomas Mann Randolph worked together
to develop many of the early iron and mould board plows;
however, it was Charles Newbold in 1797 who patented the
first cast iron plow and Jethro Wood who patented the iron
plow with interchangeable parts in 1819.
d. Grain reaper (1834) Cyrus McCormick invented the reaper to
save labor in cutting, wheat, oats, and similar crops.
e. Henry Blair became the second black inventor in history to
receive a patent. He received a patent for his seed planter
(1834) and cotton planter (1836).
f. Steel moldboard plow (1837) – John Deere improved the
iron plow by inventing the steel moldboard plow.
g. Corn picker (1850) Edmund Quincy –
h. Barbed wire (1874) Joseph Glidden – dramatically changed
raising livestock. Barbed wire tattoos came much later.
i. Milking machine (1878) Anna Baldwin changed the dairy
industry by inventing a machine to replace hand milking.
j. Perishable food preservation (1879) Thomas Elkins
designed a device that helped with the task of preserving
perishable foods by way of refrigeration.
k. Soil improvement and crop rotation (late 1890’s) - George
Washington Carver brought the science of crop rotations to
use in the United States and discovered over 300 uses for
peanuts. He also implemented the use of legumes (plants
that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. peanuts) to significantly
improve soil fertility in the U.S. south.
Tractor (1904) Ben Holt invented the “track-type” tractor and
commercialized its use as “Caterpillar”. It was John Froelich
in 1892 who many believe had the first successful gasoline
powered tractor. Many inventors worked to develop the
modern tractor which came to replace the mule as the
sources of power (horse power).
1954 was the year that the number of tractors on farms
exceeds the number horses and mules for the first time
Gene gun (1987) John Sanford developed a device for
injecting cells with genetic information.
GPS technology (1993) – tractor based GPS systems
together with sophisticated GIS (Geographic Information
Systems) uses a wide variety of techniques to gather data
such as soil condition, humidity, temperature and other
variables , which the system then uses to control such things
as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and
pesticides, watering schedules, etc.
Robotic milking Machines (late 1990’s) – First used in
Ontario, Canada. Many benefits one of which is reduction in
labor. Initial cost is primary disadvantage especially to small
F. Establishment of Land Grant Institutions
1. Definition: An institution designated by its state legislature to receive
funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics and
the mechanical arts. A key component is the agricultural experiment station
(Hatch Act 1887).
2. Examples:
a. North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NC
b. North Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh, NC
c. Clemson University (1889) Clemson, SC
d. University of Georgia (1785) Athens, GA
e. University of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TN
f. Virginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA
G. Agriculture related Government Agencies
1. Established to assist farmers, ranchers and the general public with
information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding.
2. Examples of some of the agencies we now have:
a. USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture
provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources,
rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on
sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient
management. Examples of branches/agencies of USDA:
1) NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation
2) APHIS (1972) – Animal and Plant Health Inspection
3) NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service
4. USFS (1905) –United States Forest Service mission is
to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the
nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of
present and future generations.
b. NCCES (1914) North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service to help, individuals, families, and communities put research –
based knowledge to work for economic prosperity,
environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life.
c. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services (NCDA&CS) – To provide services that promote and
improve agriculture…..
H. Origins of Major Food Crops
1. Fruits and Vegetables
a. Peaches - China
b. Tomato – South America
c. Peanut – Peru, South America
d. Sweet potato – Central America
2. Grain, Oil and Fiber Crops
a. Corn – Cuba, Mexico
b. Soybeans – Southeast Asia
c. Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan
d. Wheat – Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India)
Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but generally
agree on region of the world.
I. Major US Agricultural Production Regions for Selected Crops and Livestock
1. Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils,
weather, market development, feed availability, etc.
2. Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that
generally rank high in U.S. production.
a. Citrus fruit – Florida, Texas and California
b. Corn belt – Includes all or parts of these Midwestern states:
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota,
Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska,
c. Wheat –
a. Hard Red Spring Wheat – (highest protein content,
excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking
Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho,
(also Oregon, Washington, California)
b. Soft Red Winter Wheat – (high yielding, low protein,
used for cakes, biscuits, pastries) Several
southeastern states including North Carolina,
Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well as
Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Missouri and others.
d. Spearmint – Washington, Oregon, Idaho
e. Floriculture crops- California, Florida, Michigan, Texas, North
f. Beef cattle – Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado,
Oklahoma, Missouri, South Dakota (corn belt area)
g. Dairy – Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire,
Massachusetts, Maine, (California, Idaho and Texas are
leading producers but are not located in this region).
h. Hogs – North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana,
Minnesota (Corn belt area)
i. Poultry (broilers) – Several southern and southeastern
states including North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas
Note: These lists represent the primary states involved, but
is in no way intended to be an all-inclusive list of states that
produce these commodities.
J. North Carolina Agriculture
1. NC is divided into three basic geographic and agricultural regions;
mountains, piedmont and coastal plains. (Although counties from
another region may currently rank higher in production of a particular
commodity, the commodities listed below represent what the region is
traditionally known for producing.)
a. Mountain counties
1) Christmas trees
2) Apples
3) Trout
b. Piedmont counties
1) Greenhouse and Nursery crops
2) Broilers
3) Turkeys
4) Dairy
c. Eastern counties
1) Hogs
2) Turkeys
3) Broilers
4) Tobacco- flue-cured
5) Sweet potatoes
6) Vegetables
7) Peanuts
8) Cotton
9) Corn
10) Soybeans (world’s most important source of
vegetable oil).
2. Farm Cash Receipts (all numbers are from 2011 statistics)
a. Statewide exceeds $10,000,000,000 ($10B) annually
b. Livestock, Dairy and Poultry generate approximately 2/3 of all
farm cash receipts. Broilers and hogs account for nearly half of
this amount.
c. Crops generate approximately 1/3 of all farm cash receipts with
greenhouse, nursery, floriculture and Christmas trees currently
being the leaders in this category.
Note: Rankings, dollars and percentages will continue to change,
however these are the current numbers and they do represent current
trends in North Carolina agriculture.
AU10 Agriscience
Introduction to Agriculture
Understand global agriculture.
Compare the current and future issues
in global agriculture.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 5-41, 61-74, 140-152 err-economic-research-report/err97
A. Global outlook
1. The world population will continue to grow with expectations of 9
billion humans on the planet by 2050.
a. More children survive to adulthood worldwide.
b. More adults are living longer worldwide.
2. Population growth will:
a. Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil and
natural resources.
b. Create challenges to meet demands for food and fiber.
c. Examples of agriscience research to meet these demands.
1) Genetically engineered crops – ie. a bioengineered tomato that resists rotting.
2) New fuel sources – ie. biodiesel from animal fat
3) Human nutrition – ie. decreasing the amount of
animal fat in the diet and raising the proportion of
fat from vegetable sources.
4) Satellite technology (gps) – ie. to determine
various nutrient levels/deficiencies in plants.
B. Trends and Issues in Global Agriculture
1. Agriculture will always be an essential industry.
a. Food is essential to life (an iPad is not).
b. Clothing and shelter are basic needs of humans;
(smartphones are not).
