COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit A Introduction to Agriculture Understand leadership opportunities and SAE related to the agriscience industry. Understand the history, opportunities OBJECTIVE: 1.01 5% C2 and structure of organizations related to the agriscience industry. Note: It is recommended that each teacher produce guided notes and/or a visual presentation for this course. ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 1.00 20% C2 Activities for each objective are included at the end of the content section for that objective. These are selected activities and/or ideas for activities from teachers that sent their material in to be used for this curriculum project. Changes may need to be made to fit your particular classroom situation. References: FFA Student Handbook, 15th ed. (Indianapolis: National FFA Organization, 2011) pp. 326 Official FFA Manual, p. 63- 67 www.ncga.com www.nppc.org www.ncnla.com www.ncchristmastrees.com www.ncfb.org www.carolinafarmstewards.org www.ncgrange.com www.ffa.org/alumni/ A. History of the National FFA Organization 1. 1917 Smith-Hughes Act established funding for vocational agriculture in high school. 2. 1920’s – Virginia was the first state to have Futures Farmers clubs for boys. 3. 1928 – FFA became a national organization. A network of teachers guided the establishment of FFA as a team effort to establish a club for boys with similar farm interests. 4. 1935 – NFA was formed (New Farmers of America) for black students. 5. 1950 – FFA became one of a few student organizations to receive a Federal Charter from Congress (Public Law 740). 6. 1965 – FFA and NFA merged. 7. 1969 – Girls were allowed in FFA for the first time. 8. 1988 – Name change from Future Farmers of America to National FFA organization to reflect the growing diversity in the agriculture industry. 9. 2012 – National Convention completes 7 year run in Indianapolis and returns to Louisville, Kentucky in 2013 for 3 years. B. FFA Mission 1. Develop premiere leadership, personal growth and career success. 2. Promotes teamwork, cooperation, and citizenship. 3. Supervised agricultural experience is the component used to help students learn to keep records, perform practical job skills, and gain opportunity for work and exploratory experience in Agriscience. C. Opportunities within the FFA - Career Development Events (CDE’s) 1. Competitive Events - benefits a. Most events progress from the local (chapter) to the federation, regional, state and national level. b. Develops technical and leadership skills as well as confidence. c. Recognition is received and prize money is often received for 1st place state finish. 2. Competitive Events – examples a. Dairy Evaluation – grade and evaluate dairy cattle b. Poultry Evaluation – grade and evaluate chickens and chicken products. c. Livestock Judging – grade and evaluate beef cattle, sheep and swine d. Horse Judging – evaluate several classes of horses and present oral reasons e. Introduction to Horticulture – knowledge of horticulture and plant identification f. Nursery/Landscape – knowledge of the nursery and landscape industry and plant identification g. Floriculture – knowledge of floral arrangement , horticulture and plant identification h. Creed speaking – recitation of the FFA creed. i. Prepared Public Speaking – prepare and present a 6-8 minute speech on an agriculturally related topic of your choice j. Extemporaneous Public Speaking – present a 4-6 minute speech on a topic given to you with 30 minutes preparation time k. Parliamentary Procedure – present a mock business meeting l. Forestry – identification of trees and forestry tools as well as measurement of trees. m. Agricultural Tools and Materials – knowledge and identification of tools n. Agricultural mechanics – knowledge of agricultural mechanics as well as performance of specific mechanical skills o. Job Interview – performance of a mock interview for an agriculturally related job p. Agricultural Sales – knowledge of sales and marketing q. Farm Business Management – solve business problems and knowledge of business principles D. Agricultural Organizations related to the Agriscience Industry 1. Goals a. Allow professionals the opportunity to network, learn, and communicate. b. Provide trade shows and journals to update members on new methods, products, and technology. c. Uses membership dues to finance commodity advertisement, trade journals and educational programs and scholarships for members. 2. Types (example) a. Commodity related (association and portion of mission statement) 1) Corn Growers Association (NCGA) – to create and increase opportunities for corn growers. 2) North Carolina Pork Producers Council (NPPC) – to promote and educate to ensure a socially responsible and profitable NC pork industry. 3) North Carolina Nursery and Landscape Association (NCNLA) – to be a flexible, knowledgeable, responsive, environmentallyconscious organization providing the nursery and landscape industries with leadership, technological and business advancement opportunities and information services. 4) American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) – is the world’s largest breed registry and membership organization. 5) North Carolina Christmas Tree Association (NCCTA) – to promote “real” Christmas trees through marketing and education. b. Others 1) NC Farm Bureau – gives members a unified voice in agricultural issues, offers insurance related products, and provides scholarships and educational opportunities for youth. 2) Carolina Farm Stewardship Assoc. (CFSA) – is a farm driven, membership based, non-profit, that helps people in the Carolinas grow and eat local, organic foods…… 3) Grange – is a family–oriented organization committed to serving its members through a variety of programs and services and promotes agriculture as an essential industry for our economy. 4) FFA Alumni – open to any adult who wishes to support students in agricultural education. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit A ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 1.00 20% C2 OBJECTIVE: 1.02 8% C2 Introduction to Agriculture Understand leadership opportunities and SAE related to the agriscience industry. Understand effective leadership and communication skills. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper p.101-119 FFA Student Handbook, pp.48-55, 12-13 A. Leadership Development in FFA 1. Purpose a. Develops confidence, character and citizenship. b. Builds cooperative attitudes that help students work with others. c. Encourages the improvement of scholarship. 2. Ways and Means a. Develop an appreciation of FFA traditions 1) Colors- National Blue and Corn Gold 2) Program of Activities (POA) – a calendar of activities that provides fun opportunities for members, creates a better chapter and provides service to the local community. 3) Symbols and their meaning: a) Eagle – National Scope of FFA b) Plow – Labor and tillage of the soil c) Owl - Knowledge and wisdom d) Rising Sun – Progressive nature of agriculture and the need for cooperative effort to reach common goals. e) Cross section of ear of corn – Unity, FFA is a national organization with members from across the U.S. and Puerto Rico f) Lettering “Agricultural Education” and “FFA” – signifies the combination of learning and leadership b. FFA Motto: “Learning to Do Doing to Learn Earning to Live Living to Serve” c. Serving in leadership roles as an FFA Officer 1) President (rising sun) –presides over meetings 2) Vice president (plow) – coordinates all committee work 3) Secretary (ear of corn) – keeps records of all meetings 4) Treasurer (bust of Washington) - keeps financial records 5) Reporter (flag) – promotes FFA through public relations 6) Sentinel ( hand clasp) – welcomes guests and visitors d. Other opportunities to develop leadership in FFA 1) Leaderships schools, camps and conferences (WLC) 2) Committee involvement (Community service committee) 3) State and National Conventions 4) Competitive events B. Steps for conducting Business Meetings (Agenda) 1. Call to order by the President. An opening ceremony in FFA meetings is also part of the meeting, conducted by the officers. 2. Minutes of the previous meeting read by the Secretary and approved by the body in accordance to organizational by-laws and parliamentary procedure to remind members of what occurred at the last meeting. 3. Treasurer reports on the financial standing of the club. 4. Report on Chapter Program of Activities (POA) is presented by officers and committee chairperson. 5. Old Business- also called unfinished business (from last meeting). 6. New Business – presented by members in the form of motions. 7. Adjournment and closing ceremony – Adjournment occurs by either passing a motion to adjourn or by consensus of the body. C. Purpose for an agenda 1. The agenda keeps the meeting moving forward. 2. The agenda forms the framework for the development of a good meeting. D. General Principles of Parliamentary Procedure 1. The use of parliamentary procedure extends courtesy to everyone. a. Members must be recognized to speak (except in cases of emergency or to enforce parliamentary law) b. Members ask the president for recognition to speak by standing and saying ” Madame/Mr. President” if the president is presiding. 2. The use of parliamentary procedure focuses on one thing at a time. a. There may be only one motion on the floor at a time. b. The main motion is presented by saying “I move to/that”. 3. The use of parliamentary procedure observes the rule of the majority. a. Only main motions that have been seconded can be discussed and take the time of the group. b. Most motions require a simple majority to pass (ie.16 out of 30). c. The chapter takes action only after the passing of a motion. 4. The use of parliamentary procedure ensures the rights of the minority. a. Everyone has the right to voice their opinion during discussion of a motion regardless of which side they may be on. b. Therefore, a motion to stop discussion requires a 2/3 vote to pass (ie. 20 out of 30 would have to vote to end discussion). E. Basic Parliamentary Abilities Motion Second Required Debatable Amendable Vote Required Purpose Main Yes Yes Yes Majority To introduce new business Amendment Yes Yes Yes Majority To alter or change a motion by adding, striking out, or or substituting. Refer to a committee Yes Yes Yes Majority To put motion into the hands of a small group Previous Yes No No 2/3 To stop debate Question ______________________________________________________________________ Suspend the Rules Yes No No 2/3* Allow the chapter to act in a way that would be against the rules of parliamentary law. Point of order No No No None Enforce the rules of parliamentary law. Adjourn Yes No No Majority To end the meeting. *Vote depends on type of rule being suspended. F. Main motion – Purpose is to present a new idea or item of business (only one main motion can be on floor or before group at the same time). The steps in presenting and handling a motion are: 1. Address the presiding officer. 2. Receive recognition to speak. 3. State the motion – “I move to” or “I move that”….. 4. Another members seconds the motion (shows that more than one person wants the item of business before the group). 5. Motion is discussed by the group. 6. Vote on motion 7. Chair announces result of vote. G. Voting – four common methods. 1. Voice vote, by saying “aye” or “no” 2. Rising vote, either by standing or by a show of hands. 3. Secret ballot, a written vote. 4. Roll call, with each member speaking their vote when the secretary calls their name. H. Gavel – taps are used to signal members of action they should take or to signal the completion of a parliamentary action. 