The Menstrual Cycle

Ovulation & Fertility Periods
Menstruation is considered a
unique indicator of a
woman’s overall _____________.
Answer: Physical Health
The menstrual cycle is viewed as
a reliable predictor of a
woman’s general health and
The lack of or complete loss of
a woman’s cycle could indicate
issues with fertility, bone
health, heart disease, and
ovarian failure.
1. The periodic flow of blood and
mucosal tissue from the uterus.
2. The monthly flow of blood
and cellular debris from the
uterus that begins at puberty
and ceases at menopause. This
process is also referred to as
emmenia, a menstrual cycle or
If an ovum is not fertilized, or if the
fertilized ovum does not attach to
the uterine wall, the uterine lining
is not needed
The muscles of the uterus contract,
causing the lining to gradually
break down
The lining passes through the cervix
into the vagina and out through the
vaginal opening
4 to 7 days
Cycles Vary from female to female
Natural causes
1. Pregnancy
2. Breast-feeding
3. Menopause
Lifestyle factors
Stress - Mental stress can temporarily
alter the functioning of your
hypothalamus — an area of your brain that
controls the hormones that regulate your
menstrual cycle. Ovulation and
menstruation may stop as a result.
Regular menstrual periods usually resume
after your stress decreases.
Low body weight - Excessively low body
weight interrupts many hormonal
functions in your body, potentially halting
ovulation. Women who have an eating
disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia,
often stop having periods because of these
abnormal hormonal changes.
Lifestyle factors
3. Excessive exercise - Women who
participate in sports that require
rigorous training, such as dance, body
building, long-distance running,
cycling, and gymnastics may find their
menstrual cycle interrupted. Several
factors combine to contribute to the
loss of periods in athletes, including
low body fat, stress and high energy
Medications – Antipsychotics, Cancer
chemotherapy, Antidepressants, and
Blood pressure drugs
Contraceptives - Some women who take
hormonal birth control may not have
periods. Contraceptives that are
ingested, injected, absorbed, or implanted
(intrauterine & sub-dermal), may cause
amenorrhea. When hormonal
contraceptives are stopped, it may take
three to six months to resume regular
ovulation and menstruation cycles.
Calendar or Rhythm Method
Body Temperature Method
Ovulation/Cervical Methods
Rise in body temperature after ovulation
Sampling of cervical mucus and cervical
Ovulation Predictor Kits
Combination of all methods or urine
sample tests