Cold War Questions Booklet

Social Studies 30
Cold War – Chapter 8
Question Booklet (pgs. 184-215)
Vobabulary and People
Unscramble each of the clue words from chapters 8 in your text, from your notes and videos. Take the letters
that appear in
boxes and unscramble them for the final word you must define. Once you have
unscrambled the vocabulary terms, you must match them to the correct definition or description.
1) _________________________ - conflicts in which the Cold War superpowers (the USA and USSR)
supported (money, arms, training, personnel) a group, state, or nation that opposed the rival superpower
without actually facing off against one another directly.
2) _________________________ - Soviet Union leader who formed the USSR in to a world superpower in a
very short time. He was its leader at the beginning of the Cold War and died in 1953
3) _________________________ - is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation. The
term is often used in reference to the general easing of geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union
and the United States during the 1970’s.
4) _________________________ - the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the
USA and the USSR after World War Two. This ideological conflict used propaganda, economic measures,
espionage, rather than direct military confrontation to dominate international affairs to the early 1990’s.
5) _________________________ - was considered a “prestige” war that was an important component to the
Cold War era and showing that one ideology is superior to another, not just militarily.
6) _________________________ - the American Cold War foreign policy of preventing the spread of
communism by making alliances and expanding its own sphere of influence around the world.
7) _________________________ - leader of the Communist Revolution in China. Became their first
communist leader.
8) _________________________ - the use of spies by a government to discover the military and political
secrets of other nations.
9) _________________________ - the foreign policy and practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge
of disaster or military action in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome.
10) _________________________ - American President during the Cuban Missile Crisis
11) _________________________ - was a policy that called for increased openness and transparency in
government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union. Introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev.
12) _________________________ - a political and military policy of taking over additional territory through the
violation of another country’s sovereignty, for reasons that can include defense, national pride, and
ideology. During the Cold War this meant the super powers increasing the sphere of influence they had in
different parts of the world.
13) _________________________ - the name given to the United States policy that the USA would intervene
to support any nation that was being threatened by a takeover by communism.
14) _________________________ - its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red
Scare, lasting roughly from 1950 to 1956 and characterized by heightened fears of communist influence on
American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Thousands of Americans were accused of being
Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning
before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies.
15) _________________________ - also called the European Recovery Plan. It was enacted by the US in
1947 as a way to help rebuild Europe after World War II and to prevent communism from gaining a
stronghold in war torn countries.
16) _________________________ - leader of the Soviet Union when Communism collapsed and the Cold War
ended. Opened up the USSR to more liberal ideas such as glasnost and perestroika.
17) _________________________ - It was basically the soviet counter to the Marshall Plan. It provided close
economic ties within its nations of Eastern Europe and provided monetary and resource aid, as well as
investment and support to Soviet Satellite states.
18) _________________________ - Soviet Union’s leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis
19) _________________________ - a people’s struggles for independence from countries that oppressed
them. For example: Hungary (1956), Czech. (1968), Poland (1980) from USSR.
20) _________________________ - the belief that when both superpowers possess nuclear weapons to
destroy each other, they will be discouraged and frightened from starting a nuclear war as it was not
desirable and probably unwinnable.
21) _________________________ - communist leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008.
22) _________________________ - the political, military, and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union
after World War II to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact
with the West and other noncommunist areas.
23) _________________________ - literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet
political and economic system toward the end of the Cold War.
24) _________________________ - position taken during the Cold War by countries that did not want to ally
itself with either the USA or the Soviet Union.
25) _________________________ - (scramble word)
Chapter Issue: To what extent can ideological conflict influence international relations?
COMPETING IDEOLOGIES: Page 186: Your quest is to investigate how competing ideologies create tension in
international relations.
The goal of WWII agreements was to create a way to bring peace and stability back to the continent of Europe and to
avoid the punitive practices applied at the end of WWI by the Treaty of Versailles.
1. In 1943 three leaders, known as the BIG THREE were _________________________________, _________________
________________________ and ____________________________ (include name and nation)
2. What was the common goal of the ‘Big Three’? ________________________________________________________
One way to fight each other’s ideology was to prevent the ideology from spreading to other nations. However, if you
wanted your nation’s ideology to spread then you need other nations to embrace your ideology!
3. Define ‘sphere of influence’. (a partial definition is provided) _____________________________________________
4. The nations that had been liberated from the Nazis by the ________________ Allies fell under the ________ sphere
of influence, and the nations that had been liberated by the ____________________ fell under the
_________________ sphere of influence.
Stalin’s justification of expansionism was to command the world economy, a communistic world without liberal
democracies, economic liberalism and capitalism.