1. One tap follows announcement of adjournment and signals the end of the meeting or follows the completion of a business item to signal the item has been handled, but is also a message to members to be seated. 2. Two taps are used to signal the official start of the meeting and calls the meeting to order. 3. Three taps are used to signal all members to stand during the meeting and members are to rise in unison at the third tap of the gavel. F. Public Speaking 1. Oral communication skills are one of the most important factors in determining career success. 2. The FFA Creed speech (recitation) gives students the opportunity to develop basic public speaking skills and to develop confidence without having to develop their own speech. 3. Oral communication can be improved through practice (and more practice) and once confidence is gained, agriscience students can move on to more challenging speeches ( prepared and extemporaneous). 4. Practice improves the speaker’s stage presence. Stage presence is the speaker’s attitude, confidence, personality, and ease before the audience. The speaker displays his/her stage presence by personal appearance, poise, and posture while giving the speech. G. The FFA Creed 1. History a. Written by E.M. Tiffany. b. Adopted at the 3rd National FFA Convention in 1930. c. Revised in 1965 and 1990. d. Each of the 5 paragraphs begins with “I believe……” 2. Use a. Basic statement of beliefs that helps members understand the importance of FFA. b. Expresses belief in work ethic, fairness, patriotism, and tradition that all members can share. c. New members are required to learn and recite the FFA Creed prior to being awarded the first degree of FFA membership – the “Greenhand Degree” COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit A ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 1.00 20% C2 OBJECTIVE: 1.03 7% C2 Introduction to Agriculture Understand leadership opportunities and SAE related to the agriscience industry. Understand the importance of SAE to work-based learning. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, (Unit 5) pp. 77-99 A. SAE – What is it? 1. An individualized SAE (supervised agricultural experience) is conducted outside of the regularly scheduled school day. 2. SAE makes up the third part in a total agricultural education program. a. Classroom /laboratory instruction makes up one part. b. FFA also makes up one part of an agricultural education program. c. SAE makes up the third part. 3. SAE is for every student. B. Purpose of SAE 1. Provides opportunities to explore a variety of subjects about agriscience. 2. Provides educational and practical experience in a specialized area of agriscience. 3. Provides opportunities for earning while learning. 4. Teaches students to keep accurate computerized or written records. 5. Win FFA awards (FFA proficiency awards are based on SAE). C. Types of SAE 1. Exploratory SAE a. Short duration usually, fits beginning students well. b. Can help students become literate in agriculture. c. Develop awareness of agricultural careers. d. Examples: Observing and/or assisting a veterinarian, interviewing a landscape contractor, shadowing a greenhouse employee, observing/assisting a welder, attending a career day/fair. 2. Entrepreneurship SAE a. Ownership or part-ownership and assume financial risk. b. Develop skills necessary to become established in one’s own business. c. Types of Entrepreneurship – 1) Production SAE - Raise and sell an agricultural commodity for profit. Examples: produce vegetables, grow Christmas trees, raise livestock, dogs, or horses, grow field or nursery crops. 2) Agribusiness SAE – Students own and operate an agricultural related business. Examples: lawn maintenance or landscaping business, crop scouting service, pet sitting service, feed sales, computer service for farms, horse riding lessons business. 3. Placement SAE a. Students obtain a job with an employer (often with the help of their instructor). b. Typically paid an hourly wage. c. Examples: Placement in Production – on a farm, greenhouse, nursery or other production facility. Placement in Agribusiness – at a veterinary clinic, florist, feed store, landscaping business. 4. Improvement SAE a. Activities are done to improve the appearance, convenience, efficiency, safety or value of a home, farm or other facility. b. No wages earned. c. No ownership necessary. d. Benefit by learning skills. e. Examples: landscape parent or grandparent’s home, building a fence, building a storage shed, growing herbs or vegetables in containers on a porch or patio, assist with landscape maintenance at an apartment complex. 5. Analytical SAE a. Students choose an agricultural problem not easily tested by experimentation. b. Gather and evaluate data. c. Examples: Develop marketing plan for poinsettia crop, research and present project on effects of temperature change on corn yields in South America. 6. Experimental SAE a. Students conduct and an agriculturally related experiment using the scientific method. b. Examples: Compare the effects of various rates of nitrogen on poinsettias. Compare the effects of various feeds on average daily gain in lambs. c. This SAE can be used to compete in the State Agriscience Fair. 7. Supplementary SAE a. Activities are short-term activities with little or no planning involved. b. Skill specific, non- wage earning. c. Examples: Learning to prune peach or apple trees, changing hydraulic fluid in a tractor, mowing a baseball infield or putting green, trimming sheep feet, bottle feeding dairy calves. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit A Introduction to Agriculture ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 2.00 8% C2 Understand global agriculture. OBJECTIVE: 2.01 5% C2 Understand the history of global agriculture. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, 4th ed., Cooper, pp. 6-8,33-36, 296-7 643647 http://www.agclassroom.org/gan/timeline/farm_tech.htm www.blackinventors.com www.enchantedlearning.com www.delmarlearning.com/companions/content/140188105x/trends/history_pre_agr.asp http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu./in653 www.briggsandstratton.com http://deathstar.rutgers.edu/projects/gps/web_page/web_page.html www.youtube.com Lely Astronaut A3 Milking Robot www.wcds.ca/proc./2003/Manuscripts/Chapter%2029%20Geleyne.pdf www.higher-ed.org/resources/land_grant_colleges.htm www.usda.gov www.nrcs.usda.gov www.aphis.usda.gov www.nass.usda.gov www.fs.fed.us www.ces.ncsu.edu www.ncagr.gov www.localhistories.org www.nass.usda.gov www.ca.uky.edu www.smallgrains.org http://www.nal.usda.gov/history-art-and-biography/history-agriculture A. Agriscience defined: 1. Agriscience is the application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture. 2. Also considered an applied science because it applies knowledge of biology, chemistry and physics in practical ways. a. Agronomists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to control weeds. b. Entomologists use biology and chemistry to develop new ways to control insects. c. Agricultural engineers use physics to develop new, more efficient machinery. 3. Agriscience employs the scientific method to solve problems in agriculture. (scientific method is covered in Objective 3.02) B. Agriculture defined: 1. Agriculture is concerned with the production, processing, marketing and distribution of all agricultural products, related supplies and services. 2. Examples: a. Cattle – production- farmer, cow-calf, feeder steers, processingslaughter facility, rendering, beef, leather, marketing- butcher, grocery, steaks, transportation – plane, rail, truck, related supplies and services- veterinarian, feed dealer, b. Wheat – production -farmer, grain, processing- grain mills, flour, marketing - bakery, bread, transportation - grain trucks, rail, related supplies and services – fertilizer dealer, crop scouting, machinery dealer, GPS c. Roses – production - flower grower, roses, processing/marketing – harvesters, wholesale and retail florist, transportation – plane, truck, floral delivery driver, related supplies and services – glass vase sales, greenhouse manufacturers, floral designers C. Agribusiness defined: 1. Agribusiness refers to commercial firms (businesses) that have developed with or stemmed out of agriculture. 2. Examples of Agribusiness: a. Farm related: Chemical Company, Tractor Manufacturer, Pharmaceutical Company (veterinary medicines) b. Horticulture related: Landscape or nursery business, Seed company, Mower Manufacturer D. Renewable natural resources defined: 1. Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselves. 2. Examples of natural resources a. Wildlife – deer, songbirds, birds of prey, fish, rabbits b. Forests – trees, grasses, E. Progress in U.S. Agriculture 1. Mechanization helps 2% of America’s work force produce the food and fiber to meet the needs of our nation. 2. There has been a reduction from 90% of nations populace involved in farming 200 years ago to less than 2% in 2012. 3. Major inventions/improvements and inventors/researchers a. Jethro Tull is credited with inventing the first horse drawn seed drill in England in 1701. b. Cotton gin (1793) - Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to transform cotton to a usable product by removing the cottonseed from the cotton fiber. c. Iron plow (late 1700’s and early 1800’s) Thomas Jefferson and his son-in-law Thomas Mann Randolph worked together to develop many of the early iron and mould board plows; however, it was Charles Newbold in 1797 who patented the first cast iron plow and Jethro Wood who patented the iron plow with interchangeable parts in 1819. d. Grain reaper (1834) Cyrus McCormick invented the reaper to save labor in cutting, wheat, oats, and similar crops. e. Henry Blair became the second black inventor in history to receive a patent. He received a patent for his seed planter (1834) and cotton planter (1836). f. Steel moldboard plow (1837) – John Deere improved the iron plow by inventing the steel moldboard plow. g. Corn picker (1850) Edmund Quincy – h. Barbed wire (1874) Joseph Glidden – dramatically changed raising livestock. Barbed wire tattoos came much later. i. Milking machine (1878) Anna Baldwin changed the dairy industry by inventing a machine to replace hand milking. j. Perishable food preservation (1879) Thomas Elkins designed a device that helped with the task of preserving perishable foods by way of refrigeration. k. Soil improvement and crop rotation (late 1890’s) - George Washington Carver brought the science of crop rotations to use in the United States and discovered over 300 uses for peanuts. He also implemented the use of legumes (plants that “make” their own nitrogen, ie. peanuts) to significantly improve soil fertility in the U.S. south. l. m. n. o. p. Tractor (1904) Ben Holt invented the “track-type” tractor and commercialized its use as “Caterpillar”. It was John Froelich in 1892 who many believe had the first successful gasoline powered tractor. Many inventors worked to develop the modern tractor which came to replace the mule as the sources of power (horse power). 1954 was the year that the number of tractors on farms exceeds the number horses and mules for the first time Gene gun (1987) John Sanford developed a device for injecting cells with genetic information. GPS technology (1993) – tractor based GPS systems together with sophisticated GIS (Geographic Information Systems) uses a wide variety of techniques to gather data such as soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variables , which the system then uses to control such things as intensity of planting, application of fertilizer and pesticides, watering schedules, etc. Robotic milking Machines (late 1990’s) – First used in Ontario, Canada. Many benefits one of which is reduction in labor. Initial cost is primary disadvantage especially to small producer. F. Establishment of Land Grant Institutions 1. Definition: An institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics and the mechanical arts. A key component is the agricultural experiment station (Hatch Act 1887). 