Study Guide Unit 4 Rekedal 1. Majolica is a style of earthenware with a tin/lead glaze that is shiny and opaque white, painted with overglaze oxides in bright colors. 2. The various regions that produced majolica are: Spain-Valencia, ItalyFaenza, Holland-Delft, and France, where it was called faience. 3. German potters discovered stoneware clay and high firing and kept the secret from the earthenware potters. They also developed salt glazing for the higher temperatures. In America, similar events occurred after stoneware was discovered. 4. Early colonial potters in the U.S. relied upon their knowledge of earthenware traditions to produce utilitarian wares, utilizing slip decorating techniques and lead glazes. 5. When high fired porcelains arrived in Europe from China, the potters strove to imitate them in majolica techniques and attempted to make porcelain. In England, a by-product of the tries at making porcelain was bone china. 6. As a rebellion against the overly decorative and industrially produced wares of the Victorian era, the Arts and Crafts Movement began. This simplified style looked to the Renaissance, the Greeks, and the Western Asian styles of art for inspiration. 7. After World War II, ceramic art flourished in America because so many excellent artists immigrated to America, to escape the Nazi regime. Often they taught at our colleges and universities. The U.S. economy was on the rise and the general feeling in the country was optimistic. This post WW II period provided a fertile ground for the development of ceramics as an art form. 8. Peter Voulkos led the West Coast Movement in the ‘50s and ‘60s at Otis Art Institute (Los Angeles) from the functional form to abstract expressionistic sculpture, breaking with traditions. 9. What is the Renaissance? How did it affect ceramics? 10. Kiln furniture refers to the shelves and posts used in the kiln. 11. Know the relationships between cones 04, 6, and 10. 12. Ceramics was finally accepted as a fine art in this century mostly because people started collecting it and the selling prices are now as high as for paintings and sculpture. Until recent times ceramics was more often than not thought of as craft rather than art. 13. In reduction firing, one must have a live flame and be able to cut down on the amount of oxygen available to that flame. Therefore, electric firing and solar firing could not sustain a true reduction.