2. Examples of current/future agriculture related issues (these will
continue to change as our world changes).
a. Food insecurity – An issue of global importance. Defined as
not knowing where a human will find their next meal. Or, the
situation where people need to live with hunger and fear
starvation. Food insecurity results from several factors
including climate issues, urban development, corrupt
governments, population growth and oil price shifts.
b. Sustainability – Rests on the principle that we must meet the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
c. Organic Food Production – Organic crops are raised without
using most conventional pesticides, petroleum-based
fertilizers, or sewage sludge-based fertilizers. Organically
raised animals must be fed organic feed and be given
access to the outdoors. Antibiotics and growth hormones
may not be used in organic production. Organic sales
account for more than 3% of all U.S. food sales.
d. GMO’s (genetically modified organisms) – Combing genes
from different organisms results in an organism being called
genetically modified or transgenic. Controversies
surrounding this practice include safety, ethics, labeling and
others. European countries will not purchase GMO foods
from the US resulting in fewer exports to these countries.
e. Local Food Movement – No universally accepted definition
but can be defined in terms of geographic proximity of
producer to consumer. Is a very popular concept in the U.S.
in regards to food safety, food freshness, and reduction of
environmental impact due to shorter shipping distances.
f. CSA’s (Community Supported Agriculture) – are direct-toconsumer programs in which consumers buy shares of a
local farms projected harvest. Consumers often pay for their
share of the harvest up front which distributes risk between
the farmer and the consumers. Participants often pick up
their share regularly in a communal local or the shares are
delivered directly to the consumer. USDA estimates as
many as 2500 CSA’s are operating nationally.
g. Water (quantity and quality) – in the US water shortages are
a major issue in the western portion of the nation where
expanding cities needs such as Denver, are competing with
farmers needs for the same diminishing water resources. In
New York the aquifer that underlies Long Island represents
the only drinking water for the 3 million plus residents that
use it. In the Southeastern US, including North Carolina,
Water Wars have become common place. In Third World
countries a safe water supply is a luxury. In most areas of
the world, supplies of safe water have become generally
insufficient because of misuse, poor management, waste,
pollution and climate change.
C. Avenues of study in agriculture (2 and 4 year degree programs at NC land
grant universities and community colleges).
1. Examples of 2 year agriculturally related degree programs in NC.
(A list of all schools and the degrees they offer can be found at the
community colleges website or the NCSU Agriculture Institute
a. Aquaculture Technology
b. Equine Business and Training
c. Fish and Wildlife Management Technology
d. Forest Management Technology
e. Golf Course Management
f. Greenhouse and Grounds Maintenance
g. Horticulture Technology
h. Landscape Gardening
Marine Sciences
Poultry Management
Sustainable Agriculture
Swine Management
Turfgrass Management
Viticulture Technology
Agricultural Biotechnology
Environmental Science Biotechnology
Agribusiness Management
Field Crops Technology
General Agriculture
Livestock and Poultry Management
2. Examples of 4 year agriculturally related degree programs in NC.
a. Agricultural Economics
b. Agricultural Education
c. Animal Science
d. Biological Engineering
e. Landscape Architecture
f. Agricultural and Environmental Technology
g. Food Science
h. Plant and Soil Science
i. Poultry Science
j. Genetics
k. Horticultural Science
Note: Several majors have areas of concentration within them.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the plant industry.
Remember careers in the plant industry.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 61-65, 298-515 (Agri-Profile
page numbers listed beside each career).
A. Major Plant Science Industries
1. Ornamental Horticulture
a. Defined: the science and art of producing, processing,
marketing and distributing plants grown for their appearance or
b. Examples: Flowers, shrubs, trees, grasses, interior plants, etc.
2. Fruit and Vegetable Production
a. Defined: the science and art of producing, processing,
marketing and distributing fruits and vegetables.
b. Examples: blueberries, apples, peaches, strawberries,
tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet corn, squash, sweet potatoes, etc.
3. Agronomy
a. Defined: is the science of soil management and crops.
b. Examples: Wheat, barley, corn, soybeans, cotton, etc.
B. Careers
1. Examples of Ornamental Horticulture Careers
a. Florist (p. 463) – designs and arranges cut flowers.
b. Groundskeeper (p. 479) – maintains lawn and landscape
c. Landscape Architect (p. 503) – a professional trained in the
art and science of arranging land and objects upon it.
d. Golf Course Superintendent – manages the golf course
e. Nursery Operator- manages a business that grows and sells
trees, shrubs and other ornamental plants.
f. Greenhouse Manager – manages a business that grows and
sells greenhouse plants.
g. Gardener (p. 368) – a person who grows and maintains
plants for estates, institutions, etc.
h. Landscape Contractor (p. 503) – a person licensed to install
landscapes based on passing certification exams.
2. Examples of Fruit and Vegetable Careers
a. Vegetable Grower (p. 383)(traditional, hydroponic or organic)
– grows and sells vegetables for the fresh, wholesale and
retail markets.
b. Produce Manager (p. 383) – manages retail produce
departments of grocery stores.
c. Winery Supervisor – manages the production of wines.
3. Examples of Agronomy Careers
a. Agronomist (p. 426) – a specialist in soil and crop sciences.
b. Forage Manager (p. 444) – grow, manage and sell hay crops
for various animal producers.
c. Federal grain Inspector – Federal employee that inspects
harvested grain crops.
4. Examples of General Plant Science Careers- can work in any or all
of these areas.
a. Plant Physiologist (p. 322) – a person who studies plant
processes and functions.
b. Plant Breeder (p. 339) – a person who develops new plants
through, selection, hybridization, etc
c. Plant Propagator (p. 339) – a person who reproduces plants
d. Entomologist (p. 373) – a person who studies insects
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the plant industry.
Understand biotechnology in the plant
Note: Biotechnology and the scientific method will be covered only here in the plant
science unit although examples of biotechnology in animal science, environmental
science and agricultural engineering will be covered in their respective units. The
information covered in this objective should be applied to all other “Agriscience
Industries” biotechnology objectives (4.02, 5.02)
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications,Cooper, pp. 45-56, 14-15
Introduction to Biotechnology an Agricultural Revolution, Herren, Chapters 1,2,
A. Biotechnology Basics
1. Defined: Biotechnology is the use of living organisms
(microorganisms) to make new products or carry out new
processes (solve problems).
a. New product – Yogurt
b. New Process – Tissue culture, propagation method that
rapidly multiplies plants,
2. Historic Applications of Biotechnology
a. Use of yeast to make bread rise.
b. Use of bacteria to produce various kinds of cheeses and
other dairy products.
c. Use of microorganisms to transform fruit or grains into
alcoholic beverages.
d. Use of bacteria to “produce” silage
e. E.coli bacteria used to produce insulin. It became one of the
first commercial products created by genetic engineering.
B. Basic Genetics
1. Genetics is the science of heredity.
a. Austrian monk, Gregor Johann Mendel discovered the effect
of genetics on plant characteristics with his experimentation
with garden peas.
b. Heredity is the transmission of characteristics from an
organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells.
c. Genes determine the individual characteristics of living
things (plant height at maturity, flower color, ears of corn per
stalk). They are segments of double stranded DNA.
d. Generation is the offspring, or progeny, of common parents.
2. DNA –Genetic Code of Life
a. A chromosome is a structure that holds the genetic
information of a cell. DNA is wound tightly to form the
b. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the coded material in all
cell nuclei that determines what that cell and its
successive cells will become. Its’ structure is that of a
twisted ladder (double helix).
c. A gene is a small section of DNA. There are thousands
of genes on a strand of DNA.
d. Gene mapping – the process of both finding and
recording the locations of genes.
e. Bases are like rungs of a ladder that hold the two sides
of the DNA strands together. The bases are:
1) Adenine (A) - only pairs with “T”
2) Thymine (T) – only pairs with “A”
3) Guanine (G) – only pairs with “C”
4) Cytosine (C) – only pairs with “G”
5) Example:
f. The sequence of the bases between the DNA strands is
the code by which a gene controls a specific trait
(baldness in humans, tendency of female goats to have
twin offspring).