2. Examples: a. North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NC b. North Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh, NC c. Clemson University (1889) Clemson, SC d. University of Georgia (1785) Athens, GA e. University of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TN f. Virginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA G. Agriculture related Government Agencies 1. Established to assist farmers, ranchers and the general public with information, professional assistance and, in some cases, funding. 2. Examples of some of the agencies we now have: a. USDA (1862) – United States Department of Agriculture provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. Examples of branches/agencies of USDA: 1) NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation Service 2) APHIS (1972) – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 3) NASS (1863) – National Agricultural Statistics Service 4. USFS (1905) –United States Forest Service mission is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations. b. NCCES (1914) North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service to help, individuals, families, and communities put research – based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life. c. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) – To provide services that promote and improve agriculture….. H. Origins of Major Food Crops 1. Fruits and Vegetables a. Peaches - China b. Tomato – South America c. Peanut – Peru, South America d. Sweet potato – Central America 2. Grain, Oil and Fiber Crops a. Corn – Cuba, Mexico b. Soybeans – Southeast Asia c. Cotton – Mexico, Africa, Pakistan d. Wheat – Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India) Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but generally agree on region of the world. I. Major US Agricultural Production Regions for Selected Crops and Livestock 1. Regions develop based on a variety of factors including soils, weather, market development, feed availability, etc. 2. Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production. a. Citrus fruit – Florida, Texas and California b. Corn belt – Includes all or parts of these Midwestern states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, c. Wheat – a. Hard Red Spring Wheat – (highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics) Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, (also Oregon, Washington, California) b. Soft Red Winter Wheat – (high yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries) Several southeastern states including North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well as Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and others. d. Spearmint – Washington, Oregon, Idaho e. Floriculture crops- California, Florida, Michigan, Texas, North Carolina f. Beef cattle – Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri, South Dakota (corn belt area) g. Dairy – Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, (California, Idaho and Texas are leading producers but are not located in this region). h. Hogs – North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota (Corn belt area) i. Poultry (broilers) – Several southern and southeastern states including North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas Note: These lists represent the primary states involved, but is in no way intended to be an all-inclusive list of states that produce these commodities. J. North Carolina Agriculture 1. NC is divided into three basic geographic and agricultural regions; mountains, piedmont and coastal plains. (Although counties from another region may currently rank higher in production of a particular commodity, the commodities listed below represent what the region is traditionally known for producing.) a. Mountain counties 1) Christmas trees 2) Apples 3) Trout b. Piedmont counties 1) Greenhouse and Nursery crops 2) Broilers 3) Turkeys 4) Dairy c. Eastern counties 1) Hogs 2) Turkeys 3) Broilers 4) Tobacco- flue-cured 5) Sweet potatoes 6) Vegetables 7) Peanuts 8) Cotton 9) Corn 10) Soybeans (world’s most important source of vegetable oil). 2. Farm Cash Receipts (all numbers are from 2011 statistics) a. Statewide exceeds $10,000,000,000 ($10B) annually b. Livestock, Dairy and Poultry generate approximately 2/3 of all farm cash receipts. Broilers and hogs account for nearly half of this amount. c. Crops generate approximately 1/3 of all farm cash receipts with greenhouse, nursery, floriculture and Christmas trees currently being the leaders in this category. Note: Rankings, dollars and percentages will continue to change, however these are the current numbers and they do represent current trends in North Carolina agriculture. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit A Introduction to Agriculture ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 2.00 8% C2 Understand global agriculture. OBJECTIVE: 2.02 3% C2 Compare the current and future issues in global agriculture. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 5-41, 61-74, 140-152 www.pulitzercenter.org www.medterms.com www.usda.org www.sustainableagriculture.net www.sarep.ucdavis.edu www.ers.usda.gov www.gracelinks.org www.usda.gov/ORGANIC_FARMING.PDF www.ornl.gov/sci/resources/Human_Genome/els/gmfood www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ err-economic-research-report/err97 www.slowfoodusa.org www.gracelinks.org/254/local-regional-food-systems www.unwater.org http://pubs.usgs.gov/cir/2005/circ1261 www.news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/06/110609 www.nbcnews.com/id/21494919 www.governing.com/topics/energy-env/Southeastern-Water-Wars.html www.nccommunitycolleges.edu http://harvest.cals.ncsu.edu/aginstitute www.ncat.edu www.ncsu.edu A. Global outlook 1. The world population will continue to grow with expectations of 9 billion humans on the planet by 2050. a. More children survive to adulthood worldwide. b. More adults are living longer worldwide. 2. Population growth will: a. Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil and natural resources. b. Create challenges to meet demands for food and fiber. c. Examples of agriscience research to meet these demands. 1) Genetically engineered crops – ie. a bioengineered tomato that resists rotting. 2) New fuel sources – ie. biodiesel from animal fat 3) Human nutrition – ie. decreasing the amount of animal fat in the diet and raising the proportion of fat from vegetable sources. 4) Satellite technology (gps) – ie. to determine various nutrient levels/deficiencies in plants. B. Trends and Issues in Global Agriculture 1. Agriculture will always be an essential industry. a. Food is essential to life (an iPad is not). b. Clothing and shelter are basic needs of humans; (smartphones are not). 2. Examples of current/future agriculture related issues (these will continue to change as our world changes). a. Food insecurity – An issue of global importance. Defined as not knowing where a human will find their next meal. Or, the situation where people need to live with hunger and fear starvation. Food insecurity results from several factors including climate issues, urban development, corrupt governments, population growth and oil price shifts. b. Sustainability – Rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. c. Organic Food Production – Organic crops are raised without using most conventional pesticides, petroleum-based fertilizers, or sewage sludge-based fertilizers. Organically raised animals must be fed organic feed and be given access to the outdoors. Antibiotics and growth hormones may not be used in organic production. Organic sales account for more than 3% of all U.S. food sales. d. GMO’s (genetically modified organisms) – Combing genes from different organisms results in an organism being called genetically modified or transgenic. Controversies surrounding this practice include safety, ethics, labeling and others. European countries will not purchase GMO foods from the US resulting in fewer exports to these countries. e. Local Food Movement – No universally accepted definition but can be defined in terms of geographic proximity of producer to consumer. Is a very popular concept in the U.S. in regards to food safety, food freshness, and reduction of environmental impact due to shorter shipping distances. f. CSA’s (Community Supported Agriculture) – are direct-toconsumer programs in which consumers buy shares of a local farms projected harvest. Consumers often pay for their share of the harvest up front which distributes risk between the farmer and the consumers. Participants often pick up their share regularly in a communal local or the shares are delivered directly to the consumer. USDA estimates as many as 2500 CSA’s are operating nationally. g. Water (quantity and quality) – in the US water shortages are a major issue in the western portion of the nation where expanding cities needs such as Denver, are competing with farmers needs for the same diminishing water resources. In New York the aquifer that underlies Long Island represents the only drinking water for the 3 million plus residents that use it. In the Southeastern US, including North Carolina, Water Wars have become common place. In Third World countries a safe water supply is a luxury. In most areas of the world, supplies of safe water have become generally insufficient because of misuse, poor management, waste, pollution and climate change. C. Avenues of study in agriculture (2 and 4 year degree programs at NC land grant universities and community colleges). 1. Examples of 2 year agriculturally related degree programs in NC. (A list of all schools and the degrees they offer can be found at the community colleges website or the NCSU Agriculture Institute website.) a. Aquaculture Technology b. Equine Business and Training c. Fish and Wildlife Management Technology d. Forest Management Technology e. Golf Course Management f. Greenhouse and Grounds Maintenance g. Horticulture Technology h. Landscape Gardening i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. Marine Sciences Poultry Management Sustainable Agriculture Swine Management Turfgrass Management Viticulture Technology Agricultural Biotechnology Environmental Science Biotechnology Agribusiness Management Field Crops Technology General Agriculture Livestock and Poultry Management 2. Examples of 4 year agriculturally related degree programs in NC. a. Agricultural Economics b. Agricultural Education c. Animal Science d. Biological Engineering e. Landscape Architecture f. Agricultural and Environmental Technology g. Food Science h. Plant and Soil Science i. Poultry Science j. Genetics k. Horticultural Science Note: Several majors have areas of concentration within them. AU10 Agriscience Applications COURSE: ESSENTIAL STANDARD: OBJECTIVE: Unit B Agriscience Industries 3.00 18% C2 Understand the plant industry. 3.01 3% C1 Remember careers in the plant industry. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 61-65, 298-515 (Agri-Profile page numbers listed beside each career). A. Major Plant Science Industries 1. Ornamental Horticulture a. Defined: the science and art of producing, processing, marketing and distributing plants grown for their appearance or beauty. b. Examples: Flowers, shrubs, trees, grasses, interior plants, etc. 2. Fruit and Vegetable Production a. Defined: the science and art of producing, processing, marketing and distributing fruits and vegetables. b. Examples: blueberries, apples, peaches, strawberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet corn, squash, sweet potatoes, etc. 3. Agronomy a. Defined: is the science of soil management and crops. b. Examples: Wheat, barley, corn, soybeans, cotton, etc. B. Careers 1. Examples of Ornamental Horticulture Careers a. Florist (p. 463) – designs and arranges cut flowers. b. Groundskeeper (p. 479) – maintains lawn and landscape areas. c. Landscape Architect (p. 503) – a professional trained in the art and science of arranging land and objects upon it. d. Golf Course Superintendent – manages the golf course grounds. e. Nursery Operator- manages a business that grows and sells trees, shrubs and other ornamental plants. f. Greenhouse Manager – manages a business that grows and sells greenhouse plants. g. Gardener (p. 368) – a person who grows and maintains plants for estates, institutions, etc. h. Landscape Contractor (p. 503) – a person licensed to install landscapes based on passing certification exams. 2. Examples of Fruit and Vegetable Careers a. Vegetable Grower (p. 383)(traditional, hydroponic or organic) – grows and sells vegetables for the fresh, wholesale and retail markets. b. Produce Manager (p. 383) – manages retail produce departments of grocery stores. c. Winery Supervisor – manages the production of wines. 3. Examples of Agronomy Careers a. Agronomist (p. 426) – a specialist in soil and crop sciences. b. Forage Manager (p. 444) – grow, manage and sell hay crops for various animal producers. c. Federal grain Inspector – Federal employee that inspects harvested grain crops. 4. Examples of General Plant Science Careers- can work in any or all of these areas. a. Plant Physiologist (p. 322) – a person who studies plant processes and functions. b. Plant Breeder (p. 339) – a person who develops new plants through, selection, hybridization, etc c. Plant Propagator (p. 339) – a person who reproduces plants d. Entomologist (p. 373) – a person who studies insects COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B Agriscience Industries ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 3.00 18% C2 Understand the plant industry. OBJECTIVE: 3.02 5% C2 Understand biotechnology in the plant industry. Note: Biotechnology and the scientific method will be covered only here in the plant science unit although examples of biotechnology in animal science, environmental science and agricultural engineering will be covered in their respective units. The information covered in this objective should be applied to all other “Agriscience Industries” biotechnology objectives (4.02, 5.02) References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications,Cooper, pp. 45-56, 14-15 Introduction to Biotechnology an Agricultural Revolution, Herren, Chapters 1,2, 6,7,8,9,10,13,14,15 www.learn.genetics.utah.edu www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/harrypottersworld/pdf/prelesson www.hhmi.org/genetictrail/popups/key www.isaaa.org A. Biotechnology Basics 1. Defined: Biotechnology is the use of living organisms (microorganisms) to make new products or carry out new processes (solve problems). a. New product – Yogurt b. New Process – Tissue culture, propagation method that rapidly multiplies plants, 2. Historic Applications of Biotechnology a. Use of yeast to make bread rise. b. Use of bacteria to produce various kinds of cheeses and other dairy products. c. Use of microorganisms to transform fruit or grains into alcoholic beverages. d. Use of bacteria to “produce” silage e. E.coli bacteria used to produce insulin. It became one of the first commercial products created by genetic engineering. B. Basic Genetics 1. Genetics is the science of heredity. a. Austrian monk, Gregor Johann Mendel discovered the effect of genetics on plant characteristics with his experimentation with garden peas. b. Heredity is the transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells. c. Genes determine the individual characteristics of living things (plant height at maturity, flower color, ears of corn per stalk). They are segments of double stranded DNA. d. Generation is the offspring, or progeny, of common parents. 2. DNA –Genetic Code of Life a. A chromosome is a structure that holds the genetic information of a cell. DNA is wound tightly to form the chromosome. b. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the coded material in all cell nuclei that determines what that cell and its successive cells will become. Its’ structure is that of a twisted ladder (double helix). c. A gene is a small section of DNA. There are thousands of genes on a strand of DNA. d. Gene mapping – the process of both finding and recording the locations of genes. e. Bases are like rungs of a ladder that hold the two sides of the DNA strands together. The bases are: 1) Adenine (A) - only pairs with “T” 2) Thymine (T) – only pairs with “A” 3) Guanine (G) – only pairs with “C” 4) Cytosine (C) – only pairs with “G” 5) Example: A–T G–C T-A f. The sequence of the bases between the DNA strands is the code by which a gene controls a specific trait (baldness in humans, tendency of female goats to have twin offspring). C. Processes and Practices in biotechnology 1. Genetic engineering developed in the early 1980’s is the process of moving genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another. Termed: a. Gene splicing or Recombinant DNA technology- the process of removing and inserting genes from one organism and inserting them into the DNA of another. b. Some examples are: 1) Alter a plant’s susceptibility to disease. 2) Make a plant resistant to insects. 3) Process in animals is newer and not as well developed techniques exist yet. 2. Cloning (micropropagation in plants) – creating an exact genetic duplicate of another organism. 3. Indicator species – one of the oldest methods of biological detection. This method uses plants, animals and microbes to warn us about pollutants in the environment. 4. Bioremediation – A set of techniques that use living organisms to clean up toxic wastes in water and soil. 5. Biostimulation - Adding nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to stimulate the growth of naturally occurring beneficial microbes for faster more efficient work. 6. Phytoremediation - The process of plants absorbing or immobilizing pollutants. First tested actively at sites in the 1990’s. 7. Animal Reproduction and Production – the processes used in improving the efficiency of reproduction and production involve the use of biotechnology. These are considered the more conventional uses of biotechnology. 8. Biofuels – Fuels composed of or produced from biological raw materials. D. Importance of Recombinant DNA Technology a. Improve plants’ and animals’ performance through the manipulation of genes. b. Alter characteristics or performance of microorganisms. c. Great potential for controlling disease, insects, weeds, and other pests is through genetic engineering. d. Less use of chemical pesticides is a result. e. Potential for helping clean the environment. E. Concerns with the use of Biotechnology in Agriculture 1. Safety a. State and federal government monitor the development of newly developed biotech crops. b. Consumer resistance to new biotech food products remains high due to safety of the environment and human health concerns. c. Biotechnology is a rapidly changing field, which when not fully understood, for some people can create a fear of the unknown. d. Labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMO) foods – many people feel if a product is safe it should be labeled. e. Concern has been expressed over the effect GMO’s may have on biodiversity. 2. Ethics a. Ethics is a system of moral principles that defines what is right and wrong in a society. b. The ability to manipulate genetics of living organisms raises important ethical questions about how biotechnology should be used. F. Scientific Method used in Biotechnology/Agriscience 1. Steps of scientific method used to solve problems a. Identify the problem. b. Review literature. c. Form a hypothesis. d. Prepare a project proposal. e. Design the experiment. f. Collect the data. g. Draw conclusions. h. Prepare a written report. 2. Can be employed in doing an SAE project and/or participating in the FFA Agriscience fair. G. Biotechnology in the plant science industry 1. Herbicide and insect resistant crops are a product of genetic engineering. Examples: a. Herbicide – tolerant soybean (RoundUp Ready Soybeans) contains a gene that provides resistance to one or two broad spectrum herbicides. There are several Roundup Ready crops available or being developed such as: Canola, Corn, Cotton, Alfalfa, Lettuce, Potatoes, Sugar Beets, and Tomatoes. b. Insect- resistant corn (Bt corn) – contains a built-in insecticidal protein from a naturally occurring soil microorganism (Bt – Bacillus thuringiensis) that gives season- long control of corn borers. 2. Crops with better nutrition and longer shelf life are products of genetic engineering. c. High Oleic Peanut – genetically modified to produce nuts in high oleic acid that results in longer life for nuts, candy and peanut butter. d. High Oleic Sunflower – modified to produce sunflower oil that is low in trans-fatty acids. e. Delayed- ripening tomato – the longer shelf life has commercial advantages in harvesting and shipping. 3. Tissue culture (micropropagation) – is the use of a very small actively growing part of the plant to produce a large number of new plants ( ie. African violets). 4. Numerous other crops have been genetically engineered to tolerate herbicides and resist insects and viruses such as, alfalfa, canola, cotton, potatoes, rice and many others. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B Agriscience Industries ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 3.00 18% C2 Understand the plant industry. OBJECTIVE: 3.03 8% C2 Understand basic horticultural (ornamental, fruit and vegetable) and agronomic principles and practices. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 161-192 A. Type of Plant Growing Media 1. Soil is the top layer of the Earth’s surface and is the primary medium of cultivated plants. a. Topsoil b. Subsoil c. Parent material 2. Sphagnum moss is used for encouraging root growth under certain conditions. 3. Peat moss consists of partial decomposed mosses in waterlogged areas called bogs. 4. Perlite is a volcanic glass material that has water-holding capabilities and used for starting new plants and in media mixes. 5. Vermiculite is a mineral- type mica used for starting plant seeds and cuttings and in media mixes. B. Amending the Plant Growing Media 1. Most soil amendments are made to add organic matter, specific nutrients or modify soil pH. 2. Improper soil/media pH will have the most impact on the availability of nutrients in the soil/media. 3. The pH is the measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale ranges from 0-14. 4. Soil/media with high alkalinity are made more acidic (lowering the pH) by adding sulfur or aluminum sulfate. 5. Soil/media with high acidic level is made more alkaline (raising the pH) by adding lime. Lime is usually applied as finely ground dolomitic limestone that supplies both Ca (calcium) and Mg (magnesium). C. Fertilizers 1. A complete fertilizer contains the three primary nutrients: N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and K (potassium). Ex. 15-5-25 2. Organic fertilizers include animal manures and compost made with plant or animal products. Examples are: a. Dried cow manure b. Bone meal (high in phosphorus) c. Blood meal 3. Organic fertilizers are usually slow acting and long lasting forms of N but lacking in the other primary nutrients (except bone meal). 