5. List Stalin’s justification for expansionism.
a) ___________________________________________________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________________________________________________
Escalating International Tensions
There were many methods of conflict used by the United States and the Soviet
Union during the Cold War. These methods escalated tensions and pushed the world
to brink of war, yet did not involve DIRECT military aggression between these two
The first part of this assignment introduces you to the methods used during the
Cold War. You will see how tensions rose to the point of nuclear destruction and
then a period of relaxed tensions between nations. Remember, the question for
inquiry asks you: In what ways can governments escalate international tensions?
Overall the chapter issue asks you to evaluate how ideologies clashed between 1845 and 1989.
Methodology/Strategies of the Cold War:
Define each of the terms (each term is a method of interaction between two nations) Use the web on
page 197. Be sure you ‘get’ what the word means – look at the examples provided to help you get a picture
of the method of interaction. Provide an example for each method (if possible).
War of Words
Prestige War
Defense systems
Space race
Arms race
Balance of Power
Proxy Wars
Deterrence Page 199
Which historic event started the use of nuclear weapons? ________________________________
Identify the term used for a nuclear war that is unwinnable. ______________________________
include the Acronym for this term _____________
Provide the reason why supporters of deterrence believed that this method of escalating tension was
justified? ______________________________________________________________________
Why would other nations want to have nuclear capabilities? _________________________________
Map Work
On the maps color in the members of NATO in blue (1949) and the original members of the
Warsaw Pact in red (1955). Create a number key and list for both alliances. Use the map on pg
Why were these alliances necessary in the eyes of the Western powers and the Soviet Union?
Answer the following questions, which are based upon your notes, discussions and chapter 8 in your
The division of Europe into eastern and western blocs after 1945 illustrates a territorial division based on
a. cultural differences
b. differing economic goals
c. ideological differences
d. differing military intentions
2. The Berlin Blockade and subsequent airlift provided clear evidence that
postwar Europe required massive financial support to restore industrial output
the East-West alliance forged during the Second World War no longer existed
the United Nations was willing to take action to prevent international aggression
postwar Germany was divided sharply between ultranationalist and socialist forces
3. When the United States announced the creation of the Marshall Plan, the official
Soviet response was one of
optimism based on the hope that this program indicated a thaw in superpower relations
resentment because no financial aid was offered to the Soviet Union or its satellite states
support because the Soviet Union required massive infusions of capital to restore areas ravaged by war
condemnation based on the belief that the program was a veiled attempt by Americans to gain political
influence in Europe
4. Political leaders in the Soviet Union and in the United States most likely knew at the onset of the Hungarian
uprising of 1956 that
American troops would be used to support the Hungarian government
Order in Hungary would be restored by a United Nations peacekeeping force
Soviet intervention in Hungary would further deteriorate superpower relations
The rebels were not justified in their actions against the Hungarian government
Use the following sources to answer questions 5-7
Source I
The operation in Korea has been
a success. Both the North Koreans
and the Chinese Communists
declared it to be their purpose to
drive the United Nations forces out
of Korea… They have been
prevented from accomplishing their
It has been charged that the Americans and allied forces fighting in
Korea are engaged in a pointless
and inconclusive struggle.
Nothing could be farther from the
fact. Their gallant, determined and
successful fight has checked the
Communist advance and turned it
into a retreat. They have
administered terrible defeats of the
Communist forces.
Source II
To all intents and purposes the Korean
War was over: the great ambitions of
1950 had been abandoned. It was now a
tired, bitter struggle around the 38th
parallel. The difficulty lay no longer in
fighting it, but in getting out of it. Peace
talks began in July, promptly broke
down- and that pattern was repeated for
the rest of the year. Early in 1952 the
talks broke down again, this time over the
repatriation of prisoners-of-war. The
Chinese wanted all their men back: the
USA would agree only to send back those
who wanted to go. The fighting continued.