C. Processes and Practices in biotechnology
1. Genetic engineering developed in the early 1980’s is the process of
moving genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to
another. Termed:
a. Gene splicing or Recombinant DNA technology- the
process of removing and inserting genes from one organism
and inserting them into the DNA of another.
b. Some examples are:
1) Alter a plant’s susceptibility to disease.
2) Make a plant resistant to insects.
3) Process in animals is newer and not as well
developed techniques exist yet.
2. Cloning (micropropagation in plants) – creating an exact genetic
duplicate of another organism.
3. Indicator species – one of the oldest methods of biological
detection. This method uses plants, animals and microbes to warn
us about pollutants in the environment.
4. Bioremediation – A set of techniques that use living organisms to
clean up toxic wastes in water and soil.
5. Biostimulation - Adding nutrients such as nitrogen and
phosphorus to stimulate the growth of naturally occurring beneficial
microbes for faster more efficient work.
6. Phytoremediation - The process of plants absorbing or
immobilizing pollutants. First tested actively at sites in the 1990’s.
7. Animal Reproduction and Production – the processes used in
improving the efficiency of reproduction and production involve the
use of biotechnology. These are considered the more conventional
uses of biotechnology.
8. Biofuels – Fuels composed of or produced from biological raw
D. Importance of Recombinant DNA Technology
a. Improve plants’ and animals’ performance through the
manipulation of genes.
b. Alter characteristics or performance of microorganisms.
c. Great potential for controlling disease, insects, weeds, and
other pests is through genetic engineering.
d. Less use of chemical pesticides is a result.
e. Potential for helping clean the environment.
E. Concerns with the use of Biotechnology in Agriculture
1. Safety
a. State and federal government monitor the development of
newly developed biotech crops.
b. Consumer resistance to new biotech food products
remains high due to safety of the environment and human
health concerns.
c. Biotechnology is a rapidly changing field, which when not
fully understood, for some people can create a fear of the
d. Labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMO) foods –
many people feel if a product is safe it should be labeled.
e. Concern has been expressed over the effect GMO’s may
have on biodiversity.
2. Ethics
a. Ethics is a system of moral principles that defines what is
right and wrong in a society.
b. The ability to manipulate genetics of living organisms
raises important ethical questions about how biotechnology
should be used.
F. Scientific Method used in Biotechnology/Agriscience
1. Steps of scientific method used to solve problems
a. Identify the problem.
b. Review literature.
c. Form a hypothesis.
d. Prepare a project proposal.
e. Design the experiment.
f. Collect the data.
g. Draw conclusions.
h. Prepare a written report.
2. Can be employed in doing an SAE project and/or participating in
the FFA Agriscience fair.
G. Biotechnology in the plant science industry
1. Herbicide and insect resistant crops are a product of genetic
engineering. Examples:
a. Herbicide – tolerant soybean (RoundUp Ready
Soybeans) contains a gene that provides resistance to
one or two broad spectrum herbicides. There are several
Roundup Ready crops available or being developed such
as: Canola, Corn, Cotton, Alfalfa, Lettuce, Potatoes,
Sugar Beets, and Tomatoes.
b. Insect- resistant corn (Bt corn) – contains a built-in
insecticidal protein from a naturally occurring soil
microorganism (Bt – Bacillus thuringiensis) that gives
season- long control of corn borers.
2. Crops with better nutrition and longer shelf life are products of
genetic engineering.
c. High Oleic Peanut – genetically modified to produce nuts
in high oleic acid that results in longer life for nuts, candy
and peanut butter.
d. High Oleic Sunflower – modified to produce sunflower oil
that is low in trans-fatty acids.
e. Delayed- ripening tomato – the longer shelf life has
commercial advantages in harvesting and shipping.
3. Tissue culture (micropropagation) – is the use of a very small
actively growing part of the plant to produce a large number of new
plants ( ie. African violets).
4. Numerous other crops have been genetically engineered to tolerate
herbicides and resist insects and viruses such as, alfalfa, canola,
cotton, potatoes, rice and many others.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the plant industry.
Understand basic horticultural
(ornamental, fruit and vegetable) and
agronomic principles and practices.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 161-192
A. Type of Plant Growing Media
1. Soil is the top layer of the Earth’s surface and is the primary medium of
cultivated plants.
a. Topsoil
b. Subsoil
c. Parent material
2. Sphagnum moss is used for encouraging root growth under certain
3. Peat moss consists of partial decomposed mosses in waterlogged
areas called bogs.
4. Perlite is a volcanic glass material that has water-holding capabilities
and used for starting new plants and in media mixes.
5. Vermiculite is a mineral- type mica used for starting plant seeds and
cuttings and in media mixes.
B. Amending the Plant Growing Media
1. Most soil amendments are made to add organic matter, specific
nutrients or modify soil pH.
2. Improper soil/media pH will have the most impact on the availability of
nutrients in the soil/media.
3. The pH is the measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity. The pH
scale ranges from 0-14.
4. Soil/media with high alkalinity are made more acidic (lowering the pH)
by adding sulfur or aluminum sulfate.
5. Soil/media with high acidic level is made more alkaline (raising the pH)
by adding lime. Lime is usually applied as finely ground dolomitic
limestone that supplies both Ca (calcium) and Mg (magnesium).
C. Fertilizers
1. A complete fertilizer contains the three primary nutrients: N (nitrogen),
P (phosphorus), and K (potassium). Ex. 15-5-25
2. Organic fertilizers include animal manures and compost made with
plant or animal products. Examples are:
a. Dried cow manure
b. Bone meal (high in phosphorus)
c. Blood meal
3. Organic fertilizers are usually slow acting and long lasting forms of N
but lacking in the other primary nutrients (except bone meal).
4. Inorganic fertilizers have a higher analysis of soluble nutrients that
have been blended together for a specific purpose. Example: 16-4-8.
D. Fertilizer Application
1. Broadcasting or evenly spreading over the entire surface of a lawn or
other growing area.
2. Side-dressing is done by placing fertilizer in bands about 8” from the
row of growing plants. Popular for field crops like corn and soybeans.
3. Foliar application is the spraying of liquid fertilizer directly onto the
leaves of plants.
E. Principle Parts of Plants
1. Roots
a. Generally two types – fibrous or tap root systems.
b. Their function is to anchor the plant and take in water and
2. Stems
a. Two basic types of aboveground stems – woody and
b. The stem supports other plant parts such as leaves,
flowers, and fruit.
c. Through it, water and nutrients are carried up to the
leaves and sugar made in the leaves is transported down to
the roots.
3. Leaves
a. The leaf manufactures food for the plant by using light
energy (photosynthesis). The chemical equation for
photosynthesis is:
light energy
6 CO2 + 6 H2O
C6H1206 + 6 02
b. Photosynthesis occurs best in a temperature range of 6585 degrees F.
c. Leaves are very useful in identifying plants and vary
greatly. The leaf margin (edge), shape and arrangement are
all important in plant identification
4. Flowers
a. The primary function of flowers is the production of seed.
b. The male flower part is the stamen (anther, filament) and
the female part is the pistil (stigma, style, ovary).
c. Flowers can be male, female or both.
d. Petals attract insects to aid in pollination.