4. Inorganic fertilizers have a higher analysis of soluble nutrients that have been blended together for a specific purpose. Example: 16-4-8. D. Fertilizer Application 1. Broadcasting or evenly spreading over the entire surface of a lawn or other growing area. 2. Side-dressing is done by placing fertilizer in bands about 8” from the row of growing plants. Popular for field crops like corn and soybeans. 3. Foliar application is the spraying of liquid fertilizer directly onto the leaves of plants. E. Principle Parts of Plants 1. Roots a. Generally two types – fibrous or tap root systems. b. Their function is to anchor the plant and take in water and nutrients. 2. Stems a. Two basic types of aboveground stems – woody and herbaceous. b. The stem supports other plant parts such as leaves, flowers, and fruit. c. Through it, water and nutrients are carried up to the leaves and sugar made in the leaves is transported down to the roots. 3. Leaves a. The leaf manufactures food for the plant by using light energy (photosynthesis). The chemical equation for photosynthesis is: light energy 6 CO2 + 6 H2O = C6H1206 + 6 02 Chlorophyll b. Photosynthesis occurs best in a temperature range of 6585 degrees F. c. Leaves are very useful in identifying plants and vary greatly. The leaf margin (edge), shape and arrangement are all important in plant identification 4. Flowers a. The primary function of flowers is the production of seed. b. The male flower part is the stamen (anther, filament) and the female part is the pistil (stigma, style, ovary). c. Flowers can be male, female or both. d. Petals attract insects to aid in pollination. 5. Fruit a. The ovary (lower part of the pistil) of a flower matures into a fruit that surrounds the seeds. Ex. Apple b. Seed develops in the female part (pistil) of the flower. The seed has 3 basic parts: 1) Seed coat- protection for the seed 2) Endosperm – food for the seed 3) Embryo – baby plant D. Common Plant Science Practices (skills) 1. Transplanting – can be done by hand or machine and is done in all areas of horticulture. It involves moving a young plant from one location to another. Example: a seedling tomato from a cell pack in the greenhouse into a home garden. 2. Propagation – is increasing the number of a plant species or reproduction of a species. a. Sexual – is the use of seeds for reproducing plants. b. Asexual (vegetative) – is the use of a part or parts of a plant for reproducing plants. This results in an exact duplication of the parent plant. 1) Cuttings (stem) – vegetative parts that the parent plant uses to regenerate itself. Example: Swedish ivy. Rooting hormones are often applied to the cutting to speed up the development of roots. 2) Division – is a method of dividing or separating the main part of a plant into smaller parts. Example: Liriope 3) Grafting – is the method of joining two plants together to grow as one. Example: Apple trees 4) Tissue culture (biotech method) – is the use of a very small piece of a plant (explant) to produce a large number of new genetically identical plants. Example: Boston Ferns COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B Agriscience Industries ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 3.00 18% C2 Understand the plant industry. OBJECTIVE: 3.04 2% C1 Remember tools and their safety practices related to the plant industry. References: Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals And Applications, 6th edition, Herren, pp. 36, Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual, A. Plant Science Related Tool Safety Concepts 1. Choosing the right tool for a job will promote safety in the shop and workplace. 2. Caring for tools and keeping them in good working condition will promote safety in the shop and workplace. B. Plant Science Related Tools 1. The thinking person will make every reasonable effort to work safely. 2. Examples of plant science related tools (all from FFA list) a. Bulb planter –planting and transplanting bulbs b. Grafting tool – preparing woody parts for grafting c. Hose bib –valve for attaching a water hose and turning water supply on and off. d. Lopping shears – Cutting large branches when pruning shrubbery. e. Pruning saw – sawing limbs from shrubbery and trees f. Pruning shears – cutting and shaping shrubbery g. Hedge shears – trimming and shaping shrubbery h. Soil auger – boring into soil to get samples i. Soil thermometer – determining soil temperatures j. Soil tube – obtaining soil for testing k. Water breaker – reduces the impact of water pressure on soil and plants. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 4.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 4.01 3% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the animal industry (large animal, poultry, equine, and aquaculture). Remember careers in the animal industry. References: The Agriculture Dictionary, Herren and Donahue, Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp.518-635,741-778, 63-68 (AgriProfile page number listed beside each career) A. Major Animal Science Industries 1. Large animal (livestock) a. Defined: Farm animals raised to produce milk, meat, work and wool. b. Examples: Cattle, sheep, swine, goats 2. Poultry a. Defined: Any or all domesticated fowls that are raised primarily for their meat, eggs or feathers. b. Examples: chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese 3. Equine a. Defined: Horses or other members of the family Equidae. b. Examples: Horses, mules 4. Aquaculture a. Defined: Underwater agriculture, commonly called fish farming. Also includes the growing of water vegetation such as kelp. b. Examples: Tilapia, trout, catfish, shrimp B. Examples of animal science careers 1. Animal nutritionist (p.520) – one who studies nutrient values of feeds, including how digestible they are. 2. Veterinarian (p. 540) – an animal doctor. 3. Geneticist (p. 555) – a person who studies and applies genetics. 4. Animal Technician (p. 587) – one who cares for and manages. animals in a variety of settings including animal hospitals. 5. Farm/Herd Manager (p. 594) – manages the daily operation of a livestock farm. 6. Horse Breeder/Trainer (p. 620) – breeders are in charge of the record keeping and scheduling involved with being a breeder. 7. Farrier (p. 619) –a person who shoes horses. 8. Veterinary Technician (p. 620) – assists the veterinarian in caring for animals. 9. Butcher - a person who slaughters animals or dresses meat. 10. Meat Inspector – a trained individual employed by regulatory authorities to inspect all meats as they pass through a slaughter facility or packing plant. 11. Artificial breeding Technician – a person certified to artificially breed livestock. 12. Sales representative, Animal Health Products – a person who sells animal health products to veterinarians and stores that sell these products. 13. Poultry Hatchery Manager – a person who manages the daily operation of a hatchery facility. 14. Equine Dentist – specialized dentist who works on horses. 15. Equine Magazine Writer – a person write articles about the horses and the horse industry. 16. Microbiologist – a scientist concerned with the study of plant and animal microorganisms. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 4.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 4.02 3% C2 Agriscience Industries Understand the animal industry (large animal, poultry, equine, and aquaculture). Understand biotechnology in the animal industry. Note: Reminder that only examples of animal biotechnology will be covered here and that basic biotech concepts were covered in Plant Science 3.02. References: Introduction to Biotechnology An Agricultural Revolution, Herren, pp.11,146-163, 230248 Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, Unit 3 . A. Biotechnology in the Animal Science Industry 1. Examples of biotechnology in Animal Science: a. Animal cloning – 1) For product uniformity such as drumstick uniformity in the poultry industry. 2) Saving endangered species – Even with the best conservation efforts, whole species of animals continue to disappear. If new animals could be reproduced from the tissue of the few remaining animals, many endangered species might be saved. 3) Research purposes - probably the greatest advantage of cloned animals is their usefulness in research studies. Genetically identical animals are better for research studies that try to isolate one variable. b. Improving animals’ performance through manipulation of genes. These techniques are not as well developed yet (3.02). 2. Examples of biotechnology in Animal Reproduction and Production a. BST (Bovine somatotropin) – A hormone produced in the pituitary gland of cattle that increases milk production. Through the method of gene splicing genetic material into E. coli bacteria, the hormone is produced at relatively low cost. If dairy cows are given a supplementary dose of BST they will produce more milk. b. Artificial Insemination (AI) – This process involves the introduction of the male sperm into the reproductive tract of a female by means other than the natural mating process. Most of the cows in the dairy industry are produced through AI. c. Embryo Transfer – The transferring of embryos from one female to another. With embryo transfer, one female can produce many calves in a year due to a process known as superovulation which causes the donor animal to release several eggs instead of just one. A superior female can be fertilized by genetics from a superior male and the resulting embryos implanted into inferior female animals. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 4.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 4.03 10% C2 Agriscience Industries Understand the animal industry (large animal, poultry, equine, and aquaculture). Understand basic animal principles and practices. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 598-612, 239-249, 518-534 A. Dairy 1. Holstein are known for their black and white markings and for producing the most milk. Ninety percent of dairy cattle in the US are Holstein. 2. Jersey, though the smallest dairy breed, is the second most popular breed due to its’ number one rank in butterfat production. 3. Guernsey and Ayrshire are other popular dairy breeds. B. Beef 1. Predominant English breeds in the U.S. a. Angus – black breed of cattle known for excellent meat quality. b. Hereford (horned and polled) – are red cattle with a white face. 2. Exotic breeds were imported into the U.S. when consumers began demanding leaner meat. a. Exotic breeds have calves that grow faster than English breeds. b. Example: Simmental 3. American breeds were developed to withstand the heat and resistance to disease and parasites in the South and Southwest. a. American breeds resulted from crossing Brahman cattle from India with English breeds. b. The result was increased heat tolerance and disease and parasite resistance of Brahman and the meat quality of the English breeds. c. Example: Brangus the result of Brahman x Angus. C. Swine 1. The swine industry has changed greatly from the lard type hogs of the past to the lean type hogs in demand today. 