5. Information in Source I suggests that the purpose of American and Allied involvement in Korea was to
Restore the credibility of the United Nations
Implement the Truman Doctrine in east Asia
Prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in southeast Asia
Destabilize the newly established Chinese government of Mao Zedong
6. As described in Source II, the American experience in the Korean War was similar to the American experience
West Germany in the late 1940’s
Cuba in the late 1950’s
Vietnam in the early 1970’s
Afghanistan in the early 1980’s
7. Which of the following statements provides an accurate comparison of the information in the sources?
Source I provides the ideological background for the Korean War, whereas Source II focuses on the
causes of the conflict.
b. Source II provides a Soviet perspective of the Korean War, whereas Source I offers an American
c. Source II provides a less optimistic view of American involvement in Korea than Source I.
d. Source I provides a more objective view of the Korean War than does Source II
Use the map to answer question 8
8. The most appropriate title for the map above is:
“Cold War Tensions Decline in Europe”
“Uprising Creates European Upheaval”
“Europe reshaped by decisions made at Versailles”
“Europe reshaped by decisions made at Yalta and Potsdam”
9. Which period in Soviet-American relations experienced the greatest relaxation in Cold War tension?
The late 1940’s
The mid 1950s
The mid 1970s
The late 1980s
10. The purpose of “hot line” agreements linking Washington, London, and Paris with Moscow were developed
PRIMARILY out of fear that
failure to agree on disarmament would increase the risk of war
nuclear war could not be prevented by diplomatic channels
failure to inspect opposing nuclear sites would lead to violations
nuclear war could be initiated as a result of error or misunderstanding
11. The Truman Doctrine as it applied to Europe after the second World War was intended to
contain communism
promote American industry
provide economic aid
strengthen internationalism
12. Détente between the superpowers is a logical extension of the policy of
a. peaceful co-existence
b. collective security
c. nuclear deterrence
d. balance of power
Use the timeline below to answer questions 13 to 17.
The Superpowers-Tension & Détente
1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
The timeline above represents one interpretation of general trends of tension and détente between the
superpowers. Place the correct letter in the space provided. Letters can be used more than once or not at all.
For each of the events listed below indicate if the event…
(Questions 13-17)
supports the trends in the timeline
contradicts the trends in the timeline
occurred in the time period shown but is unrelated to the trends in the timeline
occurred outside the time period of the trends in the timeline
13. The Soviet Union establishes a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe _________
14. The Allies demand the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany _________
15. Warsaw Pact armed forces depose the Dubcek reform group in Czechoslovakia _________
16. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is formed _________
17. Soviet forces invade Afghanistan _________
18. During the 1960’s American military involvement in Indochina (Vietnam and area) was primarily based on a
belief among American leaders that
a. South Vietnam , an ally, required assistance to invade North Vietnam
b. The United Nations would encourage international police actions against acts of aggression
c. If there were a shift to wartime production, the struggling American economy would be revived
d. If the South Vietnamese government collapsed, the rest of southeast Asia would suffer political
Use the quote to answer question 19
"The failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 proved to be an embarrassment for those who orchestrated it.”
19. Who “orchestrated” the event referred to in the statement above?
a. The revolutionary forces of Fidel Castro
b. The United Nations Security Council
c. The government of the United States
d. The government of the Soviet Union
20. A feature common to the Hungarian Uprising and the Cuban Missile Crisis is that in both situations, the
a. United States was distracted by a major domestic crisis
b. Soviet Union’s influence over a lesser power nation was at issue
c. Soviet Union attempted to position nuclear missiles closer to western targets
d. United Nations Secretary General resolved the crisis through diplomatic talks
21. From the perspective of American militarists, Mikhail Gorbachev’s efforts to reduce armaments in the 1980’s,
like the INF Treaties, were prompted by the
a. willingness of Western nations to officially recognize the Soviet control of central European
b. inability of the Soviet economic system to sustain an arms race with the United States
c. reduced role of NATO alliances in the military defense strategies of western European nations
d. increased influence of the United Nations in global geopolitics and global trade
22. During the Cold War, many strategists regarded the Warsaw Pact as a less reliable and less secure alliance
than NATO because the Warsaw Pact
a. included reluctant satellite states in its membership
b. included member states spread over greater distances than those of NATO
c. had a centralized leadership that lacked a strong core of professional
d. deployed conventional forces that were far less powerful than those of NATO
23. The fundamental challenge that faced NATO at the close of the Cold War was
a. deciding how to extend membership to former members of the Warsaw Pact
b. defining a role for itself now that the reason for its existence was less clear
c. determining how to scale down American troop commitments in Europe
d. deciding how to respond to the resurgence of a militant Russia
Use the following list of events to answer question 24.
President Nixon visits the People’s Republic of China
SALT I is signed
Helsinki Accords
American and Soviet space agencies agree to a joint space mission
24. These events are all related to an American foreign policy of
a. détente
b. deterrence
c. appeasement
d. brinkmanship
25. Identify the following world leaders that played important roles during the COLD WAR, as well as the country
they are from.
Years in Office (Dates)