5. Fruit
a. The ovary (lower part of the pistil) of a flower matures into
a fruit that surrounds the seeds. Ex. Apple
b. Seed develops in the female part (pistil) of the flower. The
seed has 3 basic parts:
1) Seed coat- protection for the seed
2) Endosperm – food for the seed
3) Embryo – baby plant
D. Common Plant Science Practices (skills)
1. Transplanting – can be done by hand or machine and is done in all
areas of horticulture. It involves moving a young plant from one
location to another. Example: a seedling tomato from a cell pack in the
greenhouse into a home garden.
2. Propagation – is increasing the number of a plant species or
reproduction of a species.
a. Sexual – is the use of seeds for reproducing plants.
b. Asexual (vegetative) – is the use of a part or parts of a
plant for reproducing plants. This results in an exact
duplication of the parent plant.
1) Cuttings (stem) – vegetative parts that the parent
plant uses to regenerate itself. Example: Swedish ivy.
Rooting hormones are often applied to the cutting to
speed up the development of roots.
2) Division – is a method of dividing or separating the
main part of a plant into smaller parts.
Example: Liriope
3) Grafting – is the method of joining two plants
together to grow as one. Example: Apple trees
4) Tissue culture (biotech method) – is the use of a
very small piece of a plant (explant) to produce a
large number of new genetically identical plants.
Example: Boston Ferns
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the plant industry.
Remember tools and their safety
practices related to the plant industry.
Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals And Applications, 6th edition, Herren, pp. 36,
Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual,
A. Plant Science Related Tool Safety Concepts
1. Choosing the right tool for a job will promote safety in the shop and
2. Caring for tools and keeping them in good working condition will
promote safety in the shop and workplace.
B. Plant Science Related Tools
1. The thinking person will make every reasonable effort to work safely.
2. Examples of plant science related tools (all from FFA list)
a. Bulb planter –planting and transplanting bulbs
b. Grafting tool – preparing woody parts for grafting
c. Hose bib –valve for attaching a water hose and turning
water supply on and off.
d. Lopping shears – Cutting large branches when pruning
e. Pruning saw – sawing limbs from shrubbery and trees
f. Pruning shears – cutting and shaping shrubbery
g. Hedge shears – trimming and shaping shrubbery
h. Soil auger – boring into soil to get samples
i. Soil thermometer – determining soil temperatures
j. Soil tube – obtaining soil for testing
k. Water breaker – reduces the impact of water pressure on
soil and plants.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the animal industry
(large animal, poultry, equine, and
Remember careers in the animal
The Agriculture Dictionary, Herren and Donahue,
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp.518-635,741-778, 63-68 (AgriProfile page number listed beside each career)
A. Major Animal Science Industries
1. Large animal (livestock)
a. Defined: Farm animals raised to produce milk, meat, work
and wool.
b. Examples: Cattle, sheep, swine, goats
2. Poultry
a. Defined: Any or all domesticated fowls that are raised
primarily for their meat, eggs or feathers.
b. Examples: chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese
3. Equine
a. Defined: Horses or other members of the family Equidae.
b. Examples: Horses, mules
4. Aquaculture
a. Defined: Underwater agriculture, commonly called fish
farming. Also includes the growing of water vegetation such
as kelp.
b. Examples: Tilapia, trout, catfish, shrimp
B. Examples of animal science careers
1. Animal nutritionist (p.520) – one who studies nutrient values of
feeds, including how digestible they are.
2. Veterinarian (p. 540) – an animal doctor.
3. Geneticist (p. 555) – a person who studies and applies genetics.
4. Animal Technician (p. 587) – one who cares for and manages.
animals in a variety of settings including animal hospitals.
5. Farm/Herd Manager (p. 594) – manages the daily operation of a
livestock farm.
6. Horse Breeder/Trainer (p. 620) – breeders are in charge of the
record keeping and scheduling involved with being a breeder.
7. Farrier (p. 619) –a person who shoes horses.
8. Veterinary Technician (p. 620) – assists the veterinarian in caring for
9. Butcher - a person who slaughters animals or dresses meat.
10. Meat Inspector – a trained individual employed by regulatory
authorities to inspect all meats as they pass through a slaughter facility
or packing plant.
11. Artificial breeding Technician – a person certified to artificially
breed livestock.
12. Sales representative, Animal Health Products – a person who sells
animal health products to veterinarians and stores that sell these
13. Poultry Hatchery Manager – a person who manages the daily
operation of a hatchery facility.
14. Equine Dentist – specialized dentist who works on horses.
15. Equine Magazine Writer – a person write articles about the horses
and the horse industry.
16. Microbiologist – a scientist concerned with the study of plant and
animal microorganisms.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the animal industry
(large animal, poultry, equine, and
Understand biotechnology in the animal
Note: Reminder that only examples of animal biotechnology will be covered here and
that basic biotech concepts were covered in Plant Science 3.02.
Introduction to Biotechnology An Agricultural Revolution, Herren, pp.11,146-163, 230248
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, Unit 3
A. Biotechnology in the Animal Science Industry
1. Examples of biotechnology in Animal Science:
a. Animal cloning –
1) For product uniformity such as drumstick uniformity
in the poultry industry.
2) Saving endangered species – Even with the best
conservation efforts, whole species of animals
continue to disappear. If new animals could be
reproduced from the tissue of the few remaining
animals, many endangered species might be saved.
3) Research purposes - probably the greatest
advantage of cloned animals is their usefulness in
research studies. Genetically identical animals are
better for research studies that try to isolate one
b. Improving animals’ performance through manipulation of
genes. These techniques are not as well developed yet
2. Examples of biotechnology in Animal Reproduction and Production
a. BST (Bovine somatotropin) – A hormone produced in the
pituitary gland of cattle that increases milk production.
Through the method of gene splicing genetic material into E.
coli bacteria, the hormone is produced at relatively low cost.
If dairy cows are given a supplementary dose of BST they
will produce more milk.
b. Artificial Insemination (AI) – This process involves the
introduction of the male sperm into the reproductive tract of a
female by means other than the natural mating process.
Most of the cows in the dairy industry are produced through
c. Embryo Transfer – The transferring of embryos from one
female to another. With embryo transfer, one female can
produce many calves in a year due to a process known as
superovulation which causes the donor animal to release
several eggs instead of just one. A superior female can be
fertilized by genetics from a superior male and the resulting
embryos implanted into inferior female animals.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the animal industry
(large animal, poultry, equine, and
Understand basic animal principles and
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 598-612, 239-249, 518-534
A. Dairy
1. Holstein are known for their black and white markings and for
producing the most milk. Ninety percent of dairy cattle in the US are
2. Jersey, though the smallest dairy breed, is the second most popular
breed due to its’ number one rank in butterfat production.
3. Guernsey and Ayrshire are other popular dairy breeds.
B. Beef
1. Predominant English breeds in the U.S.
a. Angus – black breed of cattle known for excellent meat
b. Hereford (horned and polled) – are red cattle with a white
2. Exotic breeds were imported into the U.S. when consumers began
demanding leaner meat.
a. Exotic breeds have calves that grow faster than English
b. Example: Simmental
3. American breeds were developed to withstand the heat and
resistance to disease and parasites in the South and Southwest.
a. American breeds resulted from crossing Brahman cattle
from India with English breeds.
b. The result was increased heat tolerance and disease and
parasite resistance of Brahman and the meat quality of the
English breeds.
c. Example: Brangus the result of Brahman x Angus.
C. Swine
1. The swine industry has changed greatly from the lard type hogs of
the past to the lean type hogs in demand today.