2. Types of swine operations: a. Feeder –pig producers b. Market –hog producers c. Farrow to Finish producers 3. Purebred producers produce high-quality boars. a. To improve the genetic make-up of one breed of swine. b. Purebred boars bred to crossbred sows increase hybrid vigor (ex. muscling). c. Duroc, Hampshire and Yorkshire are the most popular U.S. purebred breeds today. D. Poultry 1. Chickens are classified as layers or broilers a. Broilers are young chickens grown for their meat. Most broilers can trace their ancestors back to the Cornish breed. b. Layers are chickens developed to produce large numbers of eggs (White leghorn –foundation breed). 2. Breeds a.White Leghorn (layer) – are white bodied with red combs. b. Nearly all of the broiler and layer types used in the industry today are the result of crossbreeding to maximize production. 3. Turkeys -90% of commercially raised turkeys are the BroadBreasted White variety. 4. Most poultry farms have thousands of birds in production. E. Equine 1. Uses a. Show b. Racing c. Recreation- pleasure riding, rodeo, draft horses, etc. 2. Breeds – 3 of the most popular breeds of light horses in the U.S. a. Quarter horse – riding, hunting, and working cattle b. Thoroughbred c. Arabian F. Aquaculture 1. Water Quality – the key/challenge to production of aquatic organisms. Water characteristics are measured regularly depending on the production system. a. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in any fish system can become so low that fish die. 1) DO levels are measured by oxygen probes or chemical tests and reported as 0-10 ppm. 2) Most fish can survive as low as 3 parts per million (ppm) DO but become stressed and succumb to other problems. 3) Rainbow trout require excellent or high levels of DO and can only be cultured in oxygen –saturated water. 4) Aerators are used to improved oxygen levels. b. pH – the measurement of acidity or alkalinity in water. 1) This factor affects the toxicity of soluble nutrients in the water. 2) Measured using a meter or litmus paper. 3) The scale is 0-14. Neutral is 7, below 7 is acidic and above 7 is alkaline. 4) Most aquatic plants and animals prefer a pH between 7 and 8. c. Ammonia/nitrite/nitrate – waste products of aquatic animals that must be monitored. Ammonia and nitrite can accumulate to a level that is toxic to fish and often limits commercial production. 1) Nitrate is ultimately converted to nitrogen gas or absorbed by plants. 2) The toxicity of ammonia is dependent on the pH. 2. Production systems a. Caged Culture - contains the aquatic animals in a small area of a pond. 1) Fish can be monitored for better growth rates and feeding purposes. 2) Water quality must be monitored to insure that the fish are not stressed since fish cannot move to other sections of the pond during stressful weather conditions. 3) Roll over is a condition where a pond’s water quality suddenly changes during certain weather conditions bring less-oxygenated water to the surface causing fish to die. b. Recirculating Tanks – circulate water (including waste) through a biological purifier and return it to the tank. c. Hatcheries – supply fry or larvae to units for fingerling production. 3. Examples of fish adapted to aquaculture systems: a. Trout are adapted to systems involving cold (approximately 56 degrees F), running water. b. Tilapia, catfish and striped bass are commonly raised species in warmer water. E. Animal Anatomy 1. Digestive system of the Ruminant a. Cattle, sheep, goats, and deer are examples of ruminants which means they have four stomach compartments. b. Ruminants can tolerate more roughage in their diet due to the compartment called the rumen. 2. Digestive System of a Monogastric animal a. Swine, horses and many other animals are monogastric meaning they have one stomach compartment. b. Their digestive system is similar to that of a human. c. They are unable to break down large amounts of roughage. d. Rations must be high in concentrates (ie. grains). 3. Digestive system Poultry a. Poultry have no true stomachs and can only store small amounts of food in its digestive system. b. Chickens have no teeth. Food is swallowed whole, stored in the crop, and passed on to the gizzard where it is ground up. c. Rations must be high in food value. Poultry are very efficient at converting feed but not having a true stomach have little room for storage of food. F. Animal Nutrition 1. Water- Regulates body temperature, dissolves and transports nutrients. 2. Protein – Builds muscle. 3. Carbohydrates a. Provides energy for animals. b. Makes up about 75 % of most animal rations. c. Corn or other cereal grains are the major source of carbohydrates. 4. Minerals a. Calcium is one of the major minerals and is found in ground limestone. b. Calcium is needed in poultry feed for eggshell development. c. Minerals are supplied by mineral supplements and are a primary aid in the development of bones and teeth. 5. Vitamins – are needed by animals in minute quantities to help all body functions. Vitamins also help prevent many livestock diseases. 6. Fats – only small amounts of fat are required in most animal diets. I. Classes of Feeds 1. Concentrates are low in fiber and high in nutrients. a. Cereal grains such as corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye and milo are the major source of most concentrates. b. Other sources include by-products of grain and animals. 2. Roughages are high in fiber a. Dry roughage is hay. Examples include Bermuda, fescue, and alfalfa. b. Green roughage includes the pasture grasses. Examples include Bermuda, fescue, Kentucky bluegrass. c. Silage is a roughage that results from storage and fermentation of green crops. Most common example is corn silage. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 4.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 4.04 2% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the animal industry (large animal, poultry, equine, and aquaculture). Remember tools and their safety practices related to the animal industry. References: Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual A. Examples of tools for use in Animal Science (from the FFA tools list). 1. Castrator – tool for sterilizing small animals. a. Elastrator b. Scalpel 2. Dehorner – removing horns from cattle a. Electric b. Chemical paste 3. Ear tagger – Labels individual animal for identification. 4. Fence pliers – Building and repair of wire fences. 5. Fence staple – For nailing up fencing. 6. Implant gun – Injects growth hormones in animals. B. Examples of tools for use in Animal Science (not from FFA tools list) 1. Candler – used in poultry industry to examine eggs. 2. Insemination rods and straws – used in artificial insemination to insert semen into female. 3. Microscope – used to examine sperm for artificial insemination. 4. Liquid nitrogen tank – used to store semen. 5. Rectal thermometer – used to measure temperature of animals. 6. Syringe and needles – used to inject medicines and vaccines into animals. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 5.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 5.01 3% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the environmental science industry (water, soils, wildlife and forestry). Remember careers in the environmental science industry. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 140-237, (Agri-profile page number listed beside each career if available), glossary A. Major career areas of Environmental Science 1. Water resources – an essential nutrient for all plant and animal life. 2. Soil resources –the top layer of the Earth’s surface, which is suitable for the growth of plant life. 3. Wildlife – animals that are adapted to live in a natural environment without the help of humans. 4. Forestry – industry that grows, manages, and harvests trees for lumber, posts, panels, paper and many other commodities. B. Examples of Careers in Environmental Science 1. Soil conservationist – (p.150) – assists landowners in implementing best land use practices. 2. Soil scientist (p. 189) – classify soil according to the most appropriate use. Requires bachelor’s degree (4 yr). 3. Silviculturist (p. 208) – one who scientifically manages forests (specializing in the care of trees). 4. Forestry consultant (p. 208) – advises private forest land owners. 5. Loggers (p. 208) – one who harvests trees. 6. Urban Forester (p. 208) – the one responsible for the health and well-being of our cities trees. 7. Wildlife biologist (p 229) – does research on habitat and wildlife and advises government agencies in establishing fish/game laws and habitat improvement programs. Requires minimum of bachelor’s degree (4 yr). 8. Wildlife manager (p.229) – often work in government agencies , advising land owners and managing game populations on public lands. 9. Wildlife officer/Game warden (p. 229) – works for the agency (North Carolina Wildlife Commission) responsible for controlling the harvest of wildlife. 10. Soil technician – uses soil auger/soil tube to take soil samples and do technical field work. 12. Wildlife technician – works in the field tagging animals, gathering data and assisting with research. 13. Ecologists – studies the effects of the environment on animal life. 14. Forester – provides assistance in managing forests for the private landowner as well as the commercial grower. 15. Timber Cruiser – are hired by private landowners and companies to estimate tree volume on a tract of land. 16. Logging foreman – is responsible for overseeing and managing logging operations. 17. Skidder operators – move felled trees form the cutting site to the loading area. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 5.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 5.02 3% C2 Agriscience Industries Understand the environmental science industry (water, soils, wildlife and forestry). Understand biotechnology in the environmental science industry. Note: Reminder that only examples of Environmental Science biotechnology will be covered here and that basic biotech concepts were covered in Plant Science 3.02. References: Introduction to Biotechnology An Agricultural Revolution, Herren, pp. 302-307 www.epa.gov/superfund/accomp/news/phyto www.air-quality.org.uk/19.php http://.water.usgs.gov/wid/html/ bioremed.html A. Environmental Biotechnology 1. Biotechnology is playing a large part in detecting and monitoring pollution and in determining how much is present. It is also involved in solving other environmental problems. 2. Examples: a. Indicator species - Lichens are widely used as environmental indicators or bio-indicators. If air is very badly polluted with sulfur dioxide, there may be no lichens present, just green algae may be found. b. Bioremediation – using bacteria to clean up oil and fuel spills. 1) Oleophilic (attracted to oil) bacteria used to clean up oil spills. Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 employed this technique. 2) Hanahan, SC, a suburb of Charleston, had an 80,000 gallon jet fuel leak from a military fuel storage facility. The fuel entered the ground and the groundwater. Bacteria were successfully used to remediate this problem. c. Biostimulation - The Exxon Valdez clean-up effort used the addition of nutrients to feed the oleophilic bacteria in this incident. d. Biodiesel – is made from oilseeds such as soybean and canola oil and has been proven to decrease harmful emissions. d. Phytoremediation - Oregon Poplar Site (illegal industrial waste dumping site) and J-Field at Aberdeen Proving Ground( disposal site of chemical warfare agents, munitions and industrial chemicals) in Maryland each used hybrid poplar trees to remove VOC’s (volatile organic compounds from contaminated soil with success at each site. e. Genetic engineering – bacterial strains are under development to convert solid waste from humans and livestock into sugar and fuel. 3. Limitations of using bio and phytoremediation a. Time – often considered slower than chemical techniques. b. Applicability – they do not apply to all situations. c. Fear – those who live near treatment sites often would rather have the contaminated soil removed than treated onsite. The fear is that the process will not uncontaminate the soil, or the organisms used will have a detrimental effect on the environment. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 5.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 5.03 10% C2 Agriscience Industries Understand the environmental science industry (water, soils, wildlife and forestry). Understand basic environmental science principles and practices. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 141-158, 163-177,221235,196-217 Handbook Of Land Judging in North Carolina, Department of Agriculture and Extension Education, NC State University Today’s Hunter, Kalkomey Enterprises,Inc. Dallas, TX Backyard Conservation, Reprinted May 10, PA-1621 Important Forest Trees of the EasternUnited States, USDA –Forest Service A. Water Resources 1. Potable Water- though most of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, our bodies can survive only a few days if our supply of potable (drinkable-free from harmful chemicals and organisms) water is cut-off. Most of the Earth’s water is not fresh water. 2. Water is considered the universal solvent because as a material it dissolves or otherwise changes most other materials. 3. Water Cycle (p. 146) – is the cycling of water between water sources, atmosphere, and surface areas. a. Precipitation – moisture from rain or snow. b. Evaporation – changing from a liquid to a gas. 4. Watershed – a large land area in which water is absorbed from rain or melting snow and from which water drains. It acts as a storage system by absorbing excess water and releasing it slowly throughout the year. 5. Water Table - the level below which soil is saturated or filled with water. 6. Types of Groundwater a. Capillary – water that plant roots can absorb. b. Free (gravitational) – water that drains out of a soil after it has been wetted. c. Hygroscopic – water that is held too tightly for plant roots to absorb. 7. Conserving Water and Improving Water Quality a. Ask the right questions 1) How can we reduce water pollution? 2) How can soil erosion be reduced? 3) What is the most productive use of water and soil without polluting or losing these essential resources? b. Some good practices: 1) Save clean water (ie. turn off water faucet while brushing teeth). 2) Dispose of household products carefully and appropriately. (ie. never pour paint down the drain as it will eventually enter the water supply). 3) Care for lawns, gardens and farmland carefully. (ie. only till soil that will not erode excessively and don’t over fertilize). B. Soil (worlds’ largest sponge) 1. Soil Profile a. A Horizon- topsoil 1) Surface layer of soil approximately 6” deep. 2) Usually contains more organic matter than other horizons and is typically darker colored because of it. 3) Generally the layer that has the greatest influence on crop production (plant growth). b. B Horizon – subsoil 1) Subsurface layer. 2) Most subsoil has an increase in clay content. 3) Generally has the greatest influence on urban uses such as building sites, septic systems, etc. c. C Horizon – parent material (bedrock). 1) Releases water to the upper soil layers. 2) Contains larger soil particles including gravel and large rocks. 2. Soil texture and Structure a. Texture refers to the size of soil particles 1) Sand – largest soil particle. a) Sandy soils have problems holding enough water for good plant growth, but they do drain well. b) Individual particles can be seen with the naked eye. 2) Silt – Intermediate size soil particle that can’t be seen with naked eye. 3) Clay – smallest soil particle- clayey soils hold lots of water but may be airtight, infertile for root growth, and associated with wet soils. b. Structure refers to the tendency of soil particles to cluster together and function as soil units called aggregates that leave pore space to store air, water, nutrients, and allow root penetration. 1) Single grain - associated with sandy soils. 2) Granular – particles cling together to form rounded aggregates- very desirable for all soil uses. 3) Blocky – particles cling together in angular aggregates –typical of soils with high clay content. 3. Soil Classification a. Land capability maps are based on the physical, chemical, and topographical aspects of the land. b. Land Capability classes are designated by Roman Numerals I – VIII. 1) Class I and II land is the best land for the most intensive cultivation of field crops with the fewest limitations and can be planted year after year. 2) Class VII land is very steeply sloping and best used for planting trees. 3) Class VIII land is best suited for wildlife and recreation. 4. Soil Conservation a. Two types of erosion 1) Sheet – removal of layers of soil from the land. 2) Gully – removal of soil that leaves trenches. b. “No till” is a cropping technique used to reduce soil erosion. 1) Crops are planted directly into the residue of a previous crop without plowing or disking. 2) An effective means of erosion control. c. Conventional Tillage- uses tillage system that disturbs the soil surface by plowing, disking and/or harrowing. d. Conservation Tillage – intermediate tillage system conventional and no-till. C. Wildlife Management 1. Benefits of Wildlife to humans a. Hunting/Fishing b. Viewing c. Photography d. Environmental Indicator 2. Wildlife Environments a. Farm – wildlife management on farms is usually a byproduct of the farming operation. Leaving crop residue standing can increase food supply. Creating brush piles when harvesting trees provides shelter and cover. b. Forest – difficult to manage. Plans should be developed so that timber and wildlife can exist in populations large enough to be sustained and harvested. c. Wetland – No area of U.S. land is more important to wildlife than wetlands (land that is poorly drained- swamps, bogs, marshes, etc.). Wetlands are the most productive wildlife management area. d. Stream – difficult to manage due to continuous flow of water. e. Ponds/Lakes – easier to manage than streams due to water standing and not flowing. f. Backyards (urban wildlife) – birds, butterflies and small mammals can be attracted through use of feeders, houses and proper landscaping. 3. Importance of Carrying Capacity a. The number of wildlife each habitat can support throughout the year. b. More wildlife than habitat can support will result in problems for both the wildlife and the habitat. 1) Wildlife is affected by malnutrition, disease, and a reduction in the reproduction cycle. 2) Habitat quality decreases. A pond with a carrying capacity of 20 fish will decrease if 50 fish are competing for the same food, habitat and oxygen. 4. Role of Hunting and Fishing with regards to Wildlife Management a. Helps to maintain the proper carrying capacity. b. Prevents overpopulation, which results in malnutrition, disease, and reduction in reproduction, which will result in decreased wildlife population. 5. Examples of Wildlife in North Carolina a. Hunted Species – deer, ducks, bear, quail, doves, rabbits b. Songbirds – Cardinal, robin, chickadee, Eastern bluebird c. Birds of prey – Red- tailed hawk, Turkey and black vulture d. Fish (freshwater) – largemouth and smallmouth bass, bream, catfish, crappie D. Forest Management 1. Forest Regions of North America include 8 major regions (map p. 199), of which the a. Northern coniferous forest is the largest region and produces large amounts of pulpwood. b. Pacific Coast Forest is the most productive of the forest regions and has some of the largest trees in the world. Douglas Fir is one of the most important commercially grown trees. c. Southern forests’ most important trees are conifers but some hardwood trees have economic importance as well. It has the most potential for meeting the future lumber and pulpwood needs of the US. 1) Conifers – Virginia, loblolly, shortleaf, longleaf and slash pines 2) Hardwoods – Oak, poplar, maple and walnut 2. Importance of Forests a. Recreation – hunting, hiking b. Wood products (p. 198) – lumber, pulpwood, etc. c. Wildlife habitat – (see Wildlife 5.03) d. Filter – water and air 3. Silviculture – scientific forest management techniques a. Managing growing timber 1) Prescribed thinning is recommended to remove some trees when competition slows the growth of all trees. 2) Prescribed burning is used to reduce the risk of wildfires by eliminating forest litter (fuel). b. Harvesting Timber 1) Clear cutting is a system of harvesting trees where all of the trees in an area are removed. 2) Selection cutting is the harvesting method recommended for a forest of trees consisting of different ages and species. c. Replacing trees 1) Replanting seedlings is a surer method of replacing trees. 2) Natural seeding is the least expensive method to replace harvested trees. 4. Identification and Uses of Important Tree Species in NC a. Conifers (softwoods) – needle-type evergreens 1) Frazier fir a) Use- Most important commercially grown Christmas Tree in NC (mountains) b) ID – dark green ½-1” long singular needle 2) Loblolly pine a) Use – pulpwood and plywood b) ID – 3 needles/bundle, needles 6-9” long needles. 3) Longleaf pine a) Use – lumber, pulpwood and plywood b) ID – 3 needles/bundle, 8-18” long needles b. Hardwoods – deciduous trees 1) Ash a) Use – baseball bats, handles b) ID – opposite pinnately compound leaves 2) White oak a) Use – flooring, furniture b) ID – alternate, pinnately lobed leaves, 3) Red Maple a) Use – lumber, veneer, cabinets b) ID – opposite, palmately lobed,3-5 lobed 6. Measurement of Trees and Lumber a. Pulpwood - DBH, merchantable height in feet, cords b. Sawtimber – DBH, 16 foot logs, board feet c. Lumber – 1 board foot = 144 cubic inches COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 5.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 5.04 2% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the environmental science industry (water, soils, wildlife and forestry). Remember tools and their safety practices related to the environmental science industry. References: Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual A. Examples of tools used in Environmental Science (from FFA tool ID list) 1. Bush axe – Cutting bushes and under growth. 2. Chain saw file – Sharpening chain saw chain. 3. Half hatchet – Cutting and fitting firewood. 4. Increment borer – Checking growth rate of trees 5. Planting bar – Setting out tree seedlings. 6. Soil auger – Boring into soil to get samples. 7. Tree diameter tape – Measure circumference of trees. B. Examples of tools used in Environmental Science (not from FFA tool ID list) 1. Secchi disc – measures turbidity of water. 2. Clinometer – used to measure the height of a tree. 3. Tree scale stick – used to measure tree diameter and height. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 6.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 6.01 2% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the agricultural engineering industry. Remember careers in agricultural engineering. References: Agriscience Fundamentals and Applications, Cooper, pp. 67 Agricultural Mechanics, Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, pp. 18-20 A. Agricultural Engineering Industry 1. Agricultural mechanics is the design, operation, maintenance, service, selling and use of power machinery, equipment, structures and utilities in agriculture. 2. Many careers include the use of various specialized tools and the development of important skills (ie. welding and Computer Aided Design -CAD). 3. Attracts students interested in the operation, maintenance, service and selling of agricultural equipment. 4. Education needed varies with the type of Agricultural mechanics career chosen. 5. Working conditions can vary from outside to inside, shop to office or a combination of conditions. B. Examples of Careers in Agricultural Engineering 1. Agricultural Electrification, Power and Controls a. Electrician b. Safety technician c. Electrical engineer 2. Agricultural Power Machinery a. Farm or heavy equipment diesel mechanic b. Parts person c. Equipment salesperson d. Small engine mechanic e. Large machinery operator (ie. bulldozer) 3. Soil and Water Engineering a. Soil Conservation technician b. Irrigation Engineer 4. Agricultural Mechanics, Construction, and Maintenance Skills a. Construction worker b. Welder c. Safety specialist 5. Agricultural Structures, Equipment, and Facilities a. Construction supervisor b. Farmstead planner c. Greenhouse builder d. CAD engineer COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 6.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 6.02 12% C2 Agriscience Industries Understand the agricultural engineering industry. Understand basic agricultural engineering principles and practices. Note: Shop facilities vary greatly, if they even exist, within schools. Therefore, the information presented is very basic, but it is expected that schools with good shop facilities will delve more deeply into this subject than those without. References: Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, Units 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 18 A. Shop Safety Awareness and Principles for Safety 1. Of all farm related accidents, nearly 50% involve working with machinery. 2. Safety involves developing an environment free from danger, risk or injury. 3. The number one key to shop safety is the people who use the shop. a. Those who work in a shop should always be trained in safe and proper tool operations. b. Those who work in a shop should always pass a safety test prior to using the shop. 4. Keep the shop in an orderly manner to prevent tripping and related injuries. 5. Remove unnecessary hazards such as oily rags. 6. Minimize danger by making certain all machines have safety shields in place prior to and during operation. 7. Wear appropriate personal protective clothing and devices. For example: a. Safety glasses or goggles should always be worn to prevent eye injury from dust and flying objects. b. Leather steel-toed shoes offer protection from items dropped or falling on the feet. c. Ear protection (plugs or muffs) can prevent hearing loss when the noise level exceeds 90 dB (decibels). d. Other safety clothing may be required for certain work such as welding. B. Safety Color Coding in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop 1. Development of Safety Color Coding a. National organizations worked together to develop the system. b. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers and the Safety Committee of the American Vocational Association published the code. c. Color coding alerts people to dangers and hazards, provides information to help on react quickly in an emergency. d. Each color or combination of colors conveys a special message based on a standard code. 2. Basic Safety Code Colors a. RED Identifies areas of danger. Red is used on safety switches and fire extinguishers. Red = Danger. b. ORANGE Designates machine hazards, such as edges and openings. It is also used as background for electrical switches, levers and controls. Orange = Warning. c. YELLOW Identifies wheels, levers, and knobs that adjust or control machines . Yellow = Caution. d. BLUE Used on signs such as “Out of Order” to identify broken shop equipment that does not work or does not work properly. Blue = Information. e. GREEN Indicates the presence of first aid and safety equipment. Green = Safety. C. Fire Hazards in the Agricultural Mechanics Shop 1. The Fire Triangle – Components necessary for a fire. a. Fuel – Any combustible material that will burn. Examples: oily rags, sawdust, paper, etc. b. Heat – Most materials burn if they are made hot enough. c. Oxygen (O) – Gas in the atmosphere that is not a fuel, but must be present for fuels to burn. 2. Fire Prevention a. Take away one of the components of the fire triangle and fire will not start or will stop if already started. b. Safe storage of fuels or combustible materials is the easiest fire prevention strategy. c. Store fuels in approved containers. d. Clean shop facilities also decrease the chance of fire and injury. 3. Extinguishing Fires a. Fire Extinguishers 1) Know the kind of fire extinguisher that is used for different kinds of fires prior to the fire. For example: Class A Fire Extinguishers use water to control ordinary combustibles. 2) Know the placement of fire extinguishers so that time is not taken looking for the extinguisher if a fire occurs. Fire Extinguishers should be hung on walls within easy reach in areas where fires would most likely occur. 3) Know how to use the fire extinguisher. i. Generally, extinguishers are held upright, the ring pin is pulled, and a lever is pressed. ii. The nozzle of the extinguisher is directed toward the base of the fire to discharge the extinguisher. b. Other examples 1) Wrapping a person in a blanket whose clothes are on fire to eliminate oxygen from getting to the fire. 2) Cooling with water from a hose or bucket a burning container of paper. D. Planning an Agricultural Engineering Project –using drawing instruments. 1. Simple Project Designs a. The first item needed for the highest quality scaled drawing is a sharp lead pencil. b. A protractor is used for drawing and measuring angles. c. A good eraser helps make corrections without distorting the image. d. A twelve-inch ruler will work for basic drawings. e. A compass is used for drawing circles and arches. 2. More Detailed Plans a. A drawing board is used for attaching the drawing paper. b. Masking tape is used to secure the drawing paper to the drawing board. c. The T square is helpful for drawing horizontal lines. d. The right triangle (30, 60, 90 degree triangle) in conjunction with the T square, is used to draw vertical lines. e. The scale is an instrument with all increments shortened according to proportion. 1) Flat scale – looks similar to a ruler. 2) Triangular scale – three sided, but six scales. 3. Large Scale Projects a. Use CAD (computer- aided design) for these projects. b. CAD can significantly reduce design time for large scale projects. E. Basics of Drawing 1. A sketch is a rough drawing that is not to scale. A sketch does have dimensions included. ( Many a project idea has first been sketched on a napkin over lunch ). 2. A pictorial drawing shows all three dimensions at once. All three views, front, side (end), and top are in view. (picture on p. 281) 3. A scale drawing is one that represents an object in exact proportion although the object is larger or smaller than the drawing itself. 4. If the scale is ¼” =1’, ¼” on the drawing would equal 1’ on the actual object. Therefore, a 2” line on the drawing would equal 8’ on the object (2 divided by ¼ = 8). 5. The scale will vary depending on the size of the object being drawn. F. Reading a Tape Rule 1. Tape rules display units of measure from both the U.S. customary system and the metric system. 2. Rules are marked to show halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths of an inch. Typically, vertical lines of different heights represent these various intervals. G. Basic Construction Project Tips 1. Wood Projects a. The fastest way to fasten wood is by nailing. A nail hammer or nail gun are the preferred tools for driving nails. b. Screws hold better than nails and are driven quickly with power screw drivers. The flathead screw is the one most used in woodworking. The Phillips head is preferred. c. Bolts are particularly useful for fastening wood at high stress points ( ie. picnic table legs). d. Gluing – a properly glued wood joint will be as strong as the wood itself. 1) Gluing is often accompanied by nails, screws, etc. 2) Boards are held in place for gluing by clamps. Bar clamps are one type of clamp used. 2. Metal Projects a. Steel is the most commonly used metal in agricultural mechanics. There is at least 4 kinds of steel. b. Marking steel for cutting presents a special problem as pencil marks generally do not show up well. c. Soapstone is a soft, gray rock that is cut into thin pieces resembling pencils. Soapstone shows up well on most metals. d. The hand tool most often used for cutting metal is the hacksaw. Hacksaws are especially useful for cutting thin conduit. e. Metal cutting band saws and power hacksaws may be used for large projects. COURSE: AU10 Agriscience Applications Unit B ESSENTIAL STANDARD: 6.00 18% C2 OBJECTIVE: 6.03 4% C1 Agriscience Industries Understand the agricultural engineering industry. Remember tools and their safety practices related to the agricultural mechanics industry. References: Agricultural Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, Herren, Unit 4 and 7 Official FFA Agricultural Tools and Materials Identification Manual A. Safety using Hand Tools 1. The thinking person will make every reasonable effort to work safely. 2. Hand tools are used by those who construct buildings, install landscape structures, wire equipment and repair machinery. 3. Use the correct tool for the job. 4. Keep and use tools that are in good working condition. 5. Use tools skillfully. 6. Wear appropriate protective clothing and devices ( ie. safety glasses, steel- toed shoes, ear protection) when working with tools. B. Examples of Tools used in Agricultural Mechanics 1. Layout and measuring tools – used to measure or mark materials. a. Chalk line reel – marking straight lines. b. Tape rule – straight or curved measuring, most to the 1/16th c. Combination square – determining 45 and 90 degree angles. d. Try square – 90 degree squaring. e. Level – leveling and plumbing. 2. Saws – used to cut materials a. Hacksaw – sawing metal. b. Portable circular saw – sawing wood in construction projects. c. Circular carbide saw blade – blade for use on portable circular saw. c. Coping saw – cutting curves and irregular cuts. d. Portable jig saw – making irregular cuts. 3. Boring tools – used to make holes or change size or shape of holes. a. Countersink – flaring top of hole for recessing head for flathead screw or bolt. b. Masonry bit – nailing in concrete, brick or block. c. Potable electric drill – drilling holes with an external source of electricity. d. Straight shank drill bit – drilling metal. e. Speed bore bit- wood-boring bit for electric drill. 4. Hammers and driving tools are used to move another tool or object. a. Ball pein hammer – hammering metal. b. Nail hammer – driving nails. c. Nail set – countersinking nail heads. d. Pin punch – driving out metal pins. e. Sledgehammer – heavy hammering. 5. Pliers and holding tools are used to grip wood, metal, plastic and other materials. a. Long nose pliers – reaching into recessed areas. b. Slip joint pliers – adjust for holding various size material. c. Groove joint pliers – gripping when greater pressure is needed. d. C clamp – clamping two or more pieces of metal together. e. Drill press vise – holding stock while drilling. 6. Wrenches are used to turn nuts, bolts, or screws a. Adjustable wrench – turning various size nuts and bolts. b. Combination wrench – turning hex and square nuts and bolts. c. Pipe wrench – turning and holding metal pipe. d. Regular socket – general- purpose socket for turning nuts and bolts. e. Open end wrench –turning square head nuts and bolts.