2. Types of swine operations:
a. Feeder –pig producers
b. Market –hog producers
c. Farrow to Finish producers
3. Purebred producers produce high-quality boars.
a. To improve the genetic make-up of one breed of swine.
b. Purebred boars bred to crossbred sows increase hybrid
vigor (ex. muscling).
c. Duroc, Hampshire and Yorkshire are the most popular
U.S. purebred breeds today.
D. Poultry
1. Chickens are classified as layers or broilers
a. Broilers are young chickens grown for their meat. Most
broilers can trace their ancestors back to the Cornish breed.
b. Layers are chickens developed to produce large numbers
of eggs (White leghorn –foundation breed).
2. Breeds
a.White Leghorn (layer) – are white bodied with red combs.
b. Nearly all of the broiler and layer types used in the
industry today are the result of crossbreeding to maximize
3. Turkeys -90% of commercially raised turkeys are the BroadBreasted White variety.
4. Most poultry farms have thousands of birds in production.
E. Equine
1. Uses
a. Show
b. Racing
c. Recreation- pleasure riding, rodeo, draft horses, etc.
2. Breeds – 3 of the most popular breeds of light horses in the U.S.
a. Quarter horse – riding, hunting, and working cattle
b. Thoroughbred
c. Arabian
F. Aquaculture
1. Water Quality – the key/challenge to production of aquatic
organisms. Water characteristics are measured regularly depending on
the production system.
a. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in any fish system can
become so low that fish die.
1) DO levels are measured by oxygen probes or
chemical tests and reported as 0-10 ppm.
2) Most fish can survive as low as 3 parts per million
(ppm) DO but become stressed and succumb to other
3) Rainbow trout require excellent or high levels of
DO and can only be cultured in oxygen –saturated
4) Aerators are used to improved oxygen levels.
b. pH – the measurement of acidity or alkalinity in water.
1) This factor affects the toxicity of soluble nutrients in
the water.
2) Measured using a meter or litmus paper.
3) The scale is 0-14. Neutral is 7, below 7 is acidic
and above 7 is alkaline.
4) Most aquatic plants and animals prefer a pH
between 7 and 8.
c. Ammonia/nitrite/nitrate – waste products of aquatic
animals that must be monitored. Ammonia and nitrite can
accumulate to a level that is toxic to fish and often limits
commercial production.
1) Nitrate is ultimately converted to nitrogen gas or
absorbed by plants.
2) The toxicity of ammonia is dependent on the pH.
2. Production systems
a. Caged Culture - contains the aquatic animals in a small
area of a pond.
1) Fish can be monitored for better growth rates and
feeding purposes.
2) Water quality must be monitored to insure that the
fish are not stressed since fish cannot move to other
sections of the pond during stressful weather
3) Roll over is a condition where a pond’s water
quality suddenly changes during certain weather
conditions bring less-oxygenated water to the surface
causing fish to die.
b. Recirculating Tanks – circulate water (including waste)
through a biological purifier and return it to the tank.
c. Hatcheries – supply fry or larvae to units for fingerling
3. Examples of fish adapted to aquaculture systems:
a. Trout are adapted to systems involving cold
(approximately 56 degrees F), running water.
b. Tilapia, catfish and striped bass are commonly raised
species in warmer water.
E. Animal Anatomy
1. Digestive system of the Ruminant
a. Cattle, sheep, goats, and deer are examples of ruminants
which means they have four stomach compartments.
b. Ruminants can tolerate more roughage in their diet due to
the compartment called the rumen.
2. Digestive System of a Monogastric animal
a. Swine, horses and many other animals are monogastric
meaning they have one stomach compartment.
b. Their digestive system is similar to that of a human.
c. They are unable to break down large amounts of
d. Rations must be high in concentrates (ie. grains).
3. Digestive system Poultry
a. Poultry have no true stomachs and can only store small
amounts of food in its digestive system.
b. Chickens have no teeth. Food is swallowed whole, stored
in the crop, and passed on to the gizzard where it is ground
c. Rations must be high in food value. Poultry are very
efficient at converting feed but not having a true stomach
have little room for storage of food.
F. Animal Nutrition
1. Water- Regulates body temperature, dissolves and transports
2. Protein – Builds muscle.
3. Carbohydrates
a. Provides energy for animals.
b. Makes up about 75 % of most animal rations.
c. Corn or other cereal grains are the major source of
4. Minerals
a. Calcium is one of the major minerals and is found in
ground limestone.
b. Calcium is needed in poultry feed for eggshell
c. Minerals are supplied by mineral supplements and are a
primary aid in the development of bones and teeth.
5. Vitamins – are needed by animals in minute quantities to help all
body functions. Vitamins also help prevent many livestock diseases.
6. Fats – only small amounts of fat are required in most animal diets.
I. Classes of Feeds
1. Concentrates are low in fiber and high in nutrients.
a. Cereal grains such as corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye and
milo are the major source of most concentrates.
b. Other sources include by-products of grain and animals.
2. Roughages are high in fiber
a. Dry roughage is hay. Examples include Bermuda, fescue,
and alfalfa.
b. Green roughage includes the pasture grasses. Examples
include Bermuda, fescue, Kentucky bluegrass.
c. Silage is a roughage that results from storage and
fermentation of green crops. Most common example is corn
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the animal industry
(large animal, poultry, equine, and
Remember tools and their safety
practices related to the animal industry.
Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual
A. Examples of tools for use in Animal Science (from the FFA tools list).
1. Castrator – tool for sterilizing small animals.
a. Elastrator
b. Scalpel
2. Dehorner – removing horns from cattle
a. Electric
b. Chemical paste
3. Ear tagger – Labels individual animal for identification.
4. Fence pliers – Building and repair of wire fences.
5. Fence staple – For nailing up fencing.
6. Implant gun – Injects growth hormones in animals.
B. Examples of tools for use in Animal Science (not from FFA tools list)
1. Candler – used in poultry industry to examine eggs.
2. Insemination rods and straws – used in artificial insemination to
insert semen into female.
3. Microscope – used to examine sperm for artificial insemination.
4. Liquid nitrogen tank – used to store semen.
5. Rectal thermometer – used to measure temperature of animals.
6. Syringe and needles – used to inject medicines and vaccines into
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the environmental
science industry (water, soils, wildlife
and forestry).
Remember careers in the environmental
science industry.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 140-237, (Agri-profile page
number listed beside each career if available), glossary
A. Major career areas of Environmental Science
1. Water resources – an essential nutrient for all plant and animal life.
2. Soil resources –the top layer of the Earth’s surface, which is suitable
for the growth of plant life.
3. Wildlife – animals that are adapted to live in a natural environment
without the help of humans.
4. Forestry – industry that grows, manages, and harvests trees for
lumber, posts, panels, paper and many other commodities.
B. Examples of Careers in Environmental Science
1. Soil conservationist – (p.150) – assists landowners in implementing
best land use practices.
2. Soil scientist (p. 189) – classify soil according to the most
appropriate use. Requires bachelor’s degree (4 yr).
3. Silviculturist (p. 208) – one who scientifically manages forests
(specializing in the care of trees).
4. Forestry consultant (p. 208) – advises private forest land owners.
5. Loggers (p. 208) – one who harvests trees.
6. Urban Forester (p. 208) – the one responsible for the health and
well-being of our cities trees.
7. Wildlife biologist (p 229) – does research on habitat and wildlife and
advises government agencies in establishing fish/game laws and
habitat improvement programs. Requires minimum of bachelor’s
degree (4 yr).
8. Wildlife manager (p.229) – often work in government agencies ,
advising land owners and managing game populations on public lands.
9. Wildlife officer/Game warden (p. 229) – works for the agency (North
Carolina Wildlife Commission) responsible for controlling the harvest of
10. Soil technician – uses soil auger/soil tube to take soil samples and
do technical field work.
12. Wildlife technician – works in the field tagging animals, gathering
data and assisting with research.
13. Ecologists – studies the effects of the environment on animal life.
14. Forester – provides assistance in managing forests for the private
landowner as well as the commercial grower.
15. Timber Cruiser – are hired by private landowners and companies
to estimate tree volume on a tract of land.
16. Logging foreman – is responsible for overseeing and managing
logging operations.
17. Skidder operators – move felled trees form the cutting site to the
loading area.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the environmental
science industry (water, soils, wildlife
and forestry).
Understand biotechnology in the
environmental science industry.
Note: Reminder that only examples of Environmental Science biotechnology will be
covered here and that basic biotech concepts were covered in Plant Science 3.02.
Introduction to Biotechnology An Agricultural Revolution, Herren, pp. 302-307 bioremed.html
A. Environmental Biotechnology
1. Biotechnology is playing a large part in detecting and monitoring
pollution and in determining how much is present. It is also involved in
solving other environmental problems.
2. Examples:
a. Indicator species - Lichens are widely used as
environmental indicators or bio-indicators. If air is very badly
polluted with sulfur dioxide, there may be no lichens present,
just green algae may be found.
b. Bioremediation – using bacteria to clean up oil and fuel
1) Oleophilic (attracted to oil) bacteria used to clean
up oil spills. Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 employed
this technique.
2) Hanahan, SC, a suburb of Charleston, had an
80,000 gallon jet fuel leak from a military fuel storage
facility. The fuel entered the ground and the
groundwater. Bacteria were successfully used to
remediate this problem.
c. Biostimulation - The Exxon Valdez clean-up effort used
the addition of nutrients to feed the oleophilic bacteria in this
d. Biodiesel – is made from oilseeds such as soybean and
canola oil and has been proven to decrease harmful
d. Phytoremediation - Oregon Poplar Site (illegal industrial
waste dumping site) and J-Field at Aberdeen Proving
Ground( disposal site of chemical warfare agents, munitions
and industrial chemicals) in Maryland each used hybrid
poplar trees to remove VOC’s (volatile organic compounds
from contaminated soil with success at each site.
e. Genetic engineering – bacterial strains are under
development to convert solid waste from humans and
livestock into sugar and fuel.
3. Limitations of using bio and phytoremediation
a. Time – often considered slower than chemical techniques.
b. Applicability – they do not apply to all situations.
c. Fear – those who live near treatment sites often would
rather have the contaminated soil removed than treated onsite. The fear is that the process will not uncontaminate the
soil, or the organisms used will have a detrimental effect on
the environment.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the environmental
science industry (water, soils, wildlife
and forestry).
Understand basic environmental
science principles and practices.
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 141-158, 163-177,221235,196-217
Handbook Of Land Judging in North Carolina, Department of Agriculture and Extension
Education, NC State University
Today’s Hunter, Kalkomey Enterprises,Inc. Dallas, TX
Backyard Conservation, Reprinted May 10, PA-1621
Important Forest Trees of the EasternUnited States, USDA –Forest Service
A. Water Resources
1. Potable Water- though most of the Earth’s surface is covered with
water, our bodies can survive only a few days if our supply of potable
(drinkable-free from harmful chemicals and organisms) water is cut-off.
Most of the Earth’s water is not fresh water.
2. Water is considered the universal solvent because as a material it
dissolves or otherwise changes most other materials.
3. Water Cycle (p. 146) – is the cycling of water between water
sources, atmosphere, and surface areas.
a. Precipitation – moisture from rain or snow.
b. Evaporation – changing from a liquid to a gas.
4. Watershed – a large land area in which water is absorbed from rain
or melting snow and from which water drains. It acts as a storage
system by absorbing excess water and releasing it slowly throughout
the year.
5. Water Table - the level below which soil is saturated or filled with
6. Types of Groundwater
a. Capillary – water that plant roots can absorb.
b. Free (gravitational) – water that drains out of a soil after it
has been wetted.
c. Hygroscopic – water that is held too tightly for plant roots
to absorb.
7. Conserving Water and Improving Water Quality
a. Ask the right questions
1) How can we reduce water pollution?
2) How can soil erosion be reduced?
3) What is the most productive use of water and soil
without polluting or losing these essential resources?
b. Some good practices:
1) Save clean water (ie. turn off water faucet while
brushing teeth).
2) Dispose of household products carefully and
appropriately. (ie. never pour paint down the drain as
it will eventually enter the water supply).
3) Care for lawns, gardens and farmland carefully.
(ie. only till soil that will not erode excessively and
don’t over fertilize).
B. Soil (worlds’ largest sponge)
1. Soil Profile
a. A Horizon- topsoil
1) Surface layer of soil approximately 6” deep.
2) Usually contains more organic matter than other
horizons and is typically darker colored because of it.
3) Generally the layer that has the greatest influence
on crop production (plant growth).
b. B Horizon – subsoil
1) Subsurface layer.
2) Most subsoil has an increase in clay content.
3) Generally has the greatest influence on urban uses
such as building sites, septic systems, etc.
c. C Horizon – parent material (bedrock).
1) Releases water to the upper soil layers.
2) Contains larger soil particles including gravel and
large rocks.
2. Soil texture and Structure
a. Texture refers to the size of soil particles
1) Sand – largest soil particle.
a) Sandy soils have problems holding enough
water for good plant growth, but they do drain
b) Individual particles can be seen with the naked
2) Silt – Intermediate size soil particle that can’t be
seen with naked eye.
3) Clay – smallest soil particle- clayey soils hold lots
of water but may be airtight, infertile for root growth,
and associated with wet soils.
b. Structure refers to the tendency of soil particles to cluster
together and function as soil units called aggregates that
leave pore space to store air, water, nutrients, and allow root
1) Single grain - associated with sandy soils.
2) Granular – particles cling together to form rounded
aggregates- very desirable for all soil uses.
3) Blocky – particles cling together in angular
aggregates –typical of soils with high clay content.
3. Soil Classification
a. Land capability maps are based on the physical, chemical,
and topographical aspects of the land.
b. Land Capability classes are designated by Roman
Numerals I – VIII.
1) Class I and II land is the best land for the most
intensive cultivation of field crops with the fewest
limitations and can be planted year after year.
2) Class VII land is very steeply sloping and best used
for planting trees.
3) Class VIII land is best suited for wildlife and
4. Soil Conservation
a. Two types of erosion
1) Sheet – removal of layers of soil from the land.
2) Gully – removal of soil that leaves trenches.
b. “No till” is a cropping technique used to reduce soil
1) Crops are planted directly into the residue of a
previous crop without plowing or disking.
2) An effective means of erosion control.
c. Conventional Tillage- uses tillage system that disturbs the
soil surface by plowing, disking and/or harrowing.
d. Conservation Tillage – intermediate tillage system
conventional and no-till.
C. Wildlife Management
1. Benefits of Wildlife to humans
a. Hunting/Fishing
b. Viewing
c. Photography
d. Environmental Indicator
2. Wildlife Environments
a. Farm – wildlife management on farms is usually a byproduct of the farming operation. Leaving crop residue
standing can increase food supply. Creating brush piles
when harvesting trees provides shelter and cover.
b. Forest – difficult to manage. Plans should be developed
so that timber and wildlife can exist in populations large
enough to be sustained and harvested.
c. Wetland – No area of U.S. land is more important to
wildlife than wetlands (land that is poorly drained- swamps,
bogs, marshes, etc.). Wetlands are the most productive
wildlife management area.
d. Stream – difficult to manage due to continuous flow of
e. Ponds/Lakes – easier to manage than streams due to
water standing and not flowing.
f. Backyards (urban wildlife) – birds, butterflies and small
mammals can be attracted through use of feeders, houses
and proper landscaping.
3. Importance of Carrying Capacity
a. The number of wildlife each habitat can support
throughout the year.
b. More wildlife than habitat can support will result in
problems for both the wildlife and the habitat.
1) Wildlife is affected by malnutrition, disease, and a
reduction in the reproduction cycle.
2) Habitat quality decreases. A pond with a carrying
capacity of 20 fish will decrease if 50 fish are competing for
the same food, habitat and oxygen.
4. Role of Hunting and Fishing with regards to Wildlife Management
a. Helps to maintain the proper carrying capacity.
b. Prevents overpopulation, which results in malnutrition,
disease, and reduction in reproduction, which will result in
decreased wildlife population.
5. Examples of Wildlife in North Carolina
a. Hunted Species – deer, ducks, bear, quail, doves, rabbits
b. Songbirds – Cardinal, robin, chickadee, Eastern bluebird
c. Birds of prey – Red- tailed hawk, Turkey and black vulture
d. Fish (freshwater) – largemouth and smallmouth bass,
bream, catfish, crappie
D. Forest Management
1. Forest Regions of North America include 8 major regions (map
p. 199), of which the
a. Northern coniferous forest is the largest region and
produces large amounts of pulpwood.
b. Pacific Coast Forest is the most productive of the forest
regions and has some of the largest trees in the world.
Douglas Fir is one of the most important commercially grown
c. Southern forests’ most important trees are conifers but
some hardwood trees have economic importance as well. It
has the most potential for meeting the future lumber and
pulpwood needs of the US.
1) Conifers – Virginia, loblolly, shortleaf, longleaf and
slash pines
2) Hardwoods – Oak, poplar, maple and walnut
2. Importance of Forests
a. Recreation – hunting, hiking
b. Wood products (p. 198) – lumber, pulpwood, etc.
c. Wildlife habitat – (see Wildlife 5.03)
d. Filter – water and air
3. Silviculture – scientific forest management techniques
a. Managing growing timber
1) Prescribed thinning is recommended to remove
some trees when competition slows the growth of all
2) Prescribed burning is used to reduce the risk of
wildfires by eliminating forest litter (fuel).
b. Harvesting Timber
1) Clear cutting is a system of harvesting trees where
all of the trees in an area are removed.
2) Selection cutting is the harvesting method
recommended for a forest of trees consisting of
different ages and species.
c. Replacing trees
1) Replanting seedlings is a surer method of replacing
2) Natural seeding is the least expensive method to
replace harvested trees.
4. Identification and Uses of Important Tree Species in NC
a. Conifers (softwoods) – needle-type evergreens
1) Frazier fir
a) Use- Most important commercially grown
Christmas Tree in NC (mountains)
b) ID – dark green ½-1” long singular needle
2) Loblolly pine
a) Use – pulpwood and plywood
b) ID – 3 needles/bundle, needles 6-9” long
3) Longleaf pine
a) Use – lumber, pulpwood and plywood
b) ID – 3 needles/bundle, 8-18” long needles
b. Hardwoods – deciduous trees
1) Ash
a) Use – baseball bats, handles
b) ID – opposite pinnately compound leaves
2) White oak
a) Use – flooring, furniture
b) ID – alternate, pinnately lobed leaves,
3) Red Maple
a) Use – lumber, veneer, cabinets
b) ID – opposite, palmately lobed,3-5 lobed
6. Measurement of Trees and Lumber
a. Pulpwood - DBH, merchantable height in feet, cords
b. Sawtimber – DBH, 16 foot logs, board feet
c. Lumber – 1 board foot = 144 cubic inches
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the environmental
science industry (water, soils, wildlife
and forestry).
Remember tools and their safety
practices related to the environmental
science industry.
Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual
A. Examples of tools used in Environmental Science (from FFA tool ID list)
1. Bush axe – Cutting bushes and under growth.
2. Chain saw file – Sharpening chain saw chain.
3. Half hatchet – Cutting and fitting firewood.
4. Increment borer – Checking growth rate of trees
5. Planting bar – Setting out tree seedlings.
6. Soil auger – Boring into soil to get samples.
7. Tree diameter tape – Measure circumference of trees.
B. Examples of tools used in Environmental Science (not from FFA tool ID list)
1. Secchi disc – measures turbidity of water.
2. Clinometer – used to measure the height of a tree.
3. Tree scale stick – used to measure tree diameter and height.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the agricultural
engineering industry.
Remember careers in agricultural
Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 67
Agricultural Mechanics, Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, pp. 18-20
A. Agricultural Engineering Industry
1. Agricultural mechanics is the design, operation, maintenance,
service, selling and use of power machinery, equipment, structures
and utilities in agriculture.
2. Many careers include the use of various specialized tools and the
development of important skills (ie. welding and Computer Aided
Design -CAD).
3. Attracts students interested in the operation, maintenance, service
and selling of agricultural equipment.
4. Education needed varies with the type of Agricultural mechanics
career chosen.
5. Working conditions can vary from outside to inside, shop to office or
a combination of conditions.
B. Examples of Careers in Agricultural Engineering
1. Agricultural Electrification, Power and Controls
a. Electrician
b. Safety technician
c. Electrical engineer
2. Agricultural Power Machinery
a. Farm or heavy equipment diesel mechanic
b. Parts person
c. Equipment salesperson
d. Small engine mechanic
e. Large machinery operator (ie. bulldozer)
3. Soil and Water Engineering
a. Soil Conservation technician
b. Irrigation Engineer
4. Agricultural Mechanics, Construction, and Maintenance Skills
a. Construction worker
b. Welder
c. Safety specialist
5. Agricultural Structures, Equipment, and Facilities
a. Construction supervisor
b. Farmstead planner
c. Greenhouse builder
d. CAD engineer
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the agricultural
engineering industry.
Understand basic agricultural
engineering principles and practices.
Note: Shop facilities vary greatly, if they even exist, within schools. Therefore, the
information presented is very basic, but it is expected that schools with good shop
facilities will delve more deeply into this subject than those without.
Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, Units 4, 5, 9, 10, 12,
13, 18
A. Shop Safety Awareness and Principles for Safety
1. Of all farm related accidents, nearly 50% involve working with
2. Safety involves developing an environment free from danger, risk or
3. The number one key to shop safety is the people who use the shop.
a. Those who work in a shop should always be trained in
safe and proper tool operations.
b. Those who work in a shop should always pass a safety
test prior to using the shop.
4. Keep the shop in an orderly manner to prevent tripping and related
5. Remove unnecessary hazards such as oily rags.
6. Minimize danger by making certain all machines have safety shields
in place prior to and during operation.
7. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing and devices. For
a. Safety glasses or goggles should always be worn to
prevent eye injury from dust and flying objects.
b. Leather steel-toed shoes offer protection from items
dropped or falling on the feet.
c. Ear protection (plugs or muffs) can prevent hearing loss
when the noise level exceeds 90 dB (decibels).
d. Other safety clothing may be required for certain work
such as welding.
B. Safety Color Coding in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop
1. Development of Safety Color Coding
a. National organizations worked together to develop the
b. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and the
Safety Committee of the American Vocational Association
published the code.
c. Color coding alerts people to dangers and hazards,
provides information to help on react quickly in an
d. Each color or combination of colors conveys a special
message based on a standard code.
2. Basic Safety Code Colors
a. RED
Identifies areas of danger. Red is used on
safety switches and fire extinguishers.
Red = Danger.
b. ORANGE Designates machine hazards, such as edges
and openings. It is also used as background for
electrical switches, levers and controls.
Orange = Warning.
c. YELLOW Identifies wheels, levers, and knobs that adjust
or control machines . Yellow = Caution.
Used on signs such as “Out of Order” to
identify broken shop equipment that does not
work or does not work properly.
Blue = Information.
e. GREEN Indicates the presence of first aid and safety
equipment. Green = Safety.
C. Fire Hazards in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop
1. The Fire Triangle – Components necessary for a fire.
a. Fuel – Any combustible material that will burn. Examples:
oily rags, sawdust, paper, etc.
b. Heat – Most materials burn if they are made hot enough.
c. Oxygen (O) – Gas in the atmosphere that is not a fuel, but
must be present for fuels to burn.
2. Fire Prevention
a. Take away one of the components of the fire triangle and
fire will not start or will stop if already started.
b. Safe storage of fuels or combustible materials is the
easiest fire prevention strategy.
c. Store fuels in approved containers.
d. Clean shop facilities also decrease the chance of fire and
3. Extinguishing Fires
a. Fire Extinguishers
1) Know the kind of fire extinguisher that is used for
different kinds of fires prior to the fire. For example:
Class A Fire Extinguishers use water to control
ordinary combustibles.
2) Know the placement of fire extinguishers so that
time is not taken looking for the extinguisher if a fire
occurs. Fire Extinguishers should be hung on walls
within easy reach in areas where fires would most
likely occur.
3) Know how to use the fire extinguisher.
Generally, extinguishers are held upright, the
ring pin is pulled, and a lever is pressed.
The nozzle of the extinguisher is directed
toward the base of the fire to discharge the
b. Other examples
1) Wrapping a person in a blanket whose clothes are
on fire to eliminate oxygen from getting to the fire.
2) Cooling with water from a hose or bucket a burning
container of paper.
D. Planning an Agricultural Engineering Project –using drawing instruments.
1. Simple Project Designs
a. The first item needed for the highest quality scaled
drawing is a sharp lead pencil.
b. A protractor is used for drawing and measuring angles.
c. A good eraser helps make corrections without distorting
the image.
d. A twelve-inch ruler will work for basic drawings.
e. A compass is used for drawing circles and arches.
2. More Detailed Plans
a. A drawing board is used for attaching the drawing paper.
b. Masking tape is used to secure the drawing paper to the
drawing board.
c. The T square is helpful for drawing horizontal lines.
d. The right triangle (30, 60, 90 degree triangle) in
conjunction with the T square, is used to draw vertical lines.
e. The scale is an instrument with all increments shortened
according to proportion.
1) Flat scale – looks similar to a ruler.
2) Triangular scale – three sided, but six scales.
3. Large Scale Projects
a. Use CAD (computer- aided design) for these projects.
b. CAD can significantly reduce design time for large scale
E. Basics of Drawing
1. A sketch is a rough drawing that is not to scale. A sketch does have
dimensions included. ( Many a project idea has first been sketched on
a napkin over lunch ).
2. A pictorial drawing shows all three dimensions at once. All three
views, front, side (end), and top are in view. (picture on p. 281)
3. A scale drawing is one that represents an object in exact proportion
although the object is larger or smaller than the drawing itself.
4. If the scale is ¼” =1’, ¼” on the drawing would equal 1’ on the actual
object. Therefore, a 2” line on the drawing would equal 8’ on the object
(2 divided by ¼ = 8).
5. The scale will vary depending on the size of the object being drawn.
F. Reading a Tape Rule
1. Tape rules display units of measure from both the U.S. customary
system and the metric system.
2. Rules are marked to show halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths
of an inch. Typically, vertical lines of different heights represent these
various intervals.
G. Basic Construction Project Tips
1. Wood Projects
a. The fastest way to fasten wood is by nailing. A nail
hammer or nail gun are the preferred tools for driving nails.
b. Screws hold better than nails and are driven quickly with
power screw drivers. The flathead screw is the one most
used in woodworking. The Phillips head is preferred.
c. Bolts are particularly useful for fastening wood at high
stress points ( ie. picnic table legs).
d. Gluing – a properly glued wood joint will be as strong as
the wood itself.
1) Gluing is often accompanied by nails, screws, etc.
2) Boards are held in place for gluing by clamps. Bar
clamps are one type of clamp used.
2. Metal Projects
a. Steel is the most commonly used metal in agricultural
mechanics. There is at least 4 kinds of steel.
b. Marking steel for cutting presents a special problem as
pencil marks generally do not show up well.
c. Soapstone is a soft, gray rock that is cut into thin pieces
resembling pencils. Soapstone shows up well on most
d. The hand tool most often used for cutting metal is the
hacksaw. Hacksaws are especially useful for cutting thin
e. Metal cutting band saws and power hacksaws may be
used for large projects.
AU10 Agriscience
Agriscience Industries
Understand the agricultural
engineering industry.
Remember tools and their safety
practices related to the agricultural
mechanics industry.
Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, Unit 4 and 7
Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual
A. Safety using Hand Tools
1. The thinking person will make every reasonable effort to work safely.
2. Hand tools are used by those who construct buildings, install
landscape structures, wire equipment and repair machinery.
3. Use the correct tool for the job.
4. Keep and use tools that are in good working condition.
5. Use tools skillfully.
6. Wear appropriate protective clothing and devices ( ie. safety
glasses, steel- toed shoes, ear protection) when working with tools.
B. Examples of Tools used in Agricultural Mechanics
1. Layout and measuring tools – used to measure or mark materials.
a. Chalk line reel – marking straight lines.
b. Tape rule – straight or curved measuring, most to the
c. Combination square – determining 45 and 90 degree
d. Try square – 90 degree squaring.
e. Level – leveling and plumbing.
2. Saws – used to cut materials
a. Hacksaw – sawing metal.
b. Portable circular saw – sawing wood in construction
c. Circular carbide saw blade – blade for use on portable
circular saw.
c. Coping saw – cutting curves and irregular cuts.
d. Portable jig saw – making irregular cuts.
3. Boring tools – used to make holes or change size or shape of holes.
a. Countersink – flaring top of hole for recessing head for
flathead screw or bolt.
b. Masonry bit – nailing in concrete, brick or block.
c. Potable electric drill – drilling holes with an external source
of electricity.
d. Straight shank drill bit – drilling metal.
e. Speed bore bit- wood-boring bit for electric drill.
4. Hammers and driving tools are used to move another tool or object.
a. Ball pein hammer – hammering metal.
b. Nail hammer – driving nails.
c. Nail set – countersinking nail heads.
d. Pin punch – driving out metal pins.
e. Sledgehammer – heavy hammering.
5. Pliers and holding tools are used to grip wood, metal, plastic and
other materials.
a. Long nose pliers – reaching into recessed areas.
b. Slip joint pliers – adjust for holding various size material.
c. Groove joint pliers – gripping when greater pressure is
d. C clamp – clamping two or more pieces of metal together.
e. Drill press vise – holding stock while drilling.
6. Wrenches are used to turn nuts, bolts, or screws
a. Adjustable wrench – turning various size nuts and bolts.
b. Combination wrench – turning hex and square nuts and
c. Pipe wrench – turning and holding metal pipe.
d. Regular socket – general- purpose socket for turning nuts
and bolts.
e. Open end wrench –turning square head nuts